Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, July 15, 1918, Page 6, Image 6

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These are proud days for Oregon
and for the state's metropolis, Port
land. The director of ship construc
tion for the Government tells the Co
lumbia River district that it has nobly
done its part toward building- that
bridge of ships by which the army of
democracy is to cross the ocean for
final battle with the army of autoc
racy, and that he looks to it to do yet
more in the immediate future. Of no
less importance than this sincere
praise from Mr. Schwab is the assur
ance from Mr. Rosseter, who fills a
position with regard to operation of
ships no less influential than that of
Mr. Schwab with regard to their con
struction, that Portland is to occupy
a. large place in Pacific commerce. The
words of these two men should be
considered In conjunction with those
of Governor Withycombe, who broadly
views shipbuilding as one of the many
activities which must be carried on
simultaneously for development and
upbuilding of Oregon,. Our energies
are quickened to meet the responsi
bilities of war, but our minds are also
carried forward to the great possi
bilities which the future holds in store
for continued exercise of those ener
gies. The words of appreciation for what
is being done and the promise of what
Oregon will be called upon to do re
late to an Industry which had scarcely
any existence in Oregon two years ago.
Under the impetus of patriotism, this
district has produced more than half
a million tons of ships, a total greater
than the output of the entire country
in 1916, and it bids fair to produce a
million tons in the year 1918. Two
years ago a contract to build a single
river steamer was cause of consider
able public gratification. Today Mr.
Schwab confidently calls on the Co
lumbia River district to produce $200,
000,000 worth of ocean craft next year,
and not a doubt is entertained that it
will be done. It is not extravagant to
expect that before the war ends half
a billion dollars will have been ex
pended on ships in this district alone.
The hearty welcome which Portland
gave Mr. Schwab was not inspired
merely by the agreeable sensation of
being the object of praise nor by joy
at the good news of many more ship
contracts which he brought. It was
inspired by consciousness that we in
Oregon are co-workers with him in
the same great cause of freedom for
the world; by the meeting of the mind
of Oregon with the mind of Mr.
Schwab; by American readiness to
honor a man who has made the most
of those opportunities which America
throws open to all, and by his remark
able personality.
Having met the man, the shipbuild
ers of the Columbia River may pur
sue their work with redoubled energy,
for they have gained new confidence
that he will do his part. It is now
up to them to do theirs. That is the
condition of their getting more con
tracts. As he expects four steel ships
a year from each of twenty-three
ways, they may go him one better by
making it an even hundred. Wooden
shipyards being assured of all the
work they can do, provided they ful
fill expectations, all doubt as to their
continued employment is set at rest,
and they can keep a steady flow of
hulls into the water. That is the
assurance given by Mr. Piez; and Ore
son has been looking for it. Mr.
Schwab will work with the builders,
both of wood and steel ships, by get
ing out designs, by letting contracts
to keep the ways full, by making steel
flow from the mills and engines from
the shops. Oregon can now buckle
downto work at combining these ma
terials with its labor and its lumber
to swell the American armada and at
supplying ship timbers to other dis
tricts. While doing all this, Oregon should
set about providing occupation for the
ships during the war as well as when
it shall have ended. The slogan "Buy
Oregon goods" should be applied to
the new shipbuilding industry as well
s to every other industry. Oregon
ships should carry Oregon products to
every port. That requires extension
of our efforts to the great programme
of state development which Governor
Withycombe has set before us, as the
means of providing cargoes for our
vessels and markets for the goods
which they will import. It summon
us to give attention to Mr. Rosseter's
Tart in the programme, and to his call
for action. It demands that men of
broad vision, long foresight and sound
judgment get together to work for a
greater Oregon.
Patriots will not smoke while travel
ing through the forests and others
must not. is the spii-it of the procla
mation by Governor Withycombe call
ing for especial care toward the pre
vention of forest fires. All the other
precautions enjoined remind us that
nearly all forest fires, those' caused
by lightning excepted, are the result
of carelessness or of ignorance of the
extreme inflammability of the carpet
which covers the forest floor. This is
the reason for the requirement that
no fire shall be built until the ground
is cleared for six feet in every direc
tion "to mineral soil." Otherwise the
camper who is a novice might think
that he had extinguished his fire when
as a matter of fact he had left behind
him the seeds of a disastrous con
flagration. Campers, fishermen and
all others will do a patriotic service
by observing the spirit as well as the
letter of the proclamation. The coun
try needs all of its resources, and it
cannot even spare the time of tho
army of men who would be Deeded to
check a great fire If one were per
mitted to start.
All doubt as to the future of the
wooden shipyards has been removed
by the statement of Charles Piez,
vice-president of the Emergency Kleet
Corporation, that all wooden yards
that have been working on Govern
ment business would be continued.
There need be no apprehension as to
the effect of this statement that "we
will cut out of the list those yards not
making delivery of ships as they
should," for only those directly in
terested in such yards would wish
them to be continued, but it remains
to be demonstrated that there are any
such. If there are, they will no doubt
take the hint and brace up.
