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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 21, 1901)
THE MORNING OREGONIAN, MONfiAY, JANUARY 21, 1001.
THE WHITMAN SIDE
Address From Whitman on
the Famous Ride
ISSUED BY PRESIDENT PENROSE
Rehearsal of the Tetmon7 Relied
Tpon by Those Who Still ther-
Uh. lthe Whitman.
"WALLA WALLA, Jan. o.-Presldent
Stephen B; L. Penrose, of "Whitman Col
lege, Walla Walla, has Issued the fol
lowing address on the subject of Dr
Marcus Whitman's celebrated ride. It 1b a
reply to the address by Professor Bourne
ure me menjiao Historical society.
The address Is as follows:
The renewal of the periodical attack
upoa. the name of Dr. Marcus Whitman,
v makes It worth while to present the evli
dence for the "Whitman story." The re
cent paper by Professor E. G. Bourne be
fore the American Historical Association
at Detroit shows an astonishing Igno
rance of the facts, provided that he has
been quoted correctly by the newspaper?.
The substance of the claim made for Dr.
Whitman Is that he went East in the Fall
of 1842 at the risk of his life: that his
chief purpose was to inform the Govern
ment at Washington concerning the true
value of the then despised Oregon Terri
tory; that by his presence in Washing
ton during the critical month of March.
1643, he was chiefly Instrumental In chang
ing public sentiment and policy in regard
to Oregon, thus postponing any action on
the Northwest boundary line until Ameri
can settlers should be In a majority on
tho field; that in the Summer of 1S43 he
led back the famous -wagon train which
settled the political fate of Oregon: and
that he not only Influenced many In the
train to go, but also ensured the suc
cess of the Immigration by his experience
and energy. Will you allow me to Indi
cate .briefly the lines of evidence upon
which these claims are based.
First When did the story originate? It
has been falsely alleged to be tho late
fabrication of Rev. Henry Spalding, the
missionary, and never to have been pub.
lifihed before 1670. The evidence is to tho
In ISM a book was -published In Paris,
France, describing the writer'? "Voyages
en Callfornle." 1861-2. This Frenchman,
"De Salnt-Amant, declares that Whitman,
the missionary, was largely Instrumental
In saving Oregon to the United States.
In 188J, Hlnes' History of Oregon was
first published, though internal evidence
shows that It had been written not later
than ISIS. This distinguished pioneer says
In reference to the Indian troubles of.
1S42: "The arrival of a large party of Im
migrants about this time (1842), and the
sudden departure of Dr. Whitman to the
United States, with the avowed intention
of bringing back with him as many as
ho could enlist for Oregon, served to
hasten them," etc.
But we have the testimony of earlier
witnesses, who heard the story from Dr.
Whitman's own lips. Dr. William Gelger.
who is etlll living, was left In charge of
the mission during Dr. Whitman's ab
sence In the East, and on his return was
told by Dr. Whitman about his journey
to Washington, his Interviews with Web.
ster and President Tyler, and the bring
ing of the great wagon train. So also
Mrs. Elkanah Walker. Rev. Henry SpXld
lngand others. It Is well to remember
that Whitman went East In the fall of
1542, against the wishes of most of his
fellow-mlsslonarles, who regarded. his er
rand, to use their own words, "as a
wild-goose chase; a mixing of religion and
politics." Rev. Mr. Walker was accus
tomed to pray at family prayers during
that following Winter that Dr. Whitman
might have his life spared, but that he
might fall in his purpose. His oldest son
remembers this and told the writer. But
earlier even than these witnesses Is the
testimony of Perrln B. Whitman, who
accompanied his uncle back with the
wagon train of" 43, riding with Dr. Whit
man usually far ahead of the caravan. He
says that on the Journey Dr. Whitman
told him the details of the story and
was bitter in his feelings against the Mis
sionary Boated, because when" he had
visited the headquarters In Boston, after
his visit to Washington, he was rebuked
for leaving the mission. This Perrln B.
