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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (June 17, 1915)
8 TIIE MORNING OREGONIAX. TnUESDAT, JUNE 17, 1915.
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, COXDi'Q TO OUR SENSES.
I The Nation is gradually being
brought to look in the face the facts
tearing on National defense. We
abhor war as much as ever, but we
afe coming to realize that it may not
xtst with us to decide whether we
shall have war. An old saying is that
it ; takes two to make a quarrel; it .
also takes two to keep peace; and
ifi one ia determined to have war, the
other must have it, however un
willingly, or submit to Whatever terms
the warlike nation chooses to dic
tate. ' But, say opponents of military
preparedness, if we organize a strong
atrny and navy, we shall be more
likely to fight, even to seek a fight,
w'hile if we do not prepare, we shall
fee less likely to engage in war. Neith
er assertion is true. If the possession
of a strong army and navy incites us
to; war, then the possession of a fire
department promotes fires, that of a
police department provokes crime, that
of a health department causes epi
demics of disease. Militarism is not
the result of arming a nation, but of
the spirit which animates that na
tion, of the supremacy of the military
over the civil authority and of the
purpose behind armament. This Na
tion could not become militarist be
cause the military arm is subordinate
to civil authority, because public opin
ion is firmly set against armed ag
gression and because the most ardent
advocates of National defense would
oppose armament on the scale neces
sary, for aggression.
But it does not follow that, because
we were unprepared, we should be less
likely to become involved in war.
If armed strength makes a nation
more likely to fight, then the state
ment applies to other nations already
armed. Whom would such a nation
fight? Surely one that was rich and
unarmed, like the United States. If
we cannot trust ourselves to be strong,
lest we become quarrelsome, 'much less
can we trust other nations, many of
which are now giving evidence of
pugnacity, lest they quarrel with us.
We must take one risk or the other
either the risk of fighting because
we are strong or that of being at
tacked because we are' weak. Surely
iwe can better trust our own good
intentions not to abuse -our" strength
than the good intentions of other na
tions not to abuse their strength by
We have in our own history an ex
ample of a war prevented by our
strength. Writing in Collier's Weekly,
Julian Street tells of a conversation
In the presence of an American army
officer between a young French .of
ficer and a French General who had
served in Mexico in 1864-5. ..The
young man asked the General why
the French army got out of Mexico
in such, a hurry- The General pointed
to the American officer and replied:
"Because there were then in the
United States more than a million
men wearing that uniform you see
there, and trained through the Civil
War, and they told us to get out."
Had the United States not had Uicse
million trained soldiers, France might
have resisted us and a war for the
maintenance of the Monroe Doctrine
would have resulted.
This is a conclusive answer to those
who, "in dread of war, exclaim:
"I didn't raise my boy to be a sob
dier." There ;ire other answers to be
found in American history. The peo
ple in the revolutionary time did not
raise their boys to be soldiers. Con
sequently when they were called upon
to fight for independence, they sent
untrained militia to fight, and Wash
ington continually complained that
they were unreliable, untrained, some
times cowardly and deserted in hordes.
Though nearly 400,000 men were en
listed, Washington could never mus
ter more than 17,000 men for battle
The total British force was 150,000
The war was prolonged for seven years
because, although we employed two
and one-half times as large a force,
we could not until the close bring a
sufficient force to bear at any point
against the British. In short, the
horrors of war were aggrevated by
unreadiness, which prompted Wash
lngton to write:
If we desire to avoid Insult, we must be
able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace,
It must be known we are at all times ready
for war. v
American school histories tell how
the United States beat Britain in 1812
but they dwell lightly on the facts
that, while we were doing that, Brit
ain. was beating Napoleon; that we
employed 527.652 men in that war
against Britain's 55,000, but that the
great majority of our men were
militia; that Hull was forced to re
tire from Canada because his militia
mutinied; that he surrendered De
troit without fighting; and that 3500
British, only a small part of whom
were actually engaged, routed 6500
-Americans, took Washington and
burned the Capitol, because only 1000
of our men were trained soldiers.
At the first battle of Bull Run the
Union army consisted of 28,000 militia
and volunteers and 800 regulars. Had
all been trained soldiers, says Richard
Stockton, Jr., in "Peace Insurance,"
"Bull Run would have been the end
of-the Civil War, not the beginning."
All the awful slaughter and misery
ofthe succeeding four years was the
consequence of the lack of trained
Tet so slow are the American peo
ple to take to heart the plain teach
ings of their own experience that Mr.
Street tells of a farmer who said
recently to a cavalry officer, "This
country don't need soldiers," and when
the officer suggested the possibility
of invasion, the farmer said:
Xo furrln nation will ever land " on our
sU. Whv, there'd r-e a million farmers
' vaitln; for 'em with shotguns. Let 'em
just try it once.