The wooden ship Ms the vessel in
production of which the Columbia
River and coast districts of Oregon
excel and for which Oregon forests
can produce an unlimited amount of
materal. Its good qualities have been
proved in many years of lumber
traffic. There is good cause to believe
that the larger types now being built
will be perfected until they will be
come a permanent product of Oregon,
offering a constant market to the lum
ber industry long after war prices
shall no longer prevail. Having been
given confidence as to the immediate
future, builders of wooden ships can
now go ahead without hesitation and
can plan for the future.
A good brother of the Prohibition
party comes forward today in defense
of the anti-tobacco resolution with tho
remark that all the advancement made
along moral and religious lines has
come from the meddling habit. We
might find a distinction between pure
meddling and attempts at reformation
of things actually immoral, but put
ting them all rightly or wrongly under
the broad head of "meddling," how
about the disasters that have also
accrued? We have a recollection of
grave economic ills traceable to med
dling, and there is before us today
the spectacle of a world in arms
against Kultur because Kultur med
dled with international law.
There are also numerous cases in
which meddling has accomplished
nothing. Attempted interference with
the use of tobacco is one of the most
striking in that classification. In the
seventeenth century it was fashionable
for kings, popes and potentates to rail
against it. King James I of Kngland
issued a "Counterblaste to Tobacco."
He referred to its use as "a custom
loathsome to the eye. hateful to the
nose, harmful to the brain, dangerous
to the lungs, and in the black stinking
fumes thereof nearest resembling the
horrible Stygian smoke of the pit that
is bottomless.
We commend this couterblast to our
correspondent as having much more
smash and go to it than the mild state
ment that the people cannot get fresh
air on the streets because of the
smokers. Besides, it is less exagger
ated. James I died in 1625, but tobacco
still lives. In the same century use
of tobacco was punished with the
knout, by imprisonment, excommuni
cation and even death. Popes Urban
VIII and Innocent XI turned the
thunders of the church against it. In
Turkey it was made a crime, and
under Sultan Amurath IV it was pun
ished by the most cruel kinds of death.
But it has thrived on the severest op
position. Tobacco is not unknown to
the modern priest, the Turks are today
the greatest smokers in the world,
while almost coincident with the
movement against tobacco in this
country the War Department has au
thorized its free issue to the American
Expeditionary forces at the request of
General Pershing.
There has always been more or less
opposition to the use of tobacco, and
one would think that inasmuch as the
most powerful efforts were directed
against it without avail in the days
when it was in the beginning, the
present-day opponents would be dis
couraged. But they have a vision of
a new weapon in matters pertaining
to the war emergency. The scattering
lew make a convenience of them. Our
correspondent, for example, would
boldly convert the tobacco lands to
wheat growing in support of the
pressing food programme, unmindful
of the fact that heavy tobacco land
would have to be drained and wheat
growing would then be experimental;
while the lands upon which lighter
tobaccos are grown cannot be adapted
to the successful production of wheat.
Supposed rejections from the Army be
cause of "tobacco heart" are campaign
material only among those who do not
know that the irregular beating? of
the heart caused by excessive use of
tobacco is not a disqualification for
military service, and is so held by the
Government's draft regulations.
Some persons cherish the hope that
the Bolshevik government of Russia
will be provoked to new war against
Ucrraany by continued German ag
gression, and wijl then welcome the
military aid of the allies in saving
Russia. The origin of Bolshevik prin
ciples and the Russian manner of
applying them give no ground for this
hope, or for the hope that the Bol
sheviki will ever establish orderly
government, such as any self-respect
ing nation can recognize.
The Soviets which administer Bol
shevik law do not care a rap about
Russia, for they are worse than in
ternational: they are anti-national.
They dream only of making the pro
letariat supreme in all countries, and
give their allegiance to that class, not
to their country. They regard the
allies as enemies, because the allies
uphold the rights of all classes and
maintain the duty of all classes in
each nation to defend their country
against all classes of any enemy na
tion. Bolshevism is derived from the Ger
man Socialism of Kail Marx, which
Charles Johnston in the New York
Times defines as "the child of the
German spirit of materialism and
despotism," as "densely materialistic
and hopelessly unscientific." for it de
nies Darwin's "scientific principles of
evolution through free competition
and the advancement of the better
endowed individuals in each species."
Experience has proved Darwin's main
contention "that practically all ad
vance, all development, comes through
the better endowed Individuals, the
more gifted members of any species,
in free competition with the less
gifted." In contradiction of the So
cialist dogma that all wealth is the
product of labor, Mr. Johnston main
tains that "all wealth is tho product
of intelligence, of thought, directing
labor: that without intelligence labor
is incapable of producing any wealth
whatever." That is the principle of
equal opportunity which lies at the
foundation of American democracy.
