Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937, July 05, 1915, Page 6, Image 6

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Entered at Portland. Oregon, Poatofflce as
econd-cluj matter.
6ubcnpUoa Rates invariably In advance:
, (By Mall.)
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How to Remit Send Postoffic money or
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local bank. Stamps, coin or currency are at
sender's risk. Give postoffice address in full.
Including; county and state.
Postage Rates 12 to 16 pases. 1 cent; 18
to 32 pases, t cents; 34 to 48 pages, a cents;
CO to 60 pages, 4 cents; 62 to 76 pages. 6
cents; 7S to U2 pages, 6 cents. Foreign post
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Eastern Business Offices Verree Conk
lln. Brunswick building. New York; Verree
A Oonkiln. Steger building. Chicago: San
Francisco representative. H. J. Bidwell, 742
Market street.
The crimes of Frank Holt are the
fruits of prevalent mental excitement
on the subject of the war. "When
men's minds are engrossed and when
their passions are aroused by such
portentous events, it Is Inevitable that
some persons lacking: In self-control
will permit passion to overpower rea
son. Holt's crimes are simply the
latest and most sensational of several
similar acts arising- from this cause.
One was the sending- of a threatening
letter by an Austrian to President
"Wilson. Another was the false state
ment by Stahl that he saw cannon on
board the Lusitania.
In a different category may bo
placed the destruction of a bridge at
Vancouver, B. C, and the attempted
destruction of one at Vanceboro, Me.,
and the recruiting of men for the
British army at San Francisco. The
two last deeds were reasonable acts of
men who deliberately set their devo
tion to Germany and Britain respec
tively above the allegiance due to the
United States.. Their acts obviously
helped the country, they wished to
serve. The deeds of Holt and the
other men first mentioned were so
absurdly ineffective to serve any rea
sonable end, in fact were" so clearly
inclined to have an influence the
reverse of that desired, that they
could only have sprung from an un
balanced mind. No rational man
would suppose that a threat could
Induce Mr. Wilson to change his
policy or that a bullet could change
Mr. Morgan's business courses. Had
the bullets been fatal, Mr. Morgan's
partners would doubtless have con
tinued without change the financial
operations to which Holt objected.
Holt's crimes and other crimes to
which we have alluded are a warning
to all American citizens, whether
native or foreign born, to keep heir
neaas level in inese times or excite
' ment. They can best do so by holding
fast to the anchor of loyalty to the
United States. The Issues at stake
in the war are so tremendous, events
are of such absorbing interest and
the pull of native land and of kin.
or merely of sympathy. Is so strong
that even the native-born can with
difficulty prevent his loyalty from
being overborne. This is illustrated
by Holt's crimes, for he was born In
the United States. How much greater
must be the strain on those whose
minds are daily filled with pictures
of childhood's home devastated and
of loved ones slain or wounded.
When sympathy for native land
and hatred for its enemy sug
gest words or deeds which would
compromise them as Americans,
good citizens will check them
selves with the thought that they are
Americans, that their home, family
and fortunes are In the new country
which they have sworn to defend and
mat. L ii e uia luuiiu y la uul x sweet
memory. . ,
Holt himself is the strongest proof
of the wisdom which moved the men
who caused this Independence day to
be named also Americanization day.
Though American-born, he is not an
American at heart, or no sentiment
for a foreign nation , could have
prompted him to be false to his coun
try. It is well that on this day every
naturalized citizen should take part
in the public observances, should re
call to mind his oath of allegiance and
should .realize anew the obligations it
Imposes upon him. Then he will
know that he cannot be true to a
dual allegiance; that, when he took
that oath, he once for all chose the
United States as his country; and that
for him the United States is above all.
During the year 1914 a butterfat
test was made by the breeders of
Jersey cows in the. United States, and
the official announcement of the win
ners has just been made. There were
17 cows that produced more than 800
pounds of butterfat, the minimum
limit set. and four of these are owned
in Oregon, including the winner of
the first prize. This great honor
comes to St. Mawes Poppy (219992),
owned by Edward Cary, of Carlton,
Or. Her record of 938 pounds and
9 ounces was closely approached
by a half sister, St. Mawes Susy
(219991), also owned by Mr. Cary.
Her record was 937 pounds and 12
The W. S. Ladd estate received a
gold medal for Mary Adelaide
(231651), her record being 856 pounds
and 10 ounces. Three other Oregon
cows, all owned by Mr. Cary, also
received prizes. St. Mawes Zoe
(231651), established a record of 806
pounds and 7 ounces; St. Mawes
La vina (253434), took the first prize
In the 3-year-old class, with a record
of 763 pounds and 5 ounces, and
Gertie's Fern Princess, a 2-year-old,
took second prize in her class, her
record being 625 pounds and 3
Of the seventeen awards made for
producing more than 800 pounds of
butterfat four came to Oregon cows.