'The farmers with shotguns would
be as useless as the militia In the
Revolutionary War, in the War of
1812. and in the Civil "War. They
would be routed as were the militia
then and they would be slaughtered
with long-range rifles and field-guns
before they came within .shotgun
range of the invaders.
If we do. not make ' soldiers not
militiamen but trained soldiers of
our boys, the time will come when
they will be sent to face an enemy
as half-trained .militia and volunteers
and will be slaughtered in thousands
and routed, and the country will be
at the mercy of an enemy. The way
to save our boys from this fate is to
make enough of them into soldiers to
defend the country. The way to save
the country from the horrors of war Is
to prepare to fight. National defense
is peace insurance Just as truly as
fire departments insure against fire
and police departments against crime
Trained men in those services do not
absolutely prevent fires or crime, but
they largely prevent and mitigate
those evils. Just so would sufficient
trained and well equipped soldiers and
sailors prevent or mitigate the evils
BOOH IX SHXPBUXLDEXG.
There is a veritable boom in Ameri
can shipyards. They have all the work
they can handle for five years. Con
tracts for thirty-six vessels have been
made since December and others are
offered for forty more, ranging from
4000 to 18,000 tons burden and requir
ing an aggregate of 175,000 tons of
steel plates. One great company
which is doing the largest business in
war supplies is building its own ship
The cause Is not only the shortage
of vessels due to the war, but the
reversal of conditions as to cost, which
has caused Europe to build ships in
the United States. Plate steel costs
$40 a ton in England against $25 in
Pittsburg, which means a saving of
$75,000 on a 5000-ton ship. Europe
is competing with the United States
for the product of American ship
yards. The time is most propitious for
rapid expansion of the American mer
chant marine, for Americans can now
build ships cheaper In this country
than in Europe and can make high
profits at present rates. Were our
shipping laws such that ships could
be operated under the American flag
as cheaply as under flags of other
nations and were there no threat of
Government competition, much capi
tal would g-o Into the shipping busi
ness and new shipyards would be
opened to supply the increased de
mand. The best stimulus which the
President and Congress could give to
the merchant marine would, be to drop
the ship-purchase bill, to revise the
shipping laws and to amend the sea
men's law in those respects where it
militates against ships under the
MOUNTAIN 3 OFTvNKD TO PEOPLE.
Opportunity Is afforded by a new
law relating to National forests for
the people really to enjoy the beauties
and healthgiving powers of the
mountains. Hitherto the public has
been permitted to travel through these
forests and to camp there, but it has
been impossible to obtain the exclu
sive right to occupy a particular site
for any extended period of time. The
pleasures and benefits of mountain
life thus have been denied the large
number of people who do not care for
camp life but who wish to enjoy the
comforts of civilization while in the
By permitting the lease for 30 years
of sites not exceeding five acres in the
National forests, the new law opens
the way for erection of substantial
Summer homes and hotels, where
tourists . and holiday-makers may go
In large numbers. If the Forest Serv
ice sells to lessees of these sites timber
and other building material in the
vicinity, substantial rustic hotels and
bungalows can-be erected in the moun
tains of the West. The Forest Serv
ice, in conjunction with the states, is
building roads and trails and is thus
making the West's natural beauties
accessible to the people.
There is no reason why the states
from the Rocky Mountains west should
not become as popular a resort for
tourists as Switzerland and the Tyrol.
They excel those countries in natural
beauty and grandeur, though they are
lacking in comforts and conveniences
and in historical associations. The
former can be supplied and, as the
latter are chiefly connected with war
and tyranny, we can well dispense
with them. The chief source of in
come to the Swiss and Tyrolese is
ministering- to the wants and pleasures
of tourists. Though It Is not desirable
that this be the case in the West, it
Is desirable that our scenic attractions
be made a source of both revenue and
pleasure to the people.
But one objection can be raised to
the leasing of home-sites in the Na
tional forests. It may become the
thin end of the wedge for general
adoption of the leasing system on the
public domain and for permanent ex
emption of public land from state
taxation. When Summer homes and
hotels are established In the forests
the states will be called upon to pre
serve order, to punish crime and to
administer estates, but will derive no
revenue from the forests except that
which is specifically applied to roads
and schools only. This is unjust to
the states and Is contrary to the spirit
of the several enabling acts under
which they were admitted to the
Union. Western Representatives in
Congress are as loyal as those of the
East and South to the policy of for
est conservation and may therefore
be reluctant to ask that sites be pat
ented, but they should certainly ask
that a proportion of forest, revenue be
paid to the states in lieu of taxes. '
"DUM DUM" XING US If.
The art of snobbery and envy, of
showing class distinction, of "cutting"
and "withering" a social foe, no doubt
are accepted elements of the social
code of today and yesterday. Retorts
courteous have their highly respected
place. Each is a part of the scheme
of things that makes life interesting
and diverting, shedding its little hap
pinesses here and scattering Its little
woes along the way.