Championship of the doctrine of Marx
led Russia to "knock her brains out"
by destroying what Lenine calls the
bourgeois class. This is simply an
other name for the better endowed,
more gifted individuals, for the in
telligentsia, which first propagated
liberal ideas in Russia. The Czar
killed or exiled this class for oppos
ing his autocracy; the Bolsheviki mur
ders it for opposing its autocracy and
in order to reduce all to the level of
the proletariat. Hence any student is
shot simply because he is a student,
the schools are closed or the higher
classes are cut off. and when the
teachers protest they are killed for
"teaching witchcraft and autocracy."
Russia is hungry, ragged, plague
stricken, divided and at the mercy of
Germany, because the Soviets have
knocked out her brains in the process
of leveling down. The voice of Rus
sia calling upon the democratic na
tions for aid cannot be heard, because
the least resistance is crushed by the
Red Guard as "counter-revolutionary."
Russia is Incapable of defend
ing herself, because the Bolsheviki
have killed that loyalty and obedience
which are necessary to an effective
army, without which the armies of
Foch and Pershing would be a mere
Russia is Incapable of rescuing her
self from the bands of murderous
madmen which masquerade as a gov
ernment. She can be rescued from
these .internal destroyers on the one
hand and from German absorption on
the other hand by none but the allies.
To delay is to become a party to the
destruction of an afflicted nation.
The troubles of the foreigner who
endeavors to learn the meaning of
American slang phrases from a sober
dictionary is not an uncommon theme !
In American humor, but it is now
doubtless dawning upon a great many
American soldiers that they have In
similar way become objects of French
amusement. Americans do not have
a monopoly of slang. The French are.
perhaps, -just as picturesque in that
regard. Therefore, Chevalier d' O de
Lory, who seems to be somewhat a
master of both American and French
argot, has come to the rescue. His
little dictionary has no counterpart,
it is entirely devoted to putting French
language of the street into under
standable English.
If one will imagine the result of
translating literally the following in
troduction into French he will learn
what the author has done in behalf
of puzzled American humanity by the
reverse operation:
"Classical stuff is not in it just now,
and if you know nothing but that you
will have to beat it out of your nut
when you go in the trenches, or if you
go sightseeing. This booklet is for
the masses and will be a fountain of
knowledge for you if you want to
know what's what. Buy It and put
in your bean what's in it."
One learns by inference from one
translation that one Frenchman is in
the estimation of another sometimes
an oyster. In America we know of
both clams and lobsters In the human
family. But the supposition that the
Frenchman who calls another an
oyster means that he is a clam Is in
correct. He means that he is what
we would term a lobster.
But there is more puzzling argot
than that by far. A striking example
is the phrase "J ai mis mon cache
misere au clou." If the American in
pursuit of French meanings hears
such an expression and turns to his
ordinary dictionary he will learn that
the other has said, "I have put my
hide-misery on the nail." One can
Imagine a soldier's throwing away his
dictionary in disgust.
What the Frenchman means is that
he has pawned his overcoat. Deriva
tion of the term used for "overcoat"
is not hard to reason out. That gar
ment is often used as a concealment
of sartorial misfortune. An American
who had pawned a garment might say
that he had "hung it up at Uncle's."
He more likely would say that he had
"hocked" it. Either of which would
be quite unintelligible to the French
man who was relying on the common
French-English dictionary.
Again, when we in America make
flippant reference to a death we may
say he has turned up his toes" or he
has "kicked the bucket." The French
man says, "II a casse sa pipe" he has
broken bis pipe. Much use a common
dictionary would be in translating that
Thus is the sweating American as
sisted over 240 similar stumbling
blocks. We think the author deserves
the Distinguished Service medal and
the Croix de Guerre.
News from Eastern apple-growing
districts that as a result of the recent
severe Winter the mortality among
Baldwin apple trees has been particu
larly high illustrates one of the under
lying principles of commercial fruit
growing which must be taken into
account by successful growers. Even
so hardy a fruit as the apple, with a
wider habitat than any other fruit in
the world, has its individual idiosyn
crasies which we must not ignore.
Doubtless there Is a law of nature
which governs them, but the refine
ments of the law are not easy to un
derstand. We are still restricted to
the empirical method of finding out.
More than a million Baldwin apple
trees, according to the New England
Homestead, were frozen last Winter
in Maine alone, and the loss in two
counties is put at 300,000 trees. Simi
lar accounts come from other states
in New England, while the great
Baldwin-growing regions of New York
state appear to have ' escaped. The
temperature figures by themselves do
not account for it. It may have been
even colder in some of the localities
In which the trees escaped than it
was in the orchards whose owners
awoke in the Spring to find themselves
in possession of nothing but dead
trees. In some manner the tree gath
ers vitality In one district which it
does not derive from the soil, or cli
mate, or whatever it may be. in an
other. In the pinch, one tree survives,
and the other, to all outward appear,
ances Just as thrifty, succumbs.