It is predicted that Oregon will
furnish at least twelve cows in that
class this year and it is interesting
to note that Oregon has more Jerseys
on test for register of merit than any
other state in the Union with the
single exception of New Tork.
There must be a reason for such
a. sweeping victory in the Jersey class
and it Is not difficult to find. First
we must give credit to Jersey breed
ers. No state has breeders superior
to those mentioned and many others
who might be named. They are men
of ability, integrity, progress and "cow
sense." Without the latter nobody
can succeed in the business.
With the aid of these men superior
breeds have been built- up, families
or strains of Jerseys that stand at
the very top. But after all is said
the breeders . never would have at
tained the success they have had it
not been for the ideal climatic condi
tions prevailing In Oregon to further
their aims, ambitions and labors.
The Oregonian has said so much
along this line, and has said it so
often, that it seems almost a waste of
time to say again that Oregon ought to
be and one day will be the banner
dairy state of the Union. Oregon is
the dairy cow's heaven, if there Is
such a place. It is doubtful if there
is any territory in the world where
the dairy cow will do as well as in
the favored parts of Oregon.
We are forging ahead very fast In
the dairy business, but we cannot go
too fast. That is one business that
will not be overdone in this century,
perhaps never. It may not always
be as profitable as it is now, but no
man who Intelligently pursues the
dairy business under our best condi
tions need ever fail.
When the existing number of our
dairy cows is multiplied by five, which
will perhaps be far sooner than many
believe, Oregon will be upon a plane
of prosperity which but few states
can ever reach. For where the dairy
cow rules poverty hides. The two,
poverty and the dairy cow, never go
Tax Commissioner Galloway's en
dorsement of the Bingham tax limita
tion law offers opportunity to point
out the difference between the exist
ing tax policy In Oregon and the pr ex
posals of the single taxers. Taxation
is now recognized only as a means of
raising needed revenues and of dis
tributing the costs of government
equitably. The Bingham law places
an emphasis on "needed revenues."
It puts up the bars against extrav
agance, carelessness and the levying
of all the taxes that property will
bear without regard to revenue neces
sities. Single tax makes no accounting of
governmental needs. - It proposes to
give taxation a new function the
gradual enforcement of a revolution
ary economic policy. Its primary pur
pose Is to deprive landowners of the
benefits of ownership. It is the an
tithesis of the Bingham law.
. Although the four single tax meas
ures that have been submitted in
Oregon have been sponsored by men
who subscribe fully to the socialistic
ultimate of single tax, not one has
been supported by sincere argument.
They have been proffered as funda
mentally tax reforms when their real
purpose has been expropriation of
land. Appeals to cupidity have been
their mainstay. The most. popular ef
fort has -been to show what this man
would save at the "expense of that
Possibly we shall not escape the
same character of campaign another
year, but in the light of past attempts
at deception it is well to emphasize
that the half-baked rural credits
scheme attached to the latest product
of the single tax bureau is incorpor
ated only to, cloud the main issue
abolishment of private ' land owner
Samuel Gompers, speaking for or
ganized labor, has made broadly in
clusive demands upon the New York
Constitutional Convention. Articles
that labor desires would recognize the
proposition that labor is not a com
modity and would provide for the initi
ative and referendum; freedom to
boycott; accident, invalidity, sickness,
unemployment and old age pensions;
the- eight-hour day on public works;
abolition of capital punishment; abso
lute freedom of speech and press,
and exclusive Jury determination of
abuses; elimination of court power to
declare laws unconstitutional; and
the right of cities to engage in in
dustry. Mr. Gompers is asking a great deal,
probably upon the certainty that the
conservatism of the convention would
grant no one of the particulars of his
demands if it were presented alone.
A man of strong political acumen,
even though favoring all the demands.
would not care to see them all in
corporated in a constitution to be
submitted to vote in New York Just at
this time. The convention was called
by less than 27 per cent of the normal
vote for candidates in the state. This
does not indicate a widespread desire
for radical changes in the funda
mental law.
The revolutions Mr. Gompers pro
poses will come singly if at all in
New York. Labor must look to sym
pathizers outside its own ranks to
carry it3 points, and it is hardly con
ceivable that a sufficient number
could be found to carry the whole
labor programme, should the conven
tion submit it. Unpopular sections of
a submitted proposition often defeat
other parts which standing alone
would be approved.
But importunities for radical
changes come not alone from organ
ized labor. Plans have been proposed
to abolish the Legislature or to make
it uni-cameral; to centralize authority
in the Governor or to take away most
of the authority that he now pos
sesses; to extend home rule to cities
or to destroy what little exclusive
authority they have.
