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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View This Issue
TIIE 3IORSISQ OKEGOMAJi. SATUKDATt MAY 3, 1313.
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rORTLAXD, SATURDAY, MAT . WIS.
ARBITRATION AXT DISARMAMENT.
Discussion at the St. Louis Peace
Congress raises the Question whether
the cause of peace would be promoted
or hindered by disarmament; whether
a weak army and navy do not In
vite war. Instead of Insuring peace.
The observation of Mr. Dadmun that
at the last Hague conference the
strength of our Navy gave weight to
our words in the cause or peace ana
that with a fifth-rate Navy e should
have fifth-rate influence should be
taJcen to heart by those who confuse
preparation for war with eagerness for
Peace advocates make the mistake
common to idealists of assuming the
world to be as they wish it to be
America and some countries of west'
crn Europe are pledged to the cause
of peace, but In Eastern Europe, Asia
and Africa are barbarous or semi-
barbarous nations which may at any
time stir up smoldering rivalries and
enmity and set the most peace-loving
nations by the ears. As peaceable ciu
zens are seldom reminded of the ex
istence of the law until they encoun
ter the lawless, so the peaceable na
tions are reminded of the need of
armies by the threatened- or actual
assaults of the nations which accept
no final arbitrament but that of the
sword. Armament may be Accurately
called the noble art of self-defense for
nations as boxing is for individuals.
Nothing restrains a bully aa effectively
as knowledge that a man can and will
fight. Much as the fact Is to be re
gretted there are still bullies among
nations." They are kept in order only
by fear of chastisement.
Our splendid Isolation causes us to
Jiave this truth in mind but dimly, but
European nations have it ever-present.
The Slav states fear attack from Aus
tria, as Germany fears It from Russia.
We regard our frontiers as perma-
nently fixed, tout they have race ambi
tions to realize which cause them to
regard present boundaries as subject
to change whenever occasion o tiers.
These ambitions are, to their minds,
matters of vital Interest and National
honor, such as would not have been
arbitrable under the Taft treaties, but
which Secretary Bryan would subject
to arbitration. How absurd the mill-
tary nations of Europe consider the
Bryan proposal may be seen in one
expression of opinion by a leading
German newspaper, the Berlin Neueste
Nachrichten. which says:
Wi moat flatly decline to have, aa ruld-
n (or aur volley, the alckly ajrltatora
twaddle wtta which ha haa been tickling
the Ignorant, conceited Tankee braJna.
While arbitration is so regarded In
the greatest military nation of Eu
rope, it behooves us to work for its
adoption as earnestly as ever, but
gradually, and not to attempt to press
It farther than other nations are pre
pared to go. and at the same time to
e ever-ready for the alternative of
war. Our ability to fight will lend
weight to our arguments for peace,
since they will be known to come
from one conscious of strength, not
CHECKING THE TEIXOW PERIL.
Several citations, from court deci
sions bearing on the Japanese land
tenure question are given in a com
munication from Mr. N. H. Bloomfleld,
published in another column today. It
will be noted by those who read the
letter that Mr. Bloomfleld, who is a
lawyer, concedes that The Oregonlan
has correctly stated the law in the
case. The treaty-making power of
the Federal Government is superior to
state enactment. but our corre
spondent is politically in sympathy
with the policy of excluding from
ownership of land aliens who are
ineligible to citizenship -particularly
As a matter of fact it is doubtful
if there is any well-defined or general
opinion on the Pacific Coast that
aliens not eligible to citizenship
should be encouraged in acquiring
title or possession of agricultural
lands. The Oregonlan Is opposed to
the otiectalization of this or any other
flection of America, agriculturally or
Industrial lyT It does not believe, how.
ever, that there is at this time serious
cause to fear that undesirable condi
tion. Moreover, If the danger does
exist The Oregonlan believes that,
even eliminating the legal phase, it
could better be guarded against In a
way other than that of excluding Mon
golians from owning or leasing land.
It need only be recalled that at the
time the Oregon constitution was
adopted the acquirement of land and
mining claims hy the Chinese was con
sidered a menace to the newly-formed
state. An inhibition was placed in the
constitution against Chinese owner
ship of land and working of mining
claims. But thVro followed the Fed
eral Chinese exclusion act. Chinese
coolies ceased coming to Oregon. The
Chinese population diminished rapid
ly. The Chinese issue ceased to exist.
An immigration restriction solved the
In San Francisco a few years ago
It was proposed to segregate the Jap
anese from the white children in the
public schools. Japan was offended
and negotiations followed between
President Roosevelt and the city and
School Board officials. The matter
was adjusted by both Japan and the
United States restricting the flow
of Japanese laborers to this country.
Japan has kept faith in this restric
tive procedure and the school contro
versy has passed out of mind. In fact
Japan prefers to colonize Formosa.