What is true of the relatively unim
portant matter .of Winter killing ap.
plies also to flavor and color and to
tho bearing habits of trees. Growers
of the principal apple districts In the
P .cine Northwest have worked out an
efficient formula, and are now pro
ducing the fruit which seems best
suited to their localities. This is hec
essary if the variety, as well as the
district, is to maintain its reputation.
The Ben Davis apple became a po
mological joke largely because people
Insisted upon producing it in an un
congenial atmosphere. The Missouri
Ben Davis is a product far different
from the crrk-like substance yielded
by Ben Davis trees in some other
places. Tho Baldwin, while it does
well in a few spots in Oregon, may be
regarded as a failure here. No one
knows why It develops the "Baldwin
punk spot" in some places and not in
others. The Easterner who conipluins
because he cannot get a Roxbury
Russet or a Rambo that is up to his
home standard should try our Spitzen
bergs, which are far superior to the
original Esopus of Southern New
York, and he should have an oppor
tunity to note how the Winesap has
been Improved by transplantation to
the Wenatchee and the Yakima val
leys. Californians must not expect
too much of our Bellflowers, but if
they want a- real treat they should
keep their eyes on the Willamette
Valley in about two months from now,
when Gravensteins will be ripe.
It is 'part of the business of the
modern fruitgrower to discover these
Individual preferences and to make the
most of them. A good many varieties
were rejected after long being tried
by the pioneers, because they did not
belong here, and others have proved
superior to the same apple in Its
former surroundings. The standardi
zation of the orchard industry Is a slow
process, but to those who like the
work it is not a tedious one, and the
business as a whole is deeply indebted
to a good many men who made no
money from it. The failures have
been quite as instructive as the suc
cesses. Small fortunes and years of
effort have been lost, although not
wasted, in discovering that the Italian
prune belongs to Oregon, Washington
and Idaho, and the Petite to the coun
try farther south. Some day about
all of the pears in the world not pro
duced in France may be grown In the
Northwest, but the time will not ar
rive until we have learned which va
rieties are superior to all others under
Northwest conditions.
New Kngland need not despair be
cause the Baldwin has deserted it. The
thing to do Is to concentrate on the
apple that "belongs." That is prac
tically what the West has been doing.
and it is one of the reasons why we
are likely to hold our supremacy for
years to come.
For fifteen years or more Newberg
has had two good weekly newspapers.
Their columns contained all that was
"fit to print." and editorially they held
to good ideas: but the little city Is
one-paper size. Mr. Woodward has
bought the Enterprise, and the
Graphic, first In the field in 1888. will
be the sole newspaper, unless "some
fellow from Kansas," where they have
notions, crowds in. Other places In
Oregon might follow the Newberg
The theory that the fire on the
Ford-street bridge was caused by
"lighted cigarettes carelessly thrown"
Is not consistent with the statement
that fire "broke out simultaneously at
eleven different places." That fact
plainly suggests deliberate incendiar
ism. Frequent trips of the sprinkling
wagon would be good protection
against firebugs.
There would have been much less
opposition in the Senate to Govern
ment operation of the wire systems
if Postmaster-General Burleson had
shown less disposition to muzzle the
press. Precaution against letting In
formation reach the Germans should
not be used as a pretext for keeping it
away from the American people.
When Mr. Jaeger, Judge Jones, Mr,
URen and other city men "hit the
hay" after a day in the harvest field,
there will be little discussion or ex
pression of opinion unless they talk
in their sleep. Theirs will be the
"fun," however.
If a station agent may be said to
"own" the railroad, then honors are
due George Miller, who has been on
the job at Aurora for . thirty-four
years. His length of service shows
him to have been a good man for the
Improved outlook for corn more
than makes up for deterioration in
wheat, and all would be lovely if we
could teach the allies to eat corn
bread. Since King George has taken
a liking to buckwheat cakes, there is
A man alleged to be a shover of
worthless checks. Shove by name, is
in jail at Roseburg for lack of bail
and wants out. It might be conserva
tlon to shove him along, but not this
way. We have enough.
A second fatality Incident to use of
a canvas boat has occurred In 'Ore
gon, where the material of wooden
boats Is in plenty. This does not im
ply that cloth boats need not be used;
the wooden are safer.
Tliat nnrvam enw In f71arlra fnimtv
that gave 68.7 pounds of butterfat in
thirty days did very wen ror a fluai-
purpose animal; but a j-ioistein or a
Jersey will yield more than twice as
Soldiers In foreign service are to
have general news cabled them, but
they want the Oocal papers just the
same. An Item about somebody he
knows Is of big interest to the Yank.
These are the days when a man
feels good to be alive in Oregon fine
weather, cool nights, plenty to eat
and appetite good, and so much to do
that even the lazy cannot get rusty.
One good result of Germany's raid
on civilization is that free peoples have
taken to observing each other's na
tional holidays. It has made the whole
democratic world feel its kinship.
Hereafter, when a man Is "fired" it
can be said for reasons "purely In
ternal." following the latest incident
in New York Journalism, which sets
the pace.