New York is so constituted that
probably the only road to radicalism
or progress whichever one prefers to
call It lies by way of a provision
making future submission of amend
ments comparatively easy. Revolu
tions come more readily piecemeal
than otherwise under our form of
The balance of trade in favor of
the United States for the fiscal year
ending June 30 will be well in excess
of $1,000,000,000, according to the
Commerce Department. For the
eleven months ending May 31 it was
3983.117.479. and for June it was
about J60.000.000 for the thirteen
ports which handle 90 per cent of
our export trade. Thus it may reach
$1,050,000,000. In the eleven months
imports decreased 12.5 per cent and
exports Increased 13.2 per cent.
Our Imports in May were $142,284.-
851. as compared with $160,576,106 in
April and $164,281,515 in May. 1914
Imports have been increasing month
ly since December until May, when
they fell below the March total.
Imports in May were $273,765,093.
as compared with $294,470,199 in
April, and $161,732,619 in May. 1914
and wore the largest for May on
I record. The excess of exports over
imports for the month was $131,483
Gold continued to flow into the
country in May, Imports having ex
ceeded exports by $29,85 8,757, but for
the eleven months Imports were
$119,227,015, while exports were $143,
402.160. Probably by June 30 the
total of. imports had exceeded the
total of exports. "The flow was out
ward during the first but Inward dur
ing the last six months.
New Tork state has been taking
a census, which has given rise to dis
cussion as to the population of New
York city. The newspapers have esti
mated an increase of 1,000.000 over
the Federal census of 1910, but
Walter Laid law, writing to the New
Tork Times, arrives at the conclusion
that the increase in the last five years
has been 828.919 and that the popula
tion on June 1 was 5,695,802.
He estimates that a little more
than half of the Increase between
1900 and 1910 came from foreign
born population, but that the bal
ance has turned the other way in the
last five years, for he places the gross)
increase in that period at 333,919
foreign-born and 570.000 native-born.
The average annual excess of births
over deaths is placed at 33.818 from
1901 to 1910 and at 56.664 from 1911
to 1915.
The opening of new subways in
the census month is welcomed as de
creasing the density of population in
the center and as increasing the dens
ity in sparsely settled sections. This
tendency is welcome, for it is ap
palling to contemplate the conse
quences to national health, both phys
ical and moral, of millions of people
crowded together in congested areas.
At the same time there Is room for
speculation as to what area suoh a
city would cover If each family were
to occupy a separate house surround
ed "by a small garden, as in Portland's
suburbs Would not cities then be
come so unwieldily big that their
growth 'would necessarily cease? The
answer is rapid transit, which is be
ing furnished on a scale cver
dreamed of a century ago.
North Carolina has one of the
most active historical societies in the
country. It is particularly noteworthy
for the attention it pays to the current
literature produced by North Caro
linians. All their publications are
treasured by the society and It also
keeps account of everything referring
to North Carolina that comes from
the press. The historical society not
only gleans the remnants of history
from the past, but it stores up the
records of the present as they are
made and thus provides that there
shall be something more than rem
nants for the next generation.
North Carolina is much like Oregon
in the respect that its people have
strong local pride. They are not
merely Americans. They are North
Carolinians, Just as many of us are
Oregonlans first and foremost. State
pride is an innocent relic of that old
belief in state sovereignty which once
was the bane of the country but has
now become a thin and harmless
shadow of itself. As long as It does
not seek to make everybody but "na
tive' sons" ineligible to political office
no serious fault will be found with it,
though when state pride goes to ex
tremes it is sometimes a little absurd.
The North Carolina Historical So
ciety gave an instance of this absurd
ity when it lamented the lack of a
"North Carolina literature." Any ex
clusively state literature would neces
sarily be provincial and probably nar
row and fanatical. The little topics
that interest a few parishes and no
body else would be exalted, while the
real concerns of humanity would be
neglected. There Is always danger
that a purely state literature will be
'Old Grimes in the Gun Room" and
little more. A few always think it is
the greatest in the world. Everybody
else smiles at It.
We sometimes hear people talk
about Oregon literature with upturned
eyes and bated breath as if it were of
miraculous . worth. Some valuable
books have been written in Oregon
and more will be produced as time
goes on. but what is worth while, in
them is National, not sectional. It Is
the task of our local authors to bring
to light the universal qualities in Ore
gon scenery and people. Local traits
are valuable material to work upon,
but If it remains merely local when
the writer is through with It he might
better have let it alone. Paul wrote
a letter to the little church at Corinth
which turned out ultimately to be a
letter to the whole world.
When Oregon and North Carolina
writers learn to speak through their
parishes to the human race there is
some chance of their becoming great.
As long as they beat their breasts, like
Carlyle's Polack, "and exude nothing
but parochial vanity their productions
will have only parochial value and
precious little even of that.