Corea and Manchuria. The reports of
the Commissioner of Immigration
show that In the last two years de
partures of Japanese from the United
States exceeded the arrivals. So long,
therefore, as the present immigration
restrictions exist, the problem con
cerns the Japanese who are here, and.
but for one. factor, it would be hard j
to believe that 45,000 representatives
of that race can have a great Influ
ence on the welfare of white agricul
turiats in a state the size and popu
lation of California.
The one factor, however, must be
considered, but It la a factor with
which California alone is powerless to
deal. It is the admission of so-called
"picture brides" from Japan. The
Japanese farmers who are already ea-
tablished in California cannot be le
gally dispossessed of their prpperty.
(t Is proposed, now, to prohibit the
descent of real property to aliens and
It is naively asserted that this provi
sion In jirae will break up the Japan
ese farm colonies. Yet the children
of the Japanese farmer and his "pic
ture bride" will be American born and
American citizens, though alien in
race, thought, habits of life and tem
perament. And the Japanese usually
produce large families. There is no
way that the American-born Japanese
can be legally deprived of rights ac
corded other citizens. There is cer
tainly reasonable prospect that the
California land tenure law, even if
valid in air particulars, would not
break up the Japanese land colonies.
Examined from every angle the
case seems to be one for Federal, not
state, consideration. The Japanese
population in America Is now not
large. Increase by immigration has
been effectually checked except In the
one particular. That particular Is
dangerous only in its threat of pro
duction of a home corp of unassimila.
ble citizens. The way to solve the
problem is to go to the root of It.
The Federal Government alone has
the power to do It. If it will take
measures to prevent the growth of the
existing Japanese population on the
Coast the problem, as have kindred
problems, will solve Itself. Secretary
Bryan proposed to California that the
Issue be transferred to the Govern
ment to be adjusted by treaty. There
was a pledge of aid Implied in the sug
gestion. It Is clearly the course that
should be pursued, for it promises not
only validity but effectiveness.
Although - the Democratic steam
roller has been flattening out oppo
sition to the Underwood tariff with
great success,, we have heard little
about it. The machinery la so well
oiled and the shrill whistle which
usually announces the approach of
steam rollers has been so effectually
silenced that we are scarcely aware
that It is in operation. Had it been
operated by Republican engineers, we
should have heard wild shrieks of
pain from those whom it flattened.
The Underwood tariff bill was pre
pared by a body having no authority
to act. Until April 7. when the new
Congress elected its ways and means
committee, no persons had that
authority, but before that date the
bill was ready for action. - During the
time when Mr. Underwood and his
colleagues were drawing the bill they
were simply individual members of an
embryo House. But in collaboration
with President "Wilson they prepared
the bill ana induced tne democratic
caucus to Indorse it. They are now
carrying out the caucus decision with
Inexorable determination, operating
the steam roller with merciless effi
ciency. We are not condemning the Demo
crats for executing the will of the
party organization. What we do
condemn is the arrant hypocrisy of
men who denounce while In oppo
sition the methods to which they re
sort when in power. If the Republican
organization did wrong to carry out
the caucus decisions, the Democratic
organization 'equally does wrong in
doing the same thing. Procedure which
was wrong for the Republicans cannot
be right for the Democrats.
ANOTHER WAT OF DOING IT.
At the same time that the trainmen
ask Eastern railroads to raise wages,
the roads move to advance rates suf
ficiently to compensate for increased
expenses due to former advances. The
railroads seek to mollify the shippers
by saying that higher rates are neces
sary to enable them to increase and
Improve traffic facilities. This hap
pens at a time when the Government
is about to begin physical valuation of
railroads in order to determine on
what capitalization their rates should
equitably be based.
There is another means besides rais
ing rates by which railroads could in
crease their earnings and at the same
time avoid the necessity of enlarging
terminals, on which their attention is
now centered. Let them co-operate In
the movement for improvement of in
land waterways. Let them encourage
revival of river and canal navigation
by restoring to water lines the water
terminals which railroads have ac
quired in the effort to stifle water
competition. Let them then turn over
to the water lines the low class, bulky,
heavy freight and retain for them
selves only the high-class, light freight.
Let the railroads' become auxiliaries to
water lines instead of supplanting
them. Tracks will not then be so
crowded and terminals so overtaxed
that freight takes three weeks to cross
the continent, as long a time as a
steamer will consume in coming from
New Tork to Portland through the
Panama Canal. Business generally will
be stimulated by speedier, cheaper
transportation. Net earnings will
gradually Increase without advances
in killing water competition the
railroads took upon themselves a load
they are unable to carry. Let them
put a large part of it back on the
water, where it belongs.
HOW OTHER. NATIONS DO IT.
A strong contrast between the atti
tude of Germany and Great Britain
toward trusts and that of the United
States Is brought out by Samuel P.