But a new school seems to
have sprung up. Debutantes are
found studying sharp, acrid answers
to conventional questions; study
ing expressions of temper in the
name of temperament. The daugh
ters of fine ladies and ; fine
ladies themselves " we find resorting
to "dum dum" answers, so to speak;
answers that leave scars, and not an
swers like the old-fashioned subtle
ones, which left only Irritation and
caused the growth of a thrifty wit.
The thing is, like everything else,
the long-used clever bits of social con
versation seem to have fallen Into
disregard in the mad search for some-
thing better and more tempting. The
search has been rather misdirected.
Some, spurred on by the effect of
keen, really harmless retorts courte
ous, have started out in search of ex
pressions that go one further. They
have, to be sure, found no worthy sub
stitute, and the spirit of the age seems
only reflected in their hard, harsh,
wound-inflicting use of the English
language. Such expressions have no
breeding In them; no culture nor wlt.
It is plainly an evidence of overdoing.
If a . soft answer turneth away
wrath, then a harsh one must cer
tainly kindle it. Perhaps the studied
usage of "dam dum" English is only
a fad; perhaps it is only an expression
of the' new freedom of impulses and
The woman whose tongue is clever
and whose wit is fleet is always a fa
vorite. Men find a particular fascina
tion in rhetorical sparring with her.
But how quickly uninteresting is she
whose tongue Is brutal and vulgar
and whose wit is club-footed.
No one recalls the names of the
peace-at-any-price evangelists of the
days of '76. The Bryans of that day
are forg-otten and only George Wash
ington, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jef
ferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Ad
ams, James Otis and all that Immortal
group are remembered. They are re
membered for their militant patriot
ism and their willingness to sacrifice
their lives for their liberties.
No one remembers with gratitude
the names of the peace-at-any-price
apostles of sixty years ago. Only Ab
raham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Will
iam H. Seward, Hannibal Hamlin,
John A. Logan, Edward S. Baker and
others like them for the-Union cause
are remembered, and the memories of
Robert E. Lee, "Stonewall" Jackson,
Alexander Stephens and ' their com
patriots are cherished.
Let us quote from the second In
augural address of President Wash
ington: The United States ouirht not to indulge a
persuasion that, contrary to the order of
human events, they will forever keep at a
distance those painful appeals to arms with
which the history of every other nation
abounds. There is a rank due the United
States among; nations which will be with
held, if not absolutely lost, by the reputa
tion of weakness. If we dasire to avoid
Insult, we must be able to repel it; if we
desire to secure peace, one of the most
powerful Instruments of our rising pros
perity, it must be known that we are at all
times ready for war.
The highest expression of patriot
ism is defense of one's country. Were
Washington nnd Lincoln wrong? Is
only. Bryan rjght?
A SMALL WORLD AWRY.
When a great steamship like the
Northern Pacific twists a rudder or
slips a cog in some remote part of its
vast machinery and is put out of com
mission for a single run, the resultant
consequences seem almost endless. An
entire world veritably goes awry. The
plans of some 600 or 800 persons are
directly twisted; financial prepara
tions are shunted out of joint - for
many, and directly or indirectly hun
dreds, yes almost .thousands, are af
But it is refreshing to see two rival
industrial corporations, such as the
Great Northern Pacific Steamship
Company" and the Southern Pacific
Company, come to quick co-operation
In relieving the pressure at
a time as when the Northern Pacific
disabled her rudder while crossing
into Flavel Tuesday. She was unable
to sail yesterday. All night long the
officials of the two rival companies
worked laying- plans for handling this
small army of travelers booked to sail.
It was a big task, but apparently it
was well met and capably handled.
Comparatively few of the travelers
were seriously handicapped in their
plans; some may have been slightly
disappointed. But the exigencies of
planning are always subject to the
natural order of things. The Northern
Pacific- couldn't sail with absolute
safety; at least the company would
not take the chance thaf the rudder
was seriously disabled. It shows a
fine spirit that "the vessel's owners
chose to cancel a sailing and sacrifice
an appreciable sum of money, rather
than be anything but sure of the ves
sel's absolute perfection of condition.
In these days when competition Is
so keen between large industrial cor
porations it is reassuring to witness
so quick a co-ordination of facilities
for the accommodation of the public.
The seven hundredth anniversary of
the signing of Magna Chart a. would
not bring unmingled joy to that ven
erable document if it were capable of
human feelings. It is receiving a great
deal of indiscrlminating praise, as it
always has, but mingled with. the
praise are many drops of bitter criti
cism. Much of the modern fetish
worship of Magna Charta harks back
to Coke, ' the great lawyer whose
enmity overthrew Lord Bacon. Coke
makes it the source of trial by Jury
and most of our other fundamental
rights and his view Is copied without
investigation by Burke. But there is
very little ground for it. Coke knew
the technicalities of the common law
extremely well but he knew nothing
else and Burke should have had more
sense than to follow him blindly. Pro
fessor Jenks calls Magna Charta "a
reactionary document." In his opin
ion it retarded the advance of popu
lar rights instead of helping them
forward. In his own words It was
"a nuisance and stumbling block to
the next generation."