Events of the next few months will
go far to decide whether the war is
to be prolonged for several years or
is to be brought to a close within
the three years assigned to it by Lord
Kitchener. The present course of
Germany and Austria betrays a pur
pose to destroy the Russian army, if
possible, and to render her power
less for a new offensive until entirely
new armies have been organized and
equipped, then to fall with their whole
strength on France, Britain and Italy
France and Britain appear to have
been playing into the Teuton's hands
by not beginning a general offensive
and relieving the Russians. It is I
conceivable that they can have done so
deliberately; the only other conclu
sion is that they lacked the means.
Statements of the strength of the
French army confirm this conclusion.
It is enough to hold the line, to under
take local offensives, but not to make
a successful general attack or to make
a local mass attack such as that made
by the Germans at Ypres last Fall
The British are reported to have 750,-
000 men In France and Belgium, but
they do not press forward and they
continue to occupy, with the Belgians,
a narrow front from the sea to La
Bassee. The inference is that the
supreme necessity of preventing Ger
many from reaching the French coast
has prompted the massing of these
troops in great depth along this nar
row front.
But Britain has 3.000.000 men
enrolled. Why is not another
million sent to the continent in order,
with her allies, to gain an unques
tioned superiority? ere this done
Germany might continue the drive
against Russia only at the cost of
valuable lost ground in the Weft, and
the aliles would get the benefit of
their superior numbers. As it is, Ger
many appears first In the east, then
in the west, always with superior
forces. Germany plays on a Urge
scale the same game which Napoleon
played on a small scale against the
Austrians in Italy the game of de
feating a divided enemy in detail ith
an army superior to each hostile army
and of greater mobility. Kara George
played the same game when he led
Serbians in rebellion against Turkey.
He' dashed first to the Drina River on
the west, then to the Morava on the
east, and defeated two Turkish armies
which, if combined, would have great
ly outnumbered his forces.
The allies know all these things,
and the only explanation of their
strategy is that their generals cannot
help themselves. British soldiers did
not receive uniforms until they had
been three months" nor rifles until
they had been nine months In the
ranks. Only now is Britain doing
what Germany did a year ago and
what France did last September or
ganizing the whole nation for war. for
the production of arms and ammuni
tion on a lavish scale. They did
not attack because they had not the
guns and shells with which to attack.
It is folly for writers on the allied
side of the case to seek comfort In
the theory that, by permitting Ger
many to drive, alternately at the east
and west, they are encouraging a
wearing out of the enemy. Of course
Germany is reducing her own
strength, but she has reduced that of
Russia in much larger measure. The
allied cause is not helped much by the
capture of 560,000 Russian prisoners.
332 field guns and 670 machine runs,
irrespective of the immense number
killed and wounded in Gallrla be
tween May 3 and June 27. A bom
bardment such as those by the Ger
mans on the Dunajec and San rivers
causes far heavier losses to the de
fenders than to the assailants, for It
kills, wounds or reduces to impotence
all within the sone of fire. At this
rate the wearing-out process Is more
rapid with the allies than with their
If even now the French and British
were to begin a general attack or a
number of heavy, simultaneous local
attacks on the German lines, they
would do their cause far more service
than by leaving the Germans free to
exhaust themselves" In driving the
Russians out of Poland and cutting
up and capturing the Russian armies.
.That species of exhaustion has a
highly exhilarating effect on a nation
at war.
As the war continues and as its
financial demands Increase, , the
amount of American securities thrown
on our market la likely to exceed the
amount of our trade balance. The
belligerents will offer higher Interest
In order to Induce sale of other securi
ties and reinvestment in war bonds.
Much, of the surplus capital which
now Incumbers American banks and
shuns investment in new enterprises
until the world settles down Is likely
to be absorbed in this manner, for a
general selling movement will make
prices attractive. It Is possible that
before the war ends the United States
may nearly. If not entirely, wipe out
Its foreign debts and become absolute
ly Independent financially.
John Roman Is a Janitor, and a
good one. Men about him say he is
the best they ever had, but that Is not
to the point. He Is a native of Po
land and has been In this country
many years. He does not drop the
hyphen today, for he has never used
It. "I am an American!" has been
and is his proud boast. This Nation
needs a lot of men like John Roman,
to become American citizens, with
pride In their country.
One must admire the gTlt of the
little band of men who persist In
holding the county fair at Gresham.
Sometimes the elements are against
them, but a deficit never feazes, and
they come up smiling with arrange
ment for another and better exhibit
next time. Such people make pros
perity for their little city, despite Its
location In the shadow of the
Almost anybody would be kind
enough, without Instructions from
Chief Justice White, to tell Huerta
what he must d to secure freedom
from molestation by Federal officers.
Simply obey the law.
Sweet Home (hlc), in Linn County
(hie). Is oil right. It Is the only
(hlc) wet spot for miles around, and
has a carload of beer, containing 7560
quarts. Whoop! 'Rah for the Fourths
If Colonel nofer, erstwhile noted
rainmaker, has not lost his cunning,
there is opportunity for him In
Southern Oregon, where forest fires
are becoming dangerous.