Orth in an article in The World's
Work. He shows that Germany fosters
and Britain does not discountenance
trade combinations, though some of
them have grown to international pro.
portions. Our laws distinctly forbid
their existence, though not enforced
until the last decade.
Both Germany and Britain differ
from us in having stringent laws
against the evils which have found no
legal impediment in this country but
are attendant upon the organization
of corporations. Stock-watering, fraud
ulent promotion and secret manipula
tion are impossible. But Germany en
courages the organization of cartels,
as trusts are called, and favors them
with special rates on. railroads and
with discriminative tariff duties. Great
Britain encourages competition, but
does not prohibit combination. In de.
elding a famous lawsuit brought
against a shipping combination which
was offering rebates to all shippers
who "would boycott its only rival, the
House of Lords held that competition,
however violent, is not contrary to J
public policy. Lord Justice Bowen
held that such combinations in a coun
try of free trade would not become
monopolistic and that peaceaoie ana
honest combinations of capital ror pur
noses of trade competition are not un.
der the ban of the common law. When
asked to take steps against monopolies
and combinations. Premier Asquitft re
fused. He agreed that in some cases
their effects might be prejudicial to
the public interest but he said:
The aneratlana o auch troata are oeceaaa.
rlly more circumscribed and leea mischievous
hero than In other oountrlet la which they
are fostered by a general customs tana.
Thus in England the Standard Oil
Company, the American Tobacco Com
pany and the National Cash Register
Company would not have been con
demned for pursuing those methods of
unfair competition which brought
about , their dissolution. Germany
would have smiled benignly on the
welding of corporations by which each
of these monopolies established lis
power. England would simply have
treated them with indifference, saying
that foreign , competition would pre
vent their doing any mischief. But
neither England nor Germany would
have allowed) the steel trust 'to be capl
talized for double its value and.'lf such
manipulation as that by which the
New Tork traction roads were wrecked
had been attempted in either of those
countries, .somebody would have
smarted for l
The policy of the two greatest in
dustrlal nations of Europe conveys
valuable hint to us in on respect
that the time to begin regulating
corporation is before its stock Is on the
market. Half of the evils of monopoly
will have been extinguished when we
have reformed our corporation laws,
Having done that, we shall have pro
vided means for easily doing away
with the other half.
"The teak-built British ship Suc
cess, - which is on exhibition in the
harbors of Eastern cities this Spring
is interesting for more than one rea
son. It is an example of the staunch
East Indlaman by which the trade
of England was carried round the
world before the era of steam naviga
tion opened. These vessels were per
haps fully as able to withstand storm
and accident as the modern steamship
and they were even more durable.
Vessels of recent construction do not
as a rule last very long. Not that they
fall to pieces, but changes in type are
so rapid that they are soon out of date
and must be replaced 'by craft of
newer design. This is particularly the
case with warships, which seldom
have more than ten. or a dozen years
of usefulness. The Success was built
in 1790, 123 years ago, and she went
out of commission only in 1857. After
her period of usefulness as a merchant
vessel was over the Success served as
a prison ship, and this is no doubt the
reason why people flock to gaze at
her in the Eastern harbors. The Brit
ish convict ships were scenes of un
imaginable horrors. They were used
to house and transport prisoners in
the days when a man or woman who
had broken the iaw was supposed to
have forfeited all human rights and
might be subjected to every possible
outrage without violating Christian
Some of these convict ships were
stationed in the British Isles. Others
plied to Australia and Van' Dleman's
Land with their loads of dehumanized
men and women. All of them reeked
with filth and contagion. Jails situat
ed on land in the hearts of great cities
were Infested with contagious dis
eases. The convict ships were worse
in proportion, as they were less open
to light and air and less subject to
observation. It is almost incredible
that any of the thousand of unfortu
nates shipped on board them for the
antipodes should have survived the
passage, but many did and it was they
who founded the first settlements in
British Polynesia. Australia and Tas
mania were originally settled by con
victs. So were some other Southern
colonies and it speaks wonders for the
power of a good environment to re
form the depraved that these persons
and their children became some of
the most honest, progressive and In
telllgent citizens In the world. They
not only planted British institutions
and British liberty in the South Seas,
but they Improved -on what they ob
tained from the mother island.
There was another use for the con
vict ship which it Is still more un
pleasant for Americans to remember,
These vessels were used to confine
prisoners of war during the Revolu
tion. One or more of them might have
been seen in New Tork harbor from
the capture of the city to the close of
the war and citizens were treated
every morning to the sight of the dead
being carried out for burial in the sea,
The Continental soldiers confined In
the prison ships perished by the score
simply of filth and neglect. They were
so crowded that they could not have
been properly cared for even if the
Britltsh officers had thought It worth
while to attend to their needs, and
they seldom thought it worth while.