The mystery of Von Hlndenburg's
death or illness remains as doep as
that a the fate of the ex-Czar. Per
haps the Kaiser Just talked him to
Now Is the time to begin laying
aside dollars for the fourth liberty
loan without encroaching on the quar
ters pledged for thrift stamps.
' There are few fires in Oregon, but
the Are of patriotism burns more
brightly here than In any other state.
Those who want to take a shot at
the U-boats will have their chance to
day by enlisting in the Navy.
The fat man can stand being jollied
for his perfect 46. Few fat men get
Into Jail.
Schwab worked hard in the days of
his youth and cannot overcome the
Another week of fair weather is
promised, for these are the rare days.
If Wilson, wishes to decide the pro
hibition issue, ha will. That's his way.
Mr, Hughe' Letter on Effects ( Postal
Zone System,
A letter from Charles Evans Hughes
to Allen H. Richardson, of the Publish
ers' Advisory Board, on the subject of
zone postal rates for newspapers and
periodicals, contains a clear and unan
swerable statement of the effects of the
new system. It follows:
"I prefer not to accept a retainer to
appear before legislative committees
upon matters of general policy, as in
such matters, if I have anything to say.
1 aeaire to speak, only as a citizen.
1 have no hesitation In sav-tne- that
I regard the zone system of postal rates
ior newspapers and periodicals, coming
under the definition of second-class
mail matter, as ill-advised. The com
mission on second-class mall matter
(appointed in 1911). of which I was
member, considered this question and
reported unanimously against the zone
system.. We said in that report:
i ne policy of zone rates was pur
sued In the earlier history of our post
office and has been given up In favor
ot a unuorm rate In view of the larger
interest of the Nation as a whole. It
would seem to the commission to be
entirely impracticable to attempt to es
tablish a system of zone rates for second-class
matter. ...
" 'Progress in the postoffice. with re
spect, both to economy In administra
tion and to public convenience, leads
way rrom a variety of differential
charges to uniform rates and broad
"In my Judgment the zone system for
second-class mall matter Is unjust to
the publisher and unjust to the public.
It not only Imposes upon the publisher
the additional rates upon a sectional
oasis, out it makes necessary the added
expense for the net.ssary sons classifi
cations at a time when every economy
in production and distribution is most
Important. It introduces a complicated
postal system to the Inconvenience of
the publisher and public when there
should bs a constant effort toward
greater simplicity. There Is no mors
reason for a zone system of rates for
newspapers and magazines than for
"Newspapers and maaraalnee are ad
mitted to the second-class postal rates
on me. well-established policy of en
couraging- the dissemination of Intelli
gence, but. a zone system Is a barrier
to this dissemination. If It is impor
tant that newspapers and magazines
should be circulated. It Is equally Im
portant that there should not be sec
tional divisions to Impede their general
circulation through ths entire country.
v e are proud at this moment of our
united purpose, but If we are to con
tinue as a people to cherish united pur
pose and to maintain our essential unity
as a jsation. we must roster the Influ
ences that promote unity. .The great
est of these Influences, perhaps. Is the
spread of Intelligence diffused by news
papers ana periodical literature. Abuses
In connection with second-class mall
matter will not be cured by a zone sys
tem of rates. That will hurt the good
no less than the had. and perhaps some
of the best sort of periodical literature
will be hit the hardest.
"We do not wish to promote section
alism, and "one country' means that In
our correspondence and in the diffusion
of necessary Intelligence we should
have a uniform postal rate for the en
tire country. The widest and freest In
terchange Is the soundest public policy.
"I hope that Congress will repeal the
provision for the zone system, which
is decidedly a looking-backward and
walking-backward measure."
I'roklbl tioalst cites Nuraeroai Bene
fit a Bat Mentions IV Disasters.
PORTLAND. July 14. (To the Edi
tor.) I read your editorial on "The
Meddling Habit" with a great deal of
Interest, as it failed to get the real view
of things. If you will read history
right you will find that all the ad
vancement made along moral, righteous
lines has come from this same meddling
habit. Just to mention a few: Duel
ling, lottery and slavery. All have
been abolished because some one med
dled with existing sentiment.
Judged by electing men to office the
prohibition party has not been the
success it ought to have been because
men have been partisans rather than
patriots, yet we have two Congress
men now with many minor officers In
various sectlos of the conuntry.
When the prohibition party was or
ganized In 1869 the liquor traffic dom
inated everything in American politics,
and the party's agitation has been a
voice crying In the wilderness of cor
rupt politics pointing to needed re
forms, some of which, like popular
election of United States Senators, the
corrupt practices act. and others have
become law. Now the only man that
can atop the manufacture and sale of
Intoxicating liquors alts In the White
There Is a need of the reform along
the Una spoken of In the platform of
last Saturday. We are asked to raise
mere wheat and use more substitutes
for wheat that we may feed our allies.
Then let us turn the 1. 600.000 acres
now used In raising tobacco to the
raising of wheat. It will mean 60,000.