Having nowhere else to go with
out dodging submarines, shells and
bullets, the tourists are at last com
ing West. They will wonder w hy they
did not-come before.
With a little nest egg of $30,000.
000 to fall back upon Miss Barker will
be able to experiment In domestic
science without worrying about ex
Evidently Mr. Cronkrite imagined
that he had married his wife's whole
family, but Mrs. Cronkrite placed i
limit on evidences of family affec
tion. The Russians are giving the Ger
mans a dose of their favorite medi
cine, so they should not make wry
faces at It.
Since thieves are stealing tomb
stones in cemeteries, the hardware
men would better rechaln their
German submarines must have
bases somewhere, and the Britons are
very slow in finding and destroying
The son of a steepleclimber who
follows In his father's footsteps Is
bound to rise to dizzy altitudes.
One Belgian and five British steam
ships sunk In a ,day Is a startling
record or submarine activity.
Portland had a sane Fourth yester
day, with nobody at home. Today
may be different.
The United States was 139 years old
yesterday and able to sit up and take
Today, all ere Americans, for the
hyphen was swatted yesterday.
You will have to excuse use of the
hyphen In the case of Holt.
If Huerta does not like Jsll life
he should blame Orozco.
Most of the city streets resembled
Front street yesterday.
The weather folk h!t it off Just
! right
European War Primer
By Nsllossl Geographical Borlety.
Over the hundreds of miles of body
strewn battlefields in Europe no more
deadly spot could be found during re
cent fighting than Just to the north of
Arras, where for more than a month
and a half the French have driven home
Innumerable fearless, determined as
saults against almost Impregnable field
works. "More lives have been lost to
the square yard of fighting area here,
according to dispatches, than upon any
other part of the endless battle line.
Arras, the point from which the
French have been strongly forcing the
fighting. Is the capital of the French
department of Pas -de -Calais. It Is one
of the oldest and most Important towns
of Northern France, and Is situated on
the right and southern bank of the
River Scarpe, at Its Junction with the
Crlnchon. partly on heights and partly
in a fertile plain. A low line of heights
extend to the north of the town, where
the present German lln runs almost
due north to Tpres. in Belgium. Arras
is one of the principal stations on the
French Northern Railway, being about
117 miles distant from Parts by rail.
Brussels lies 97 miles to the northeast
of this advance German outpost, while
the Important city of Amiens la t
miles to the south-southeast.
One of the leading gratnmarketa of
France was held in this busy city be
fore the war. It Ilea well in the center
of a rich agricultural, grazing and In
dustrial district, and has always been
Important for Its trade and manufac
tures. Chief among the factory prod
ucts of Arras were beet-sugar, agricul
tural Implements, hosiery, lace, pottery
and leather. As eaily as the fourth
century this little town was famous for
tta woolen manufactures, a fame that
it has lost to the great woolen centers
of Britannia across the water. It later
became famous wherever luxury held
footing for the manufacture of tapes
tries. Some of the most beautiful
worked hangings were produced here
up to the lSth century, and so superior
were the tapestries of the place that
they were commonly known as arras.
The commerce of the city Is Important
In grain, flour, oil. wine and brandy
The lower town was compactly built.
its generous-appearing homes being
constructed of hewn stone. Most of
the streets were laid out broad and
straight, and Arras made an impression
of prosperity and progresaiveness upon
the visitor. There were a number of
nee squares, bordered by beautiful pub
lic buildings. It had a population of
25.000 at the outbreak of the war. a
population to which bitter necessity was
Many an Important action In North
ern France has been fought In and
around Arras, a site where the Latin.
Celtic and German elements have strug
gled since the foundation of Roman
empire. The city belonged to the Span-
lab branch or the House of Hapsburg
until 1(40. when Louis XIII of France
captured it after a long, severe siege.
It was ceded to France by the treaty
of the Pyreneas. The French revolution
and the Invasion of the Germans In
1S70-1S71 caused much suffering among
Its people. Arras was the birthplace of
Maxtmillen Robespierre, the Inspired
leader of the "Terror" In Paris, and also
of Joseph Lebon. originally of the min
istry, who led the celebrations of the
horrible rites of the revolution In his
native city.
Frlull. which district the Italians
claim to have completely overrun, is
the lowland and hill region at the head
of the Adriatic Sea. In ancient times one
of the St duchies Into which the Iinco
bardl divided Northern Italy, and. since
166. divided bet ween-Italy and Austria.
The Frlull district Includes the Italian
province of L'ndlne and the district of
Portogruaro. and the Austrian orotlnr
of Goers and Gradisea. together with
the so-called Idrlan district.
The lower slopes of the Julian Aloe
In the north and of the Carnle Alps In
the east are Included In Frlull. The
southern part of this region is a rich
luvlal plain, sloping irnllr Into tha
Adriatic, and watered by the Iionioind
several lesser streams.