Death was the due of the colonial reb.
els. from the British standpoint, and
if it happened on board a prison ship
so much the better because so much
the cheaper. Public sentiment at that
time was as barbarous as possible
upon the whole question of treating
both prisoners of war and ordinary
delinquents. Even loyal troops under
transport at sea were subjected to ex
treme Inhumanity. It was an ordinary
event for one in three or four men on
board British transports to the West
Indies to die of contagious diseases.
Sometimes entire expeditions went to
ruin from this cause. Neither the
source of such diseases nor their treat
ment was understood by the army
surgeons, or, for that matter, by any
The prisons on land were not mucTi
better than the ships, though there
were some points in their favor, as
we have said. The terrible malady
known as "Jail fever" wa-rlfe in most
of them. As long as it killed only the
prisoners nobody minded it much.
But it had a disagreeable habit of
issuing from the hideous Jails and in
vading the sacred area of the court
room. The unhappy prisoners carried
the infection with them when they
came out to be tried and occasionally
even the Judge on the bench caught
the plague. His ermine did not al
ways protect him as it ought. The
British public was shocked when a
regrettable Incident of this sort oc
curred, but it was not moved to begin
any reforms. It takes a good deal of
disturbance to set a reform going in
the "tight little island." The man
who really brought home to the Brit
ish publio the Iniquity of their prisons
was John Howard. Old-fashioned
readers will recall the book in which
his work was described under the title
John Howard and the Prison World
of Europe. With a cossecrated per-1
sistence which his contemporaries
thought insane he made his way into
the unspeakable Jails, talked with the
prisoners. Investigated the horrors of
their lot and then published his story.
He did this not in England alone, but
in every country of Europe where he
could gain admittance to the prisons.
His revelations were so frightful that
humanity was shocked out of its in
ertness and the reform of the prisons
John Howard did for the European
Jails much the same service as Doro
thea Xix for the insane asylums
which, when she first attacked them,
were even worse. Readers of Charles
Read's "Hard Cash" know what the
British private asylums were even
after they had been corrected by years
of legislation. When Dorothea Dix
began upon them they outdid the
woes of Tophet. We dare say reform
would not have gone very, far with
either Jails or asylums had not science
stepped in to help the cause. Investi
gation showed that their evil condition
endangered the whole of society, since
it caused contagion and measures
which never could have been secured
merely because they were Just came
easily enough when fear demanded
them. No doubt the' fear of moral
contagion will presently become an
Important factor in promoting other
prison reforms which are sadly needed
Those who regard themselves as of
the social elite should reflect .on the
case of Miss Leishman. As daughter
of the American Ambassador to Ger
many she would be received socially
with open arms here or in most any
American city. Tet German nobility
stands aghast at the prospect of a Duke
marrying such a "low person."
Lafayette had its first paper in 1865,
Twenty years later the paper was
moved to McMinnvllle. About a dozen
years ago another was started, dying
later. Now the old town has another,
the Visitor, by J. A. Hart, and if suc
ceeding issues maintain the standard
of the first number, Lafayette will not
find cause for complaint. '
The Interior Department is to be run
by men from the section with which
it has most dealings the West. Now
we may have officials .who know the
difference between sagebrush and
fir trees and who do not call scrub
If Andrew Carnegie is so firm a be
Hever In .pacific methods of settling
International disputes, why did he com.
pare the number of ships in the-Amer
ican and Japanese navies? That
another way of saying what the jin
One would think that railway cor
porations, with their elaborate systems
of checking and .auditing, would be
free from embezzlement, yet they are
not The latest victim is the Santa
Fe, from which a clerk took 460,000
La, France takes it out on the de
tectives -by telling them how easily he
dodcred them. Being ridiculed for not
catching all trie thieves and by those
whom they do catch, detectives get
it acomln" and agoin .
The New Jersey tosses under Presi.
dent Wilson's castigation must feel
much the same as Boss Piatt felt under
President Roosevelt's lash. They cre
ated the power which scourges them.
Eastern roads would like to be al
lowed to increase rates 5 per cent "to
meet changed conditions." So would
almost everybody, but none would be
so modest as to ask only 5 per cent.
It Is held by a Milwaukee court that
a woman is justified in attacking any
wonmn who steals her husband. Not
if it results In getting back the hus
band, we Imagine.
The City Chemist says there is dan
ger in the bottom of milk bottles. For
the matter of that, there is danger In
looking at the bottom of almost any
It is well that we carry diplomacy
just as far as possible and even farther
than we might care to. We are not
equipped for any other sort of qulb
"Where is Indianapolis?" is a ques
tion the Supreme Court must pass on.
No doubt it will prove a heavy prob
lem for that ponderously precise body.