Whitman was for many years Indian In
terpreter for the Nez Percos reservation,
where he was known by the Indians as
The-Man-Who-Never-Tells-a-L!e." I have
talked with him myself and had his recol
lections taken down by my stenographer.
His mind was wonderfully clear and keen.
But we have a letter still extant from
Dr. Whitman himself. April 1, 1S47. he
wrote to the Missionary Society: "I often
reflect on the fact that you wero sorry
that I came East. It did not then, nor
has it since, altered my opinion on the
matter. ... It was to open a practical
route and safe passage, and secure a fa
vorable report of the journey
from Immigrants, which, In connec
tion with other objects, caused me to
leave my family and brave the tolls and
dangers of the journey, notwithstanding
tho unusual severity of the Winter and
the great depth of snow."
In view of theso samples from the tes.
timony now offered, does not the asser
tion seem absurd that the whole story Js
n concoction of Mr. Spalding's disordered
Second What Is tho evidence that Dr.
Whitman went to Washington first, In
stead of to Boston? The old claim that
ho never went to Washington has now
been entirely abandoned.
On April 4, 1S43, he appeared before the
prudential committee of the Missionary
Society In Boston, as tho minutes of the
mooting still show. The result of the
Meeting was a Vote not to abandon the
mission at Walllatpu. but if this object
had been Whitman's aim In crossing the
continent at the risk of his life, why was
he censured by the committee for leaving
his post, and why had he not gone to
Boston earlier? That his object was Wash
ington first, not Boston, is shown by the
united testimony of those who met him on
hla eastward journey, among whom are
Rev. Henrj M. Field. D. D.t editor of the
"New York Evangelist, then a young Pres
byterian minister in St. Louis. Dr. .Ed
ward Hale, a dentist, at wnose nouse in
St. Louis Whitman stayed; William Bar
rows, a school teacher of St. Louis: G.
L. Weed, of Cincinnati, and Samuel J.
Parker, M. D., of Ithlca, N. Y. But did
he really reach Washington? Governor
Alexander Ramsay, of Minnesota, has re
corded that in the Winter of 1S42-3 he
was Introduced to Dr. Whitman by Mr.
Joshua Glddlngs, at a certain boarding
house on Capitol Hill. In what was then
called Duff Green's Row at Washington,
and that they talked on the difficulties of
his journey, the character of the country,
Indian affairs, British encroachments, etc
Moreover, the present writer has been
furnished by "the War Department of the
United Stateswtth a copy of a letter now
In the arohlvSs from Dr. Whitman to
Hon. James M, Porter, then Secretary of
War. This letter was received June 22,
1S44, Tout written late In 1S43, and begins.
"In compliance with the request you did
me the honor to make last Winter while
at Washington," etc.
Bat what did he do in Washington? It
Is significant that In the very month pf
March, when he was there, the schema
then on foot for the sale of Oregon wa
dropped and the direction even of PresL
-denllal plans permanently changed. That
this change of policy and sentiment was
chiefly due to Whitman's presence has
been shown with profound scholarship by
Dr. J. R. Wilson, of Portland, 'Or., who
has made a most lropartal and exhaustive
Investigation of the matter In the political
memoirs of that day. For the details of
the visit we are dependent upoh Dr.
whitman's own story, as recorded oyt
Perrln B. Whitman. Dr. William Gelger.
Mrs. Elkanah Walker. Rev. Henry Spald
ing, Rev. Cushing EeJls and others, to
whom he described his Interviews with
Webster and President Tyler. No man
who knew these witnesses would dream
of Impeaching their united testimony.