The whole district. Italian and Aus
trian. Includes about 31u0 anuare miles
of area. It supports about "00.000 peo
ple, largely an agricultural DODulatlon.
and. for the most part. Italian-speaking.
l he inhabitants or the ancient duchy
are called Furlanlana. Their speech
differs from that of the peninsula Ital
ians, in that It Is very strongly modified
by Celtic words. Fancy fruit, wln-a
K rapes and grains give lavish harvests
in r null s mild climate. The table
fruits grown here are known as lux
uries throughout Europe.
1 ne present . division of this coast.
land, that of Venetian and Trrnli
Krlull. was recognized at an earlv re-
rlod. Tyroleae Frlull came Into pos
session of Austria In 1S0O. and Venetian
rriuii became Austrian bv the neaca
oi lampo rormio In 197. The Venetian
division was brought back to the Ital
ian fold In 1SS6. and now the Italians
claim to have placed the ancient Aus
trian division behind their lines.
Mr. Davie Advocates Purchase by Ore.
mom ef Railroad Grsst
EUGENE. Or., July S. (To the Ed
itor.) In the matter of the future dis
position of the Oregon & California
grant lands In Oregn. while many sug
gestions therefor have been put forth.
there Is one solution I have not seen
advocated that to me seems to be emi
nently fair and proper, and which
would be In keeping with the original
Intention of the grant.
The original grants were made for
the purpose of aiding In the building
of the railroads, which was for the
oenerit and upbuilding of the state;
then In the clause added later, limit
ing the sale of the lands to actual aet.
tiers at not more than $2.59 an acre.
tne ilea was carried further toward
the benefit of the elate In assisting In
locating settlers on the lands.
The court has held the railroad com
pany to the original proposition of
tnelr Interest at the 12. SO an acre
Now as the lands are admittedly worth
very much more than that sum at this
time, and aa the grant was made solely
to be of benefit to the state (Congress
surely did not mean to give It to the
promoters of the railroad for their
personal benefit), let the Mate buv the
lands and reap whatever benefit there
Is to accrue from the enhanced value.
An election to Issue bonds for this
purpose would easily carry, and they
could no doubt be negotiated at a low
rate of Interest.
From the proceeds, after providing
for the retlre-nent of the bonds, the
profits could be apportioned to what
ever funds of the state may be de
cided best.
My suggestion would be that, to rc
ompense the counties In which the
lands are situated for the taxea they
will lose while the sales are being
made, to each county be riven IS per
cent of net overplus applicable from
the sales within that county for the
general fund and 10 per cent for the
road fund of the county; IS per cent
of the whole net proceeds for the state
roud fund and 60 per cent to the Irre
ducible school fund of the state.
With the atate as the owner, the
settllnsr of the agricultural lands would
be taken care of better than could be
done in any other way, aa both the
state and the counties would be In
terested In having them utilised, and
the same would te true of the timber
and mineral lands. M. M. DA VIA.
Twenty-Five Years Ago
From the Ores on tan July 3. IS90.
Washington The field notes and
plate of the corrected surveys of the
great Umatilla Indian reservation in
Oregon which have occasioned so much
orriclal correspondence have been re
ceived by the department and all the
force in the survey division put to
work on them, and Thursday the com
mission finally approved the work.
Representative Hermann wu In con
sultation with the department as to
the appraisement and allotment so the
excess land may be put on the market.
The action la expected to make things
lively In Eastern Oregon.
Pullman. Wash. Almost the entire
business section of this town wa
burned Thursday afternoon, July 3.
Spokane Falls Attorney-General
Jones has riled an Important opinion
holding that the right of way of the
Northern Pacitlo Railway Company Is
taxable by the State of Washington.
Washington The Idaho admission
bill declares the present Territory of
Idaho a slate and ratifies the consti
tution framed by the convention July
4. la. The State Is' entitled to one
representative in Congress) until after
the census. The bill carries the Mor
mon test oath, and It was not until the
Supreme Court upheld the constitu
tlonallty of this that the bill was con
sldered by the Senate territorial com
ralttee. In the Rouse the Democrats
refrained from voting and asserted an
Intention to make a teat on the bill
of the Speaker's right to count a
A snsrtil tnaetlns- of tha T'nllsplan
Church members haa authorized the
trustees to rail a minister .to act aa
asaistant to Dr. Eliot. Rev. E. M. Wil
bur has been secured lor the next
Harry Freedman. son of Mr. and
Mrs. Lewis Freedman. will be con
firmed at the Synagogue today.
George L. Story haa been ' elected
president of the Fire Commissioners
and James R- Sinnott haa been re
elected secretary.
Guy M. Weldler has been appointed
deputy clerk of Department No. 1 of
the State Circuit Court, vice A. W.
Llewellyn, resigned.