If Mrs. Belmont is not careful, she
may escape the expense of spending
money in England by being fed and
lodged at Government cost.
A Berlin doctor has discovered a
cure for obesity. So has Representa
tive Underwood for the obesity of
Wilson is planning for next year's
campaign. If he lived here he would
think sufficient unto tomorrow is the
Owgoost will bluff Montenegro until
Arry takes a hand in the game. "Rule
Britannia" stand's for as much tocjay
There will soon be no necessity for
English land-owners to scurry about
the country to cast their several votes.
Washington County roads, the best
In Oregon when they are in good con
dition, are Just right for automoblllng.
If 160 saloons can be closed in Bal
timore for betterment of the city, Bal
timore must have been in a bad way.
The century-old search for Captain
Kldd's treasure will end, now that
hunt for Oom Paul's loot begins.
A New Jersey man killed himself in
the midst of housecleanlng. We've all
felt the temptation.
Ice prices are rising even before the
weather has warmed up. That's chill.
Ing news indeed. ,
Unlimited issue of paper money by
Mexican revolutionists is sign of
The East must pay for a mild Wini
ter in high-priced ice next Summer.
But isn't this an embarrassing time
for a peace congress session?
Where Is the weather man and what
alls his predictor?
Bryan's trip seems to have accentu
ated the agony.
Portland maidens cast their maiden
"On to Montenegro!" with both feet.
LAND TESrRB LAW DISTINCTIONS
California Anti-Allen Bill Radically
Differs From Others.
NEWBERG, Or.. May 1. (To the
Editor.) The Oregonlan says: "The
California pretense that its bill is on
all fours with those or otner states ior.
bidding any aliens without distinction
of nationality to hold land is too hollow
to deceive a schoolboy."
Is it net the fact that few school
boys and few men know anything about
the land laws in this regard In other
states? As Governor Johnson has as
serted that the bill now on the stocks
at Sacramento is no more radical than
alien land laws In Washington and
Arizona it is evident that he has ex
amlned the laws In those states and
knows what he is talking about. Doubt
less you have ready access to the
statutes of the states quoted and you
would certainlv confer a favor on
your readers by printing their pro
visions relative to alien land owner-
It is almost 26 years since I became
a resident and land owner in Call
fornla and have been a resident of that
state until a little more than a year
ago and a property owner there until
last month. Knowing conditions there
I am In full sympathy with the manly
purpose of Governor Johnson and the
Legislature now In session to pass the
bill which has created so much dis
cussion and which has served to add to
the conceit of the Japanese already
too marked a characteristic with that
people. JOHN T. BELL.
Any schoolboy can understand
that there is a radical difference
between a law "excluding aliens
of a certain race or nationality
and a law excluding aliens of all na
tionalltiea. Governor Johnson knows
the difference, but appears to have de
liberately closed his eyes to It. The
distinction found in these laws has
already been published and It was that
distinction which The Oregonlan said
a schoolboy could discern. It was not
Implied that school children' were
already familiar with the various land
Our opposition is not -to the exclusion
of Japanese from this country, but to
the California method as unnecessarily
Irritating. Measures have already been
taken by Japan in co-operation with the
United States to prevent coolie immi
gration to this country, and they ap
pear to have been successful. If they
are Inadequate, further steps should be
taken by the Federal Government
through diplomacy, not by an individual
state through discriminative laws. As
there are only about 45,000 Japanese In
California and as their numbers are in
creasing very slowly, if at all, Cali
fornia's alarm seems to be out of all
proportion to the cause set forth.
TREATY IS IIEI.IJ SUPREME LAW
However, Exclusion of Ineligible AHena
Is Desirable, Saya Writer.
SEA VIEW, Wash., May 1. (To the
Editor.) Your leading editorial in The
Oregonlan of April 30 on the California
land law imbroglio is a splendid and
lawyer-like Dresentation of the subject.
Under article 2. section 2, of the United
States Constitution, the treaty-making
power in the United States is expressly
vested in the President and Senate,
and article 6, section S, provides that
all treaties made under the authority
of the United States "shall be the su
preme law of the land."
In Droit vs. D'Aubine 8 opinion Attorney-General,
411 (26 American and
English' encyclopedia of law, 641), it
is held that "the political department
of government may. by treaty, regu
late property disabilities of aliens in
the several states."
The Supreme Court of the United
States, in Ware vs. Hylton, 3 Dallas,
236 (Chase. J.) squarely held that state
laws must be subordinated to the para
mount power of the Federal Govern
ment under the expressly delegated
power granted to it by the states. (See
also Goefrey vs. Riggs, 133 U. S., 258).
In line, with this, in principle at
least. Is the Oregon case (Baker vs.