InN King John's time, when Magna
Charta was signed, the mass of lowly
born Englishmen were "villeins."
They had some legal rights but not
many. Magna Charta did not guar
antee them a jury trial. The famous
clause that "no freeman shall be Im
prisoned save by the lawful judg
ment of his peers," merely secures to
the nobles exemptlen from trial by
the common law judges. It also gives
the clergy the right to be tried In
their own courts, a right that King
John had contested. King John was
a great deal more of a progressive
than commonplace historians concede
His fight was with the nobles and the
ecclesiastics and he necessarily, there
fore, stood in a certain sense for pop
ular rights. Magna Charta was ex
torted from him by the -rebellious
nobles who cared for nothing but their
own- privileges and the traditional ex
emptions of the clergy. It embodies
a' victory of the papacy and the no
bility over the British Crown rather
than any guarantees of popular rights
From the union of the Crown with
the common people came first the
destruction of the feudal nobles in
the Wars of the Roses and then the
development of despotism under the
Tudors and Stuarts. This despotism
ultimately fell before the assaults of
the Commons because there was no
intrenched aristocracy to bolster it up.
The aristocracy existed, of course, in
Cromwell's time but its feudal power
had mostly been pruned away. It
stood by the Stuart despotism faith
fully enough but its help was not suf
ficient to perpetuate the abomination.
The history of the British aristocracy
is like that of the French. At first
its rebellious power drove the mon
arch to unite with - the people and
make himself absolute. The nobles
then became the fawning creatures
of the court but the Commons liked
tyranny as little in the King as in
the Feudal barons. Hence they con
tinued their struggle for liberty and
finally brougjit the throne to terms.
The French ended the long contest by
abolishing the crown. The English
reduced it to a phantom. Each
method seems to be uniquely adapted
to the people who have put it in practice.
The wealth of the United States Is
said to double once in ten years. A
contemporary, rejoicing over this won
derful fact, pauses to ask if our
knowledge, wisdom, fraternity and re
ligion are increasing at the same rate.
If they are not we may find ourselves
some day In the predicament of the
man who bullded new barns for his
harvest only to hear when they were
done, "Thou fool, this night shall thy
soul be required of thee." What, in
deed, shall it profit a man to gain the
whole world and lose his own soul?
. There is a chance for the farmers
to sell old. Dobbin and the wife's gray
mare for service in Europe if they
wish. The average life of a horse at
the front Is three days. So Miss De
Graff tells us. The three days are
apt to be enlivened with shell wounds
that tear out eyes, rip open' bodies and
crush legs. It shows but faint grati
tude to the horse that has werked
hard on the farm for ten years to sell
him Into torment, but gratitude sel
dom holds its own against dollars.
The woman ticket agent is indeed
an innovation and will demonstrate
her adaptability in a trying Job. The
experienced traveler will delight In
paying the money, but the inex
perienced, may be scared off. Where
as now he approaches the men who
are given these positions because they
are the most courteous gentlemen to
be found, in the case of the other sex
he will not be able to tell whether
he Is going to Skamokawa or Skanea
telu; from pure stage fright.
President Faunce, of Brown Uni
versity, says New England has enough
colleges. The same may be said of
the AVillamette "Valley. What we need
now is to strengthen the colleges we
have, not to found new ones. There is
a place in Oregon for the small col
lege and the small college must pre
pare to fill it. The day of slipshod
education i3 over and gone, but the
small college can give an education
as esound as the big one, and often
Next September there is to be an
other election to the Hall of Fame.
From 200- candidates a primary has
sifted all but seventeen and from
these five will be chosen for Immor
tality. Most of the candidates are
from New England. Parkman, the
historian; is among them. So is Alex
ander Hamilton. Roger Williams,
the great American protagonist for
religious liberty, was rejected at the
Maddened by hunger a man sought
yesterday to kill wife and child and
self. There are others in like straits,
too independent and too proud to ap
ply for organized charity. They seek
the little Jobs that one is disposed
to do for himself in leisure time. The
next time a man applies to mow the
lawn or put in the wood, suppose he
be given it. y The pay might be a
trifle, but it may save a soul.
The use of liquid fire in the fight
ing in Western Russia reminds one of
old times. It was used by the Greeks
to defend Constantinople from a Rus
sian fleet in the tenth century. They
shot it from guns as we do common
balls. Liquid fire went out of use as
powder came in, but the exigencies of
the present war have brought it back.
It is nonsense to speak of the late
city election as an example of minor
ity rule. The majority stayed at home,
but they did so by their own choice,
and thus implicitly said, "We agree
with the side that wins." Any citizen
who does not ostensibly vote actually
votes with the winning side, whether
he likes it or not.