The Fourth of July was celebrated
yeaterday very fittingly with shooting
of firecrackers, roaring of cannon.
street parade, appropriate literary and
mlHtary exercises, river amusements
and a rreat deal of patriotic amuse
ment. There was to have been a mar
riage In a balloon, but the tia used
was not the right kind or sufficient
and he balloon refused to carry its
load. The couple were married, how
ever, on the platform nearby, as 15.000
people looked on.
Colonel R. A. Miller, of Jacksonville.
la In the city, having come to attend
the Fourth.
Half a Century Ago
Prom the Orsconlan, July f. lS.
On May 26 the Grand Jury of the
District of Columbia, found a bill of
Indictment against Jefferson Davis
and John Cabul Breckinridge, for high
treason. v itneases were rrancia I".
Blair. c"r, John R. Clagrett. General
M. D. Hardin. Thomas J. Maury. M.
IK. George E. Kirk and John H. ilc
Chaany. George A. Boh re r was the
foreman of the Jury.
The entire length ef the railroad
between Vera Crus and Mexico will be
IIS miles: the highest summit lave:.
Ji'O (eet above sea level.
Among Mr. Lincoln's papers haa been
found a package of letters marked In
I Is own handwriting. "Assassination
In the San Francisco market flour
haa suddenly declined to 17 a barrel.
We understand that Colonel Maury
has dispatched Captain Matthews to
quell the Indians at Auburn. Or. II
has taken a company cf cavalry.
It appears that an English company
Is Intent on constructing a railroad
to the Pacific through British terri
tory. A Montreal report says: ' Kd
mund Kice. president of the St. Paul
a Pacific Railroad Company haa gone
to England to further the Interests of
that road. English capitalists being In
terested In pushing It on to the Pacific
with a telegraph line through Brit. sr.
We have in our possession a picture
or a celebrated real, live eagle, which
the Slh Wisconsin Regiment carried
through the campaigns of three years
ana which paswed safely through all
the battles in which the reirlment par
ticipated. It Is an oil picture of "Old
Abe." the name of his aquiline majesty.
He reminds one at once or Pcrctvale'a
solendld nn,m In which It Is mm trl
that the eaala. after hsvlnr often led
Imperial Rome to conquest while that
power remained, alter its rail came
to America to guide a new nation to
There will be no work done in the
Oregonian establishment today, hence
there will be no paper tomorrow.
Jodsre George Ilea Copy Orlglaally
0sr4 by Chancellor Knt
PORTLAND. July 4. (To the Editor.)
Sheppard'a "Touchstone." written In
England In the old reign of James I.
waa cited by the Government In the
recent land grant case, but the Supreme
Court, throuah Justice McKenna, held
It an authority rather for the court's
final decision.
It mav be of Interest that I have the
original "Touchstone" owned by Chan,
rellor Kent. According to his hand
writing It was purchased by him In
17J2 for 1 Es Od. and used In his law
library for over 30 years, and Is full of
learned marginal and fly-leaf notes
torn Kenta own pen. With these iden
tical comments before him the Chancel,
lor undoubtedly prepared his great
"Commentaries. for he refera to this
"Touchstone's" great age and authorltiy.
and followed hia notes in their order
and wording. In one Kent etates that
Justice Doderldge was the real author.
His manuscript was found on his dealD
and Sheppard published it.
Judge Deady. on Inspecting this rare
old book, once told me that he wished
1 would devise It t htm In my will. I
purchased It In 17. second hand, in
Albany. X. Y.. for S3. 23. and not realis
ing, at first, that It had been the prop
erty of Chancellor Kent. 1 drew a line
through the former owner'e name.
James Kent, on Its title page, and near
It I wrote my own thus Inadvertently
making my nearest approach to Kent's
own great name. 1 esteem this old
book beyond price.
By the way. on a' citation from this
one book 1 won before Judge Shattuck
my first lawsuit. M. C- GEOUGE.
Aaether M altsaaa SurvWer.
COTTAGE GROVE. Or.. July 3. (To
the Editor.) In The Oregonian of June
20 la given a list of the Whitman sur
vivors. I would like to say that my
husband's name was not mentioned. He
waa the little boy under the floor
when the Irxilana entered the house.
This name Is Alexsrwier Bogers Oi-oorn.
Yours truly, illli. A. R. OSBOEX.
N. Nittt on Independence
By Ream Celllaja.
Nesclus Xitta. sage of Punkindorf Sta
tion. Quenched a firecracker's fuse with bis
quid's liquidation.
Preventing the firecracker's loud det
And then on the famous and great
About Independence he made an ora
tion. I see by the papers that all through
the land
Each village haa called out Its brass
cornet band.
And chosen a speaker and seen like.
'TIs proper to celebrate Fourth of July.
And this year It "pears that the big
Will break every record ln this her
great Nation.
Some sections with firecrackers plan
to observe.