Portland, 6 Sawy., U. S. 566), wherein
the legislative act prohlhiung me em
ployment of Chinese upon street im
provements or publio works, but per
mitting it to other aliens, was de
clared void as In conrilct witn tne
treaty with China, and it was further
stated and held that "the treaty was
the supreme law of land," the consti
tution or laws of any state to the con
trary notwithstanding. It will be found
that, singularly enougn, tne ewiiBt
California decisions (see People vs.
Gerke, 5 Cal., 383) are In line witn
those of the Federal courts above
olted, for the California court. In dis
cussing the question then before the
court, said: "The language which
grants the power to make treaties con
tains no words of limitation." . . .
It may be assumed that the power of
treaty was given without restraining
it to particular objects, in as plenlpo
tentiarv a form as held by any sov
ereign In any other society.
In trry opinion you are penectiy ngnt
on the law of the case. However, I
am politically In sympathy with the
policy of excluding aliens (and partic
ularly alien corporations) from owner
ship of lands in California and all other
stnte.i where such alien is Ineligible to
citizenship. The Washington constitu
tion allows stich ownership, wnere tne
alien has made declaration ot lnten
Hnn ta become a citizen," but 1 wouia,
as a matter of sound public policy, go
further and exclude ownership oi lanas
within th states, save to those who
are full-fledged citizens of the United
States. N. H BlAJUiH-lnajU.
APPLAUSE FOR W1L.SON ECONOMY
la Badlr Needed la ThlsCounTlT
Saya Fanner's Wife.
PORTLAND. April 29. (To the Ed
itnr.) I saw a letter in The Oregonlan
m iiriA na-,, which "riled" me. The
writer was scoffing at our President
for "talking economy." ua appeared
ta think the head of a "rich country
like this" should go oh in the old ex-
tra-vnEjint way. winking at tne squana
erintr of the people's money, and allow
ing a heavier and still heavier tax to
be placed on tnem.
This certainly is a . "rich country.'
Rich and beautiful. But what good are
its riches going to do the people at
ir if the wealth is aiiowea to De
concentrated in the hands of a few? No,
m not a Socialist, ana I naven i any
nA for them.
It, husband and I belong to tne ciass
our good Presiaeni wania iu uaiy,
are, or have been, working people In
the fullest sense or tne wotu.
farmers. We worked like slaves until
mhlAh -n- r . r. .1 ,1
we reacnea an 8 "
to let up. Not old, reaiiy mioaie-ageQ,
but worn out. And after almost a life
time of strenuous endeavor to "get
ah.v -we have a farm, wnicn wnen
rnt brines in enough for us to exist
on; enough to pay for a little house
and a very simple dui ai tare, we rep
resent a great majority of the popula
tion of this "rich country." We had,
and still have, a love for the beautiful,
a keen appreciation for the grand and
majestic; but we have not been able
eh for a single real pleas
ure, not even enough to go to Yellow
stone Park. We say: "God bless the
priiMt Mav he go on talking econ
omy," where it should be talked, and
may he accomplish his earnest desires
for the good of the common people."
TIRED FAH.Mt.Ka lliuiLi vviro.
With m Fortune Teller.
New York World.
Fortune Teller I can see something
in store for you. it ooesni jook
exactly good, "nor yet wholly bad.
Actor It must De soma store eggs, j
QUESTIONS IN ECONOMY ASKED
Matter of Street Filla of Eapeolal Inter,
est to Correspondents.
PORTLAND, April 29. (To the Ed
itor.) Following up our protest against
the paving of the upper end of Terwilli
ger boulevard Mr. Mlsche is wrong in
his statement that this till was made in
1910. The contract was let April is,
1911. The work was evidently started
soon after the contract waa let, as the
payments were made regularly until
Januarv. 1912. We are reliably In
formed by a contractor who worked on
the boulevard that these nils on tne
unner end were mainly filled from
lumn cars and that a fill so mads
takes several years longer to settle
than a fill made with horses. To pave
over this fill atvthis time would be to
erect a monument to Incompetency of
the present Park Board.
We are reliably informed that Mr.
Moffett, representing the Terwilliger
estate, is the man behind all this haste.
We notice that Mayor Rushlight and
members of the present administration
are claiming credit for many things
done for the taxpayers. We doubt the
saving of the $40,000 by the new mode
of bookkeeping in the Water Depart
ment. We notice by the bills that the
Water Board is paying that they are
several thousand dollars heavier than
before this system of bookkeeping was
Installed. We think that the $40,000
saving is Imaginary.