Third What were Ir. Whitman's rela
tions with the wagon train of 1843? It Is
conceded by all that this great influx of
American settlers saved Qregon to the
United States, but Uhas been said that
tho members of the train knew nothing
of Dr. Whitman. What Influence did he
have In getting up the Immigration, and
what did he accomplish for It? Undoubt
edly there were many who had not heard
of Dr. Whitman and wero not" Influenced
by him to jto. but on the other -hand a
considerable number, about two-fifths -of.
those who have been questioned on the
subject, say that they went because of
representations made by Dr. Whitman,
either personally or through newspapers,
or through a pamphlet. Mr. Hines, in his
history of Oregon, gives a passage, fropr
Tils own journal written in Oregon, April
14, 1S43, In which he speaks of the In
dians planning" "to- cut off the party that
it is expected Dr. Whitman will bring
back with him."
But some of those on the wagon train
say that they never saw Dr, Whitman
dr knew Anything about him. That rs
natural enough under the circumstances.
A train of' 200- wagons stretches, over a
long line. But that Dr. Whitman acted
as guide through "the mountains, foulid
fords, selected camping places, advised
tho leaders of the train, ministered to
the sick, and finally Induced the Immi
grants not to leave their wagons at Fort
Hall, aa the agent of the British fur
company urged them to do, Is attested by
the very leaders themselves, such as
Hon. J. W. Nesmlth, Governor P. H.
Burnett, J. G. Baker and Hon. Jesse Ap
plegate. The words of the latter are
explicit: "Dr. Whitman's great experience
and indomitable energy were of priceless
value to the migrating column, and It is
rio disparagement to others to say that
to no individual are the Immigrants of
1843 so much indebted for the successful
conclusion of their journey as to Dr. Mar
Let me close with the tribute paid to
Dr. Whitman by a distinguished Roman
Catholic. In Tho Oregonlan of November
26, 1897, ex-Governor Peter H. "Burnett, ot
the wagon train of '43, writes as follows:
"In my best judgment he (Dr. Whitman)
made greater sacrifices, endured more,
hardships and encountered more perils for
Oregon than any other one man: and his
services were more practically efficient
than those of any other, except perhaps
those of Senator Linn, -of Missouri. I say
perhaps, because I am In doubt &s to
which of these two men did more in effect
Dr. Linn has been almost forgotten, but
the attacks upon Dr. Whitman's name
have heloed to make his name immortal.
1 can now be glad for all such attacks,
because, when they are over, the Whit
man story Is found to be more secure
than ever before.
DRATH NOT DUE TO HAZING
Probable Report of West Point Com
mittee in Cadet Cases.
WEST POINT, N". Y., Jan. 20, TheCon
.gresslonal committee left Shere today for
"Washington, after having concluded the
mission of Investigation at the United!
States Military Academy. Before their
departure, however, through a voluntary
agreement of the cadets, hazing was
abolished. .Ever since the members of
Congress came here they have worked
nearly 16 hours daily In public and execu
tive sessions. The committee holds the
next meeting In the room of tho com
mittee on interstate and foreign com
merce, at Washington, at 10 o'clock Tues
day morning. They expect ta make their
report In about 10 days,. and, 4t la said on
good authority, they will recommerid that
the number of tactical officers at the
W8t Point Academy b,e increased.
It is also said that they will report
that the death or ex-Cadets Booz and
Breth were not caused by the hazing they
received at West Point. In the case of
Booz, the testimony showed that he was
not very strong at any time, and It Is
said the members of the commltteo be
lieve that his health had been Injured by
his treatment at the hands of his fellow
cadets in the academy.
At the same time, it is claimed that the
committee has failed to discover any con
nection between the swallowing of ta
basco sauce end the subsequent death of
Booz from tuberculosis.
Statement by Representative Diclc.
WASHINGTON, Jan. 20. Representative
Dick, of Ohio, and other members of the
House special committee which has been
investigating hazing practices at West
Point, returned to the city tonight. Asked
concerning the recommendations the com
mittee would make. Colonel Dick answered
in a general way that he believed the
committee would recommend that such
legislation be enacted as would put a stop
to the practice of hazing.