Protest against air raids will avail
Great Britain little. What she needs
Is to do some raiding herself. That
she is unprepared is her misfortune.
So it might be to other nations slum
bering in long-continued dreams of
peace and Invulnerability.
The London Mail is waking- up
Britain to the value of the machine
gun as shown by the Germans. There
is hope for the Briton, but little for
the Russian with his iron bar.
"Men, women and children are daily
dying of starvation" in Mexico, says
a dispatch. Our aversion for the hor
rors of war has produced these hor
rors. Is the Nebraskan already forgotten
or have they discovered who hit her
and, like the case of the Maine of
years ago, would investigate further?
With Mrs. Frank Leslie's million
and a half in her purse, Mrs. Carrie
Chapman Catt should be able to sweep
the degenerate Eastern states.
A statistician at the National Capi
tol proves the cost of living just now
is higher than ever. Why tell what
every housewife knows?
The Turk is sicker than ever, but
fear of German vengeance will pre
vent him listening to British proposals
for separate peace.
Many of the boxes of berries on the
market are not holding up to the
standard of fullness required by the
Some day it may not sound like' a
dream when trans-continental trains
go thundering through Frineville and
Summer is here, -for the seashore
schedules have been arranged, regard
less of pessimistic mercury.
Is the cement merger a result of the
recent pro-trust decisions in the
Vancouver, B. C.,. needs the Sunday
game to keep off the financial rocks.
General Arbitration is lii the saddle
at Chicago and he Is a good old scout.
European War Primer i
By National Geo graphical Society.
G ALICIA'S great battlefield along
the course of the River San is de
scribed In today's war primer of the
National Geographic Society.
The broken banks of the River Sarj
have taken their place among the
world's greatest battlefields of all
times through the determined Russian
investment and capture of Przemysl,
and, more especially, through the re
cent continuous days of battle between
the Austro-German armies, headed
toward Lcmberg. and the Russian
armies, bound for the open plains of
the dual monarchy beyond the Car
pathians. On the banks, of the San
hundreds of thousands of men have
been fighting bitterly back and forth;
and the little stream, of such slight
peace importance as to have escaped
notice of all the leading works of
English reference, henceforward will
live in history's annals as long: as the
memory of the names of the fields of
Waterloo and Gettysburg.
The San, a right bank tributary of
'the Vistula River, is about 800 miles
long. It rises in the East Beskldes,
flowing first through a very narrow
valley, full of wildest mountain scen
ery. The river becomes navigable at
Przemysl. From the point of this
famous Austrian stronghold, shallow
draft boats and poled scows carry for
est and agricultural produce to the
Vistula, Behind Przemysl. the river Is
a mountain stream, and one of the
most attractive in Northern Europe.
About 20 miles north of Przemysl,
the San, at Jaroslaw, reaches the open
plain. From this point the river
turns more northwest, joining the Vis
tula on the borders of Gallcia and
Russian Poland. Between Jaroslaw,
south, to Przemysl, where the heaviest
fighting of the past weeks has been
taking place, the country ia rough,
often sharply broken at the river, and
offering many opportunities for mili
tary defense. Beyond Przemysl, to
ward the river's source, the San zig
zags from a point about 30 miles to
the west, whence It comes from the
south and southeast. During the Spring
freshets, and again, during rainy
Autumn seasons, the lower valley of
the San often suffers from severe
floods. The San is joined by a num
ber of small mountain tributaries,
which add to the intricate markings of
the jrreat battlefield.
Lake Garda, the blue pearl of the
southern Alps, set in a gilded frame
of clif fs,borders one of the paths, that
of the Adige Valley, by which the
Italians are invading the Trentino.
Lake Garda crosses the Austrian fron
tier, cutting well Into Trentino in the
direction of Riva, a city but a short
distance back from its northern shore.
Garda Is Italy's largest lake, being
some 1S9 square miles in area. It is
34 miles long and varies between three
and 11 miles in breadth. It is sur
passed in size only by Geneva and
Constance of all the lakes in the Alpine
region. The lake is very deep, measur
ing in parts nearly zuuu leet.
The shores of Garda in the south
are flat and low, sloping easily back
from the water into a sunbaked coun
try. However, as the lake narrows
toward the north, first Alpine hills and
Uran higher spurs of the Alps fold in
upon it, often spinning up in sheer
walls from the water sheet. The small
Austrian part of the lake, a narrow,
northernmost finger, is a break Into the
All along the shores of Garda are
Idyllic villages, small, quiet communi
ties of white dwellings, convents
sheltered by lemon and olive groves,
and the ruins of old castles, rich .in
historical associations. Also there are
the mushroom growths of recent years,
the tourist and health resorts, these
latter n'estled into the midst of some
of the more striking features of the
beautiful lake s scenery.