We notice that some of the candi
dates are claiming the honor under the
present administration of saving the
taxpayers considerable money on the
Alls made on East Morrison street. We
feel, therefore, that we are entitled to
know the exact details regarding a fill
on Broadway between Wheeler and
Vancouver streets, which fill we know
by the reports from the engineer's of
fice, January, 1910, grew from 21,972 to
46,242 yards, for which the contract
was let and completed in 1912. We do
not want this account Juggled. We
want to know exactly where this dirt
went to. We would like to know why
$22 per ton is paid tor Eastern timothy
hay when the great mass of private
horse owners in our city are buying
good hay for from $12 to $19 per ton
with the probable average of $17 per
ton. We are sure the privately owned
horses do not receive the care of the
veterinary surgeon the taxpayers are
paying for the care of city owned
We would like to know what chauf
feurs of the municipal automobiles are
doing whlla their machines are being
bathed at a garage at a dollar a Datn.
We would like to know why that wood
we have heard so much about out at
the crematory was not turned over to
the park department when they were
paying $7 a cord for wood to heat a
We would like to know why the
garden hose is being bought In Seattle
Instead of at our own ruuoer nouses.
Why 'do we have to telegraph East for
city supplies and pay as high as $7
express charges on such things as
locks for the park Buildings.' w ny so
much rush? .
Whv does the Park Board have to
pay $7.50 apiece for those white globes
for park lights? Many a woman would
like that money for a hat.
Wrhy do we have to pay $7 a tnou-
sajid or nearly three-quarters of a cent
apiece for envelopes for tne .fam
We believe in the Commission form
of government, but these things might
be straightened out under the present
system. is. tt. ibumaii,
J. rt. U1L.S i .
MINOR FLAWS NOT MAIN issujs
Pronoaed Charter Held to Be Strong
Measure for Clty'a welfare.
PORTLAND. May 1. (To the Ed-
itor.1 In The Oregonlan of May 1 Mr.
H. R. Shroyer offers a criticism against
the new charter. This criticism is
based on the hideous fact that the
Council may appoint certain city of
ficials, and may further, at any time,
change their salaries. Mr. Shroyer has
particular reference to the city ingi-
ner and City Attorney. This power,
which so affrights Mr. Shroyer, is also
e-oine to make possible the building up
of a political machine wnicn in iuture
years will be the "Tammany oi r-ort
Now. I venture to say that if a man
In his own business was to De neia ai
rectlv resDOnsible for the workings and
success of a particular department, but
had nevertheless to accept as assist
ants those given him by others, re
gardles of his own wishes, and further
had no word in regard to tne amount
of salary which his assistants were to
receive nor the right to raise a sai
arv In cases of high efficiency, he
would very soon come to tne Deiiei
that he was in a rather unusual posi
tion as the head of a department who
Paid the fiddler but could not dance.
He would be looked to for department
efficiency, but could not have a free
hand in building up efficiency in or
ganization. Of course, in a private en
terprise assistants wouia De cnosen in
a far more intelligent fashion than is
the case in choosing city ornciais.
Efficiency has a very high marKet
value and- to damn an administration
for Inefficient work when it is impos
sible for it to pay for efficiency would
seem to be a scarcely reasonable prop
osition. It is pretty weil understood
that the highest professional efficiency
a not ordinarily found in men wno
offer themselves for elective positions.
When it becomes understood that for
a certain work absolutely competent
professional men are required, those
men are appointed and they do not ac
cept appointments at the niggardly
compensation ordinarily offered by mu
nicipal ordinance or charter.
That there are objections to the new
charter will be admitted by all, but
the real "Joker" is the one in the
hands of the charter opponent by
means of which we are urged to come
forth In the discussion of minor de
tails and forget the principal points
at issue, which are: Fixed responsi
bility and the union of the legislative
and executive arms ot tne city govern
ment G. KIRKHAM SMITH.
Lombard Charter Plan Better.
PORTLAND, May 2. (To the Ed
itor.) I see Mr. Rushlight & Co. have
a number of union men out trying ,to
tell us laboring men what a great
friend he has been, especially to or
Now. I have been a member of
a union 16 years. I am -not at an-
mity with the so-called laDor leaders,
but I believe the average man can
vote intelligently and according to his
own convictions without being coerced
by these same gentlemen at every elec
tion. and there is a growing disposi
tion to resent their interference.
Another good tning we are to' vote
for is what they call "commission gov
eminent. I have read the charter
through several times, and l do not
believe It is good commission govern
ment. With the 300 and some odd
cities that are controlled under com
mission form and whose charters they
had to guide them they should have
been able to do better than they did,
but after I read the names of the par
ties who framed the charter I do not
wonder at the product. There are a
few good things to say about the char
ter, but there are so many bad that
it puts the good all to the bad. I be
lieve, in order to draft a good char
ter, the originators must believe In
It themselves, otherwise they will be
unable to convince the publio of Its
merit, and I do not believe the franrers
of the proposed charter are sincere.
Now, Mr. Lombard has said if he is
elected he will appoint private citizens
(not politicians) to draw up a decent
charter for the people to vote on the
next regular election this coming No
vember. I hope he will be successful,
and then we will not be at sea any
longer. H. M. JOHNSON.