While some from the time-honored cus
toms will swerve,
Avoldln' the danger of bruises and
By plannln' to celebrate safely and
But most any method has plenty of
Provldin" the folks shows a suitable
Our forefathers, from whom I am a
Declared that all persons Is born Inde
pendent And free, and in spite ef the way It's
been pounded
That doctrine still sticks and seems
pretty well grounded;
The principal thing that concerns us
la how we'll preserve this here Nation
that way. ,
This war here In Europe may rage as It
I'm thankful that our land Is out of It
I figure perhaps we can stay that-a-
If we'll all remember and take rote
this day.
That, no matter where our ancestors
sprung from.
We all are Americana right here at
Qaaker Asersete Told t" 1 lis.. t -ate
Fallacy ef Disarmament PellO .
CENTR ALIA. Wash . July 3. (To the
Editor.) I see you have noticed Will
iam Jennlncs Pryan"s vaporltlngs in
The Oregonian. His Idiosyncrasies have
been many and varied, and they may
have some good In them, but his world
wide peace Is the If he ha a
tithe of the Inte'.lectuallty some credit
him with, he wouli know there will
be war aa long aa the people will
wrong each other. We never have a
war while the wronned party will
bear the wronj. It Is hen the
wronged remonstrates and resists the
wrong that peace Is disturbed. Nor
will we have war while the wrongdoer
will listen to the wronged ons plea
rr a Just settlement. When tho wrong
doer refuses to l"U-n and goes on
perpetrating the wrong, there Is an ap.
pesl to tha arbitrament ot war.
Wsr settles nothinic. but attention
to the And It would not
effect that were It not physical force
applied. 'The more vigorous, ctuel
painful and devastating It Is
the more merciful it l. beravse the
s.wnef It la over. fnt.l the j. self let
finds soma way to Kt the incorrigi
ble wrongdoer to cea-se his wrong
doing and lls'en to the wronged or.e s
plea for Justice, we will have war. If
I am rlaht In defining war. I know
my revered psrrnia defeated me In
many battles. Very often they would
not even let m; I had to my
and accept their terms.
I believe were oil our arms, all our
munitions and a'.l our psrsphcrnaia
of war destroyed tomorrow we would
still have war. as on- as a part of
humanity wronci the oilier psrl. When
wrong-doing naf. ther, :!l be no
war. War will have to bo with the
cessation of wrone-l-lrii.'.
When tl.e writer a l-.-y be. with
some others, attended worship In a
Quaker meeting-house lvs of peace
Is a tenet of their faith. They love
peace, and endeavor to avoid all the
causes of war. In a word, they love
peace and abhor war.
It seemed there was some serious
matter thit was to he subumied to t!'c
Bryan plan arbitration by the con
gregation. There were three more In
terested than the others, two of whom
were not so lre as the other. They
Joined Issues with the hi ronn. and
every time he tried to state bis con
tention the two would Jump to their
feet and start a talkfest. Wlr. be
cou!dn't get to ssy a sentence. Final. y
he arose, and In a p!ous dignified
voice, said to the nesrest of these -
corrlcibles. "Friend Joshua, it la un
srrlptural to strike thee, so I will
push thee in the ear." And he gave
Joshua a clip In the ear that sent him
over two rows of seats. He then ti
vanced very quietly on the other, say
ing. "Friend Samuel. I will not push
thee lnMhe ear. but I will hold thee
mighty uneasy." and took a grip on
Friend Samuel's windpipe. Both then
besred for a chance to listen to the
big man's argument.
That Incident causes me to believe
that were all Implements and muni
tiona of war destroyed, and wrong was
being done, we would atlll have war.
We would fall back onto primitive
methods, pushing one another in the
ear or holding each other mighty un
easy. P. J. a M MANAMNA.
Aefa Reed Tarn Attacked.
WAP.VTO. Wash.. July X (To ' the
Editor.) Why shout i automobile own
ers have to pay a license for traveling
on the public highway? It seems t
me un-American and unconstitutional
If it is constitutional to charge a per.
son 110 for the privilege of driving on
the public highway. It would be equally
constitutional to charge him 11000.
It le all well and good to have good
public highways; I approve of them
highly; but there should be no discrim
ination in regard to securing the funds
for these same public hlghwaya
My Interpretation of the term publit
highway" la that It Is a highway frc
to all. If a man s way of traveling !l
by automobile, why haa he not the sam
right to travel on the public hlchaay
without a license as the man with the
wacon and team or bugpy?
My observationa are that teams and
wagons are much more detrimental to
roads than automobiles.
Spending or Using
Do you use your money or do- you
merely spend it?
The difference In these terms Is
the difference between thrift and
I'slng money means buying the
things you need at the time you
need them and at the lowest market
And ability to use money only
comes to those who know market
Thrifty people are readers of
newspaper advertising because It
keep them Informed.
They know what Is In the market
and where It la sold to the best ad
vantage. When they buy they do so with
a certainty that they are getting a
full money's worth.