From the mountain evergreen, through
the forests of oak, to the southern
groves of lemon and olives, the vege
tation is as rich and as varied as are
rfle numberless moods in which the
superb lake gives itself. Its northern
most extremity is high in Tyrol, while
its southern shore, at Peshiera, is 16
miles west of Verona and 77 miles
east of Milan. The chief tributary of
tne ia Ke is tne sarca from trie griaciers
of Adamello; its only outlet is Mincio
a tributary of the Po.
Many fashionable vacation resorts
border Garda, one of the chief of
which is Riva.-near the northern shore.
with its grood hotels and many fine
attentions to the comfort and whims
of the tourist. The little place boasts,
moreover, interesting ruins and an al
most perfect climate. Gardone-Riviera
is the most fashionable resort around
the lake, while Sirmione-on-the-prom
ontory, with its ruins of Roman
baths, its villa of Catullus and its
wonderful views, is the most fascinat
ing. The lake owes its name to the
beautiful village of Garda, upon its
eastern shore. Nowhere are there scenes
on this queen of southern lakes that
are fitting for the setting of stern war
drama. Garda is a lyric and a pastoral.
Noxious Weeds on I-'armn.
CLATSKANIE, Or., Juno 14. (To the
Editor.) Is there any officer in this
state with power to compel persons
holding unused lands to cut obnoxious
weeds, such as thistles?
The road supervisor in each district
is required to notify the owner or oc
cupant of premises, used or unused, on
which noxious weeds are growing, to
remove them. If the owner or occu
pant fails to do so the road supervisor
is authorized to remove the weeds, the
cost thereof becoming a lien against
the property. Owners or custodians of
property who knowingly permit nox
ious weeds to stand thereon until the
seeds begin to form are subject to fine
and are liable for damages to other
property. The weeds mentioned in the
statute are Canada thistle or Chinese
thistle. "Jim Hill mustard," dagger
cocklebur and "silver salt bush."
Removal of President.
HILLSDALE. Or., June 14. (To the
Editor.) 1. Can a President of the
United States be recalled by the peo
2. Can he-be removed from office by
3. Can he resign?
4. Has ever a President been re
called or removed or has one ever re
5. Would there be a special election
if lie were recalled or removed or
should resigrn? H. SULZER.
: (1) No.
(li) He may be removed from office
on impeachment for and conviction of
treason, bribery or other high crimes
and misdemeanors. , The Senate has
sole power to try all impeachments,
(5) No. The Vice-President would
succeed him. "
Engineers Employment Agencies.
PULLMAN, Wash., June 14. (To the
Editor.) Can you give me the address
of any engineering employment agency
located in the West? ' F. W. B.
There is no regular employment
agency for engineers this side of Den
ver. The larger Y. M. C. A. employ
ment branches do what they can for
their members. In Portland the Oregon
Society of Engineers has a small agency
for its own members.. In Portland also
the firm of Barthold-Barg Co. (engi
neers' supplies, 127 Fourth street) has
a sort of informal agency for local en
gineers, for .which no feea are charged.
LET GOVERNMENT BE GUARANTOR
Mr. Clillcott Sees) Merit In Senator
Lane's) BUI to Aid Shipping.
PORTLAND, June 13. (To the Edi
tor.) Your advertance to the remarks
of the Philadelphia Eveninff Ledger,
Friday last, with reference to five es
sential undertakings for the Republi
can party, are particularly pertinent
at this time. If the people can be
stimulated into a study and careful
analysis of each and all the questions
submitted, the next Republican plat
form will thereby be constructed and
the campaign brought to successful
issue on intelligent lines.
All of the sections quoted have a
bearing in one direction, namely, ex
pansion of American commerce, there
fore this article will dwell only upon
the second section, reading: "A con
structive programme for the quick re
habilitation of the merchant marine."
The bill offered by Senator Lane at
the last sesison of Congress was for
mulated with this exact purpose in
view, but to gain for it tho considera
tion of Congress will require a force
greater than the dominant will of the
Executive, which means the universal
demand of the press of the country.
Can we obtain it?
The bill in question provides that
a corporation can be formed for the
construction or purchase and opera
tion or ships for use in the foreign
trade of the United States, tho cost
of which can be met by a bond issue,
the principal and interest of which
shall be guaranteed by the United
States. Every possible safeguard that
the author , of the bill could think of
has been incorporated- therein to se-
cure the Government against loss, and
no matter whether the bill is perfect
or not, it Is the best suggestion on
the subject that is before the public
today. Its consideration and discus
sion may bring: something forward of
As this suggested measure was
framed prior to the European war.
when steamships could have been
bought cheaply, the conditions in that
direction being now entirely differ
ent, and vessels would now have to be
built in the United States, it might
be worthy of consideration to place
new shipbuilding- yards on the same
plans as the ships and have tho Gov
ernment guarantee bonds on new
yards specifically engaged in this de
scription of work, that of building
vessels for use in foreign trade.