Twenty-five Years Ago
From Tha Oregonlan of May 8, 18SS.
Springfield, 111., May 2. The Repub
lican State Convention adopted resolu
tions indorsing Walter Q. Gresham for
Boise City. May 2. The Idaho Re
publican convention met today. Hon.
W. B. Heyburn. of Coeur d'Alene, and
George A. Black, of Harley County,
were selected as delegates to the Chi
cago convention. Colonel George L.
-Shoup was named for member of the
Washington, May 2. The House
passed the Senate bill to establish an '
additional land district in Oregon.
A petition has been circulated by per
sons supposed to be unfriendly to the
Industrial Fair Association, which is to
be presented to the Council, asking that
Morrison street be extended to a Junc
tion with B street.
Large French nails are now being
used to fasten down the new sidewalks
being laid around town.
The first of the series of concerts to
be given by the Orchestral Union will
take place tomorrow evening at Masonic
Monday the Willamette Locks &
Transportation Company leased to the
East Pertland Lighting Company 1000
horsepower of the falls of the Willam
ette at Oregon City.
Th, Virnl v of f!hlf Postal Tnstiector
RanrM Musnn whnHA f I'M T h occurred
last Sunday, was shipped to Alexan
dria, Va, yesterday.
Julia Ward Howe's lecture on Long
fellow and Emerson was eagerly
listened to yesterday evening.
Annie Plxley In 'M'liss" tonight.
The East Side It is now proposed to
improve Sixteenth street from llolladay
avenue to Hawthorne avenue by grad
ing and laying crosswalks and side
walks. Contracts have recently been awarded
for the partial completion of the new
bull-dine of the First PresDyterian so
ciety. John Robertson has been awarded
the contract for the carpenter work.
stone and brickwork, plastering and
iron for $56,672. Otto Schumann has
the contract for furnishing all the Bell.
Ingham Bay rock. The approximated
cost of the entire building will exceed
The Council last evening unanimously
elected Van B. De Lashmutt Mayor to
succeed the late John Gates.
The ordinance authorizing the Port
land Cable Railway Company to con
struct and operate street railways was
Half a Century Ago
From The Oreftonlan of May 4. 3S0S.
w nnbllsh todav the proclamation
of President Lincoln, declaring the sale
nf n. iirm nortlon of the surveyed pub
lic lands of Washington Territory; sale
to commence at Olympia on July u
and at Vancouver on August 3. This
is .the first publio sale of land ordered
la that territory.
C. H. Hale, superintendent of Indian
Affairs for Washington Territory, ac
companied by Mr. G. F. Whitworth,
chief clerk of the superintendent's of
fice, arrived in this city on Saturday,
en route for the Lapwai agency, near
Lewlston, at which place a treaty is
shortly to be made with the Indians.
The 'contract for furnishing beef for
the penitentiary was let on Saturday
last to Messrs. Bergmann & Company,
they being the lowest bidders; price,
fore quarters, 2 cents; hind quarters.
Mr. L C. Bond, formerly Deputy Sher
iff of Linn County, has received the ap
pointment of Second Lieutenant In the
The eighth annual communication of
the grand lodge of Oregon. I. O. O. F.,
will be held in Corvallls on the third
Wednesday In May.
Governor Glbbs has Issued arms to
Captain Powell's company of Oregon
militia in this county.
New York, April 25. John C. Fre
in a letter ta Reneral Halleck.
suggests the occupation immediately of .
the Pacific Railroad lands by large
bodies of colored men freed by the
President's emanalpation proclamation.
The observations of an Ore
gonian correspondent at fleet
maneuvers are set down in a
page of great interest in The
Sunday Oregonian. He gives
you an insight into the effi
fiency of our Navy and the men
behind the big guns that form
the first line of National de
fense. Illustrated in colors.
Our Market System What is
wrong with it T asks an eminent
authority who proceeds with a
keen analysis of the whole
Wilson a Puzzle An intimate
study at close range of the new
President of the United States,
who is proving a puzzle to the
The Ideal Lover What is his
age? asks Laura Jean Libbey,
who suggests that past 40 is the
very best age.
Women Civil Engineers Yhy
eertainly women can make good
in this trying field. A Chicago
woman is making the biqgest
kind of success at it.
Theodore Roosevelt Do not
miss this installment of his
"Chapters of a Possible Auto
biography." Important political
revelations are forthcoming
Stolen From Coxey Some of
the modern political thunder is
made of his ideas of twenty
years ago, says "General" Cox
ey in an interesting interview.
Eevelations of Liszt's Diary
This wonderful little book is
owned by a Portland woman. It
reveals many interesting and
intimate phases of the'master's
An Array of Other Features.
Ofder today of your newsdealer.