000 or more bushels of wheat to add
to the world's supply, and the people
that object to being smoked would be
able to set some fresh air on tha
But there Is a physical side to the
question. While living in Evansvllle,
Ir.d.. SO years ago. I had occasion to
visit the recruiting station where they
were enlisting men for the Phllliplnes,
and In conversation the officer In
charge told me that 65 out of every
100 were rejected because of tobacco
heart brought on by excessive cigar
ette smoking. Perhaps the great ma
jority of the rejections In the present
v-ar come from the same source.
Many of our soldier boys never have
used tobacco, and last Christmas when
presents were made to the boys over
there, these round tneir pacicaa-es con
tattled cigarettes, tobacco and playing
ecrds. A nice present to a boy from a
Christian home who had no use for
any of these thing's. A PROHl.
K.nllaltnrnt by Man sad Wife.
HARTLAND, Wash.. July IS. (To
the Editor.) (1) I would like to know
what the requirements are for a grad
uate nurse, wishing to enlist as a Red
Cross Army nurse. Is there any sal-
aiy ?
2) Is there any part of the Govern
ment's work whero a man and wife
could enlist together?
(3) I" there en V part of the Gov
errment service where a man with
hernia can serve? J. -
(1) Applicant must be- between 16
and 40 years ef age and be a graduate
of a school of nurses. For information
write to Director of Bureau of Nurs
ing, Red Cross Divisional Headquar
ters. White building. Seattle.
(I) We know of none. The Govern
ment will not Issue passports to any
weman whose husband, brother, father
or son. Is serving with ths Expedition
ary Forces abroad or at home, or In a
civilian capacity with ths Expedition
ary Forces, or the Red Cross or the
Y. M. C. A.
(3) Hernia is a disqualification for
military service.
RAYMOND, Wash.. July 13. (To the
Editor.) fiease aavise wnat you navu
heard regarding proposed Central Offi
cers' Training Camp for enllfted men
and civilians and how a civilian may
make application for admittance.
Apply by letter or by person to the
Professor of Military Science. Univer
sity of Washington, Seattle.
City Department Pre seats Flgrnres a ad
Calls Scot la a Piaa to Attention.
PORTLAND. July 13. (To the Edi
tor.) The following; is from the June.
1918, edition of the monthly publica
tion, "Stone." and is of some interest
in connection with the discussion of
housing conditions which is occupying
a great deal of attention in this coun
try at the present time:
The Royal Commission on Housing- In
Scotland, whose report was published last
Kail, estimated the existing shortage ' of
houses, on the basis of not more than three
persons to a room tan exceas of tliat num
ber being regarded aa overcrowding) at Ul.
IHM) houses, writes Consul Rufus Fleming,
from Edinburgh. A subsequent Inquiry
carried out by the Wocal ciovernmcnt Hoard
for Scotland through the local authorities
municipal corporations shows a deficiency
of at least 10O.0OI) houses. It appears,
therefore, that there Is practical agreement
that the actual shortsga Is very great, ex
ceeding loo.uoo houses. If. as held by the
Royal Commission, overcrowding should be
estimated not at over three persons to a
room but at over two persons, and If this
higher standard1 be adopted in providing
huuses. the new accommodation required
will represent between --o.OOu and l'4U.tMo
The local authorities that have In the past
taken up the task of endeavoring to house
the Industrial population have fourwl. al
most without exception, that their schemes
Involved a loss, small or great, which tell
upon the taxpayers: and as building costs
are at present from 70 to loo per cent
higher than they were in pre-war years anil
will doubtless remain hlph for shrne years
to came, the housing problem is considered
to be too riltflcult for either private enter
prise or the local authorities to solve. Slate
aaalstance In the provision of houses being
regarded as absolutely necessary, the Scot
tish Local Oovernment Board, arter con
sultation with the Cabinet and Treasury.
haa come forward with a proposal for fi
nancially assisting local authorities during
the period Immediately following Hie war.
The state guaranty takes the form of at
least 73 per cent of the loaa. if any. Incurred
by local authorities. Assistance will be
given In two wava. the one succeeding the
other. For a period of years. n"l less than
seven, following the Initiating of local pro
grammes, the Treasury undertake to par
75 per cent of any approved annual def
icit. At the end of that period a valuation
ef the property Is to be made and the
will then assume responsibility for per
cent of any excess In the amount of out
standing capital charges over the then value
of the property. The local authorities must
hold themselves responsible for the remain
ing 25 per cent of any loss, but In excep
tional cases, where the ratable value of the
local authority Is low. t Treasury may ea-
tsnd Its assistance beyTnd the tnree-uar-
ters. whlcb will be the normal subsidy.
It is rather interesting to notice In
this clipping that there la a severe
housing shortage in Scotland, amount
ing to about 226.000 dwellings, and that
on account of the high cost of building
private enterprise. It Is not taking care
of the need. The local governing bodies
in Scotland are not able to handle the
situation, so this problem has been
taken up by the Scottish local govern
ment board as a national problem.