With the Government as a guaran
tor on bonds in this direction, millions
of money would be brought into cir
culation that otherwise is not likely
to see the light of day.
If we are to obtain any substantial
Increase in South and Central Amer
ican commerce now is the time to act.
SERVICES AT OLD WILLAMETTE
Strong: Baccalaureate Sermon Delivered
by Dr. Short, of Spokane.
PORTLAND, June 14. (To the Ed
itor.) May I have room in The Ore
gonian to speak of the baccalaureate
service of Willamette University, which
I attended yesterday at Salem?
The day was ideal, with a genial
company present from different parts
of the Coast to hear the sermon by
Rev. F. Short, D. D., of Spokane, which
was timely, original and rugged.
The music was of unusual character,
while the Invocation by Rev. Dr. H. J.
Talbott, president of the Theological
School, was comprehensive and impres
The class graduated this year, some
thing less than 40 In number a fine
bunch indeed, the school and state will
in due time hear from.
Plainly this pioneer school, now a
part of the history of the state, with
its splendid endowment and reorgan
ized faculty, has entered upon a now
and enlarged career. C. E. Ci-INli..
Fishing? on Private Shore.
SANDY, Or., June 13. (To the Edi
tor.) Can the property holder prohibit
anyone from fishing in a creek which
flows through his land if he has same
fenced, under the state law of Oregon?
Presuming: it is your own land which
is inclosed and upon which there is
posted in three conspicuous places no
tices warning trespassers not to enter
and that through this land there runs
a creek, then parties cannot fish in it
at the portion of the creek that runs
through your land without your per
mission. If they do they are liable in
both criminal and civil action for
trespass. You cannot, however, pre
vent them from fishing In the creek
above or below the boundary and in
closures of your land.
Holding Personal Property.
PORTLAND, June 15 (To the Edi
tor.) t-Can kitchen furniture not in
use left in a house by owner ba held
by law for past due rent of said
house? CONSTANT READER.
This property could not be hVld
without resort to legal action unless
party desiring to hold were a hotel,
inn or boarding-house keeper. If legal
action were resorted to and this was
household furniture used or kept for
actual use by family of party owning
same and it were valued at $300, or
less, it would be exempt except under
Royal Family of Greece.
DUFUR, Or.. June 12. (To the Edi
tor.) What degree of relationship ex
ists between the royal families of
Italy and Greece?
What between those of Germany and
Queen Sophie, of Greece, is a slstei
cf the German Emperor.
Sheep Dip for Ants.
PORTLAND, June 15. (To the Edi
tor.) Please tell me how to rid a house
of ants. J. N. O.
It is said that a line drawn with a
brush saturated with sheep dip across
the ants' place of entrance will keep
It Is Public Property.
PORTLAND, June 15. (To the Ed
itor.) To settle a dispute, please ad
vise who ownssXIie space underneath
the sidewalks, which is used quite fre
quently by owners of large buildings.
Does this space belong to the city or
to the owner of the land abutting the
Price Paid for Coins.
ALBANY, Or.. June 12. (To the Edi
tor.) Please give me the name or
names of someone whom I can consult
in regard to the value of old coins.
W. FRANK VAN NUYS..
Write to Scott Stamp & Coin Com
pany, New York.
Married Women nnd Homesteads.
PORTLAND. June 15. (To the Edi
tor.) Can a married woman rile on a
homestead in Oregon? READER.
No, unless she has been deserted by
"Does your wife show any interest
in the war"'"
"Yes. indeed. She talks about it."
"What docs she, say?"
"Yby. she suvs that she wishes 1
j could go."
Twenty-Five Years Ago
From The Oregoman, June 17, 1890.
The Oregon delegation have agreed
on M. T. Nolan for postmaster at The
Dalles. There has been a lively con
test on for the appointment
Brussels Stanley, the great ex
plorer, has been tendered and has ac
cepted the Governor-Generalship of the
Congo Free State. He will not enter
upon the duties until the beginning of
189i unless called upon by King Leo-i
pold before that time. After his mar
riage Mr. Stanley will go to the United
States for a visit.
Spokane Falls Nelson W. Durham,
editor of the Review, was on trial all
day yesterday on a charge of contempt
of court, brought by Attorneys Grif
titts & Graves, counsel for Harry
Baer, the slayer of H. McCrossln. The
trial resulted as almost everybody ex
pected, in a complete vindication for
Mr. Durham. In their zeal the' attor
neys for the plaintiff by mistake riled
as supplemental information and addi
tional grounds for the charge of con
tempt of court a long editorial on ar
tesian wells. This remarkable docu
ment is now a part of the record of the
Sacramento Governor Waterman, of
California, has adressed a letter to Attorney-General
Johnson, in which he
seeks to take some action tending to
put a stop to prizefights and boxing
exhibitions in the state.