In Portland we have somewhat simi
lar conditions. Private enterprise Is
not taking care of our housing shortage
and local organizations have not been
able to provide an adequate remedy.
It therefore would seem that the rem
edy in Portland for this housing short
age must be tho same as that pro
vided in Scotland, namely, some form
of National Government aid. It Is in
teresting to note, however, that the
Scotland plan contemplates and pro
vides for a deficit caused by building
operation undertaken during the war.
This scorns to be more adequately pro
vided for than In any plan proposed
as yet in connection with Governmental
aid in this country. It is to be hoped
that this possible deficit will be ade
quately provided for in housing opera
tions conducted under Governmental
aid In the United States.
That private enterprise Is not reliev
ing tha situation here may be readily
understood from the building statistics
which show that permits were issued
In June for 61 dwellings, in may tor
58 dwellings, and in April for 45. the
rate of construction for the year being
less than 600 dwelllnsrs. In view of
the fact that the increase In Ahe num
ber of workers In the near future will
probably be from 10.000 to 15.000. the
Increase In population being from 30.
000 to 50.000. it can bs seen that an
active era of housing construction
should be undertaken.
Commissioner of Public Works.
Inspector of Buildings.
Tabriz, Seat of Turk Outrage on Ameri
can Consulate. Is Old In History.
Tabriz, where the Turks are report
ed to have committed outrages against
the American consulate, is described In
the following war geography bulletin
by the National Geographlo Society
from Its Washington headquarters:
"With a population of 200,000. Ta
briz Is out of the most Important cities
In Persia. Teheran, the capital. Is the
only place In the dominions of the
Shah which exceeds It in size.
"It Is beautifully situated in a wide
valley on the River AJ1. which flows
Into the salt lake of Urumlah So miles
to the west. Although apparently sur
rounded by mountains, Tabriz has an
elevation of more than 4000 feet and
the climate In Winter la extremely se
vere. Hundreds of springs and fountains
water thousands of beautiful gardens
In this ancient city which for centuries
has enjoyed a deserved reputation as a
health resort. Indeed, tradition says
that the place was founded by Zobel
deh. the wife of Harun-al-Rashid. hero
of the 'Arabian Nights.' According to
this legend. Zobeldeh came here to re
cuperate from a fever In the year 791.
and a cure was quickly effected, thanks
to the salubrious climate, hence the
name Tab (fever) rlz ( pourer away),
or 'fever destroying.' As a matter of
cold history, however. Tabriz was in
existence four centuries before the
birth of the beautiful Zobeldeh.
"Up to the time of the completion of
a railway through the Caucasus and
the Imorovement of transportation fa
cilities on the Caspian Sea. Tabriz was
the emporium of Perslm trade with
tho west. Now, however, most of Its
trade has been diverted to Astara, on
tha Caspian, 150 miles to the east, and
to Resht. 200 miles to the southeast.
"The Black Sea port of Batum lies to
the northwest a distance of 360 miles.
There are few buildings of inter
est in Tabriz, for It has suffered from
the rack of elements and the ruthless
ness of many conquerors. It has been
held at various times by the Arahs. the
Seljuks. the Mongols and the Turko
mans. Persia took It from the Turko
mans, but It is essentially a Turkish
rather than a Persian city today, and
Turkish is tha prevailing language. At
the beginning of the world war it was
occupied by a Turkish army, but sub
sequently the Russian forces took pos
session. see
"Man has not played as great havoc
with the buildings of Tabriz, however,
as have earthquakes. It has been vis
ited many times by quakes, the most
disastrous being that of 1721. when
more than 80,000 persons are said to
have been killed. This disaster oc
curred at the height of the city's pros
perity, for at about this time the pop
ulation of the city is said to have
reached 650.000.
Of the 300 mosques of which the
city boasts only one deserves special
mention. It Is the famous Blue Mosque,
so-called because it is covered with
blue tiles. It dates from the 15th cen
tury and is now In ruins. The ark or
citadel is a brick building of massive
walls, with a tower 120 feet high.
"More than half of the trade of Ta
briz is with Russia. Its chief imports
are cotton and woolen tissues, sugar
and tea.'"
In Other Days.
Half Cntiry Acs.
From The Oregonlan. July IS. ISfts.
Washington. In the House the bill
for the distribution of awards to the
captors of Jeff Davis was reported from
the committee and passed.
London. A dinner was given by the
American artist. Bierstadt. last night
to Longfellow. Gladstone, Admiral Far.
ragut and other distinguished persons
were present. .
Paris. In a speech in Corns I-eiH-
latif. Baroche. Minister of Justice, de
clared that the spoliation of church and
stale were only a question of time.
New York Th. ,i...i.i. vn.
arrived from Liverpool with 1100 steer
age. Passengers, euti or whom are Mor
mon. Th.l- will 1 . - i. n T..-W
- -- - . . va .a m " 1VI vian.
Ten' thousand other believers will fol
low irom Liverpool as soon as they can
set shipment.
The Halles A lots of Indians from
wrm Snrincs paraded the streets in
hideous costumes. They howled and
pave war dances In the streets. It la
said to be the anniversary of their de
feat ot trie snake Indiana.
Tweaty-rlve Years Age.
From The Oregnnlan. Ju:y 1.".. 1S.
Chicnsrn Jim rnrhali . ill v. .
off the Midway at the World's Fair.
"The" fair is intended to be educational."
said one of the directors. "Corbett is
not elevatinc. 1 do not object to
vaudeville shows, but I will not toler
ate ngntinK.
London. The debate In the House of
Commons on the home rule bill was
marked by personal attacks on Mr.
tiladstone. who. it was claimed, had
broken faith with the Irish.
Perlin. On account of fodder famine
the army maneuvers may be postponed.
The army hill, placing the peaco
strength at 47!.22! men. was passed.
Rrussela The Chamber voted to re
vise the eonstitution to enable Belgium
to acquire colonies.
Taris. Emile ZoTa! the novelist, haa
been rppnlnted an officer of the Legion
of Honor.
I'tlllty sf Mosquito Nat Disproved by
ark mt Unman Benefit.
VANCOUVER. Wash.. July 13. (To
the Editor.) In a recent editorial re
warding the mosquito, you allude to
naturalists' finding difficulty in ex
plaining Its utility
ii iB cvr aiTiicuit ror us to sense
utility in any form of annoyance. In
conevnlence or affliction to which we
may be subjected. This from the fact
that we live in a fool's paradise feel
that we are nature's one ward, and
that nature is our special guardian.
It Is a truth that "all flesh is trail,''
and also a truth that the animal king
dom Is dependent on the vegetable
kincdom. Thence It must follow that
to nature ths weal of a spear of mea
dow grass Is of more consequence than
is thevwoe of earthly ruler, prince or
Thus a poet was led to soliloquise as
follows: i
O, Nature how fair is thy face.
How light is thy heart and how
friendless thy grace!
Thou laugheat and toyost with any
new comer.
Not a tear more for Winter, a smile
less for Summer.
Hast thou never an anguish to heave
the heart under?
That fair breast of thine, O thou fem
enlne wonder?
Forall those the younr and tha fair
and the strong
TVho have loved thee and lived with
thee gaily and long.
And who now on thy bosom lie dead?
and thsir deeds
And their waya are forgotten. O hast
thou no weeds?
And why should nature pander te
the animal who cooks his food mora
than to the other which eats his raw?
When a man realizes that he is not
a special creation and that the lilloa
of the stream and the daisies of ths
field are nearer and dearer to nature
than Is he. a long step will have been
taken in the right direction. Afflic
tions. Ills and annoyances, all nature's
grinding stones. She sharpens man's
wits by bringing him la contact with,
They tell us that In Picardy
The sun shines just the same
No brighter than It did in those
Far days before you came.
And that the fairy flowers' bloom
Is not a whit more sweet
Than in the days before you felt
Strange soil beneath your feet
But oh! we know the Spring must bs
A thousand times more fair
In that far-distant Picardy
Since you are there!
And yet they say ths birds still trill
The same enchanted lays.
No happier, no glad sorrier-
Than In the olden daya
They tell us. too. that in the night
The moon rides just as high.
No closer to tha sleeping; earth
No farther from the sky.
But oh! we know that land Is blest
With saint and angel prayer
A thousand times above the rest
Since you are there!
Dallas. Or.
Cvnraea at Benawn.
PORTLAND. July 14. (To the Edi
tor.) Please adivse as to the branches
covered by the Government training at
the Benson School, also giving particu
lars as to entrance. PATRIOT.
The courses include auto driving
and repair, general carpentry, electri
cal communication, forging and black
smithing, gas engine, sheet metal work
and general plumbing. Men of draft
see, possessed of a grammar school
education and of some mechanical abil
ity are taken at this and similar schools
under regular calls of the selective
service heads. The next classes will
be called for entrance about August
15. if original plans are unchanged.
Schnol Trsrtlsg Is Prod set! ve.
PORTLAND, July 14. (To ths Edi
tor.) (1) Is school teaching: consid
ered a useful occupation? (2) Would
a man in class 2-B, in a county where
class 1 Is practically exhausted be
called from his position?
(1) School teaching remains among
the productive occupations in the Gov
ernment's classification.
(I) When quotas cannot be filled from
class 1, men In class 2 will be called.
PORTLAND. Or., July 13. (To ths
Editor.) Will you Kindly state If ths
Government allots the 815 per month
to the wife where a man has married
since registering. H. J. H.
Address sf Pnblleatisn.
RAINIER. Or.. July 13 (To the
Eaitor.) Please inform me as to ths
address of the "Army and Navy Jour
nal." I wish to write them a letter
but do not know their address.
It Is 20 Vesey street. New York City,