The Oregon & Transcontinental
Railway Company Stockholders met
yesterday and elected directors as fol
lows: Henry Villard, E. H. Abbott,
Charles L. Colby, Joseph S. Decker,
Colgate Hoyt, Charles H. Ropes. C. A.
Spofford, Hector H. Tyndale, T. H.
Tyndale, George H. Williams, Rufus
Mallory, C. B. Bellinger, C. A. Dolph.
Joseph Simon. C. II. . Prescott, Paul
Schultze. S. G. Fulton. The new di
rectors are: Messrs. Dolph, Williams
and T. H. Tyndale, who succeed M. G.
Hall, A. D. Charlton and T. H. Bartlett.
A brilliant reception in honor of
John Bain. chairman of tho Young
Men's Christian Association, was given
last nijrht at the association parlors,
212 H First street.
E. May, of the American Dressed
Meat Company, who has been buying
fat cattle In California for some weeks,
George II. Thomas, manager of the
Western Union office in this city, has
tendered his resignation, to take effect
July 1. He will be succeeded by C. F.
Patterson, formerly chief operator at
Omaha and lately manager at San
Diego. Mr. Thomas will go into the
real estate business. He has been con
nected with the Western Union since
1878 and has been manager for one
Colonel Fred Crocker, vice-president
of the Southern Pacific Company, ar
rived overland from San Francisco yes
terday. The genial countenance of Judge F.
S. Moore, of St. Helens, who so ably
performed tho duties of secretary of
the Republican state central commit
tee during the past campaign, was seen
at the St. Charles yesterday.
The Republicans made a clean sweep
in the Portland and East Portland city
elections yesterduy. The successful
Portland: Treasurer. Frank Hach
eney; Councilmen. First Ward, G. Cas
tendieck; Second Ward, C. M. Forbes;
Third Ward, William Fliedner.
East Portland: Recorder, J. E. Mayo;
Marshal, A. M. Cox, Treasurer, W. A.
Buffington; Assessor. John Shaver;
Councilmen. First Ward, IT. Witten
berg. D. A. Morris: Second Ward, W. 15.
Showers; Third Ward. A. H. McEwan;
Fourth Ward. W. W. Ferry.
Alblna: First Ward. John Golden;
Second Ward. William Dolan; Third
Ward, J. R. Truman, I. R. Irwin.
Frcm Tho Oregonian, June 17, 1S65.
Thomas S. Townsend, of New York,
commenced at the beginning of the
war to collate, arrange, classify. Jour
nalize and index every scrap of infor
mation obtainable respecting it. By
laboring assiduously, sometimes as
long as nine hours a day, he has com
pleted the work down to the surrender
of Lee's army, in 53 massive volumes,
which form by far the most comprehen
sive cyclopedia of the great Rebellion
Mr. Lincoln's grandfather, also
named Abruham Lincoln, was murdered
by an Indian in 1744 while at work oil
his farm near the Kentucky River. He
left three sons, the eldest of whom.
Thomas, was the father of the Presi
dent. On May 10 tho President issued a
proclamation which put in operation
the suspended functions of the National
Government in the Stp.te of Virginia.
It is understood that the plan adopted
was in accordance with the views Mr.
Lincoln held on the subject. Virginia
is not recognized as ever having gone
out of the Union; the functions of the
United States Government are consid
ered to have been merely suspended
within her borders; the rebel state gov
ernment is wholly disregarded and
Governor Pierpont and the loyal ls
isuature are considered the legally con
stituted authorities of the state. In
this manner treason does not receive
the slightest recognition. The rebel
government is regarded as having been
nothing more than an usurpation, with
no authority to act for the people. By
having taken this course the Govern
ment will not be thought by Southern
people to have conquered them, but
rather to have delivered them from the
rule of an usurping and unscrupulous
dynasty. Our triumph is in no sense
Today is the anniversary of the fa
mous battle of Bunker Hill.
Messrs. A C. Gibbs & Co., of the
Oregon Iron Works, are manufacturing
the Wheeler & Randall amalgamators
and" cylinders for working- quartz rock
and they propose putting one up in the
foundry for demonstration purposes.
HattleKhip (ire con Here in 101'J.
PORTLAND, June 15. (To the. Edi
tor.) Plea.e state if the battleship
Oregon ever was in Portland Harbor
and, if so, state date and place she was
anchored. H. D.
The battleship Oregon was at Tort
land during- the National convention of
the Benevolent and Protective Order of
Elks, July 7 to 13, 1S12. The vessel
was anchored below the site of the
Broadway bridge, toward the East Side.
Anticipation Tt is great fun to travel by antici
pation, to send for literature and
read about the various piaces.
It is a liberal education as well as
a certainty that you will make the
most of your vacation when it
Plan your vacation now if you have
not done so.
Look over the hotel and travel
advertisements hi this issue.
Send for the booklets and other
literature do a little inexpensive
traveling by anticipation.
HUf a Century Ago