"I have no doubt," he said, "that Con
gress will pass such laws as will make
forever impossible a repetition of the prac
tices that the committee's Investigations
have disclosed at West Point I believe
that the report of the committee will be
unanimous both as to findings and recom
mendations. "The committee was very favorably Im
pressed with the frankness of all the ca
dets placed upon the stand. Whatever
may be said of the hazing methods prac
ticed, those young fellows at the academy
tell the truth unflinchingly. While a ca
det on the stand would shield a comrade
so far as ho truthfully could, when It
came to a question concerning himsolf he
was perfectly frank and absolutely truth
ful. "I am firmly convinced that the resolu
tions to abandon the practice of hazing,
which was adopted by the cadets and
signed by the class presidents, will be
rigidly observed by every cadet In the
Institution. But cadets to enter hereafter
would not be bound by those resolutions,
and for the future of the academy I be
lieve there should b. changes in the laws
and regulations governing it.
"It is only simple justice to say that
Colonel Mills. Superintendent of the aca
demy, and Colonel Hair, the commandant
of the cadets, have done much during the
past two years to put a stop to hazing."
City Electrician Jack Walters, of Cen
tralla, has resigned, and W. W. Canon
has been appointed to the place.
The state labor congress at Olympia
adjourned Friday, after having been In
session several days. About 50 delegates
wero In attendance from all parts of the
state. The following were elected officers
for the ensuing year; President, William
Blackroan. Seattle: vice-president,
Thomas Cole. Spokane; secretary and
treasurer, F. S. Whitney, Taeoma. The J
president and secretary will remain at
Olympia to look after legislation.
City Treasurer Huntley, of Centralis,
has made his quarterly report to the
Council. Last quarter the receipts from
all sources were $4493, and disbursements
J3162. One general fund warrant was
called, the face of which was for $300
and the interest -JIO. The city has gen
eral fund warrants outstanding to the
amount of $27,600, of which $3168 Is draw
ing 10 per cent, and J18.J05. 8 per cent.
The city also has bonds out to the
amount -of $13,000, making the total in
debtedness of the city $40,500. To this,
however, may be added about $17,000 in
terest, accrued on warrants.
Mile Skntlnc Record Broken.
BUTTE, Mont, Jan. SO. T. E. Dundon.
of Canada, broke the mile skating record
for professionals at the rink here today,
making: the distance in 2:11. J. T. Con
wax, ot Butte, his competitor, made it
THE OFFENSES OF FULTON
COLONEL GOFER'S VIEWS OX THE
SENATE CHAIRMANSHIPS. '
Printed m a Double-Leaded Editorl-
al In. His Snicy Paper, the
The one, question which Is most asked
in Salem these days Is, "Why did the
president of tho Oregon Senate so com
pletely violate all precedents and politi
cal customs in' the appointment of his.
The analytical mind can twjst a,nd turn
this question in many forms and answer
it from every standpblnt, and still the
mystery will be unsolved. The Journal
has touched upon several phases of the
question, but It seems that there are
other phases of the enigma that ought
to be brought out. The fact that Mr. Ful
ton ignored all the' opposition members
Is not to be so much wondered at as
other points. He Is an ardent partisan,
and such treatment of the minority Is
frequently applauded by fellow-partisans,
hut If Mr. Fulton was catering to this
element he has made a gross mistake,
for the broader-minded men even c-f his
own party, or of his own faction, admire
justice to the under- dpg more than they
do contempt on the part of the poweriui.
Did Mr. Fulton take tills unheard-of step
to belittle the men of his own party who
do not agree with him upon all points,
or did he do It to humiliate ana crusn
some mem whom he might fear as future
rivals? To answer this would be a most
difficult task, but it will interest many
to go back a little In Oregon history for
some data. When Mr. Simon defeated
Mr. Fulton for the presidency of the Sen
ate, he turned around and gave Mr. Ful
ton the best chairmanship, that of the
judiciary committee, that any man of nis
profession could ask. This Is custbmary,
and Mr. Simon was entitled to no special
credit on account of It, for It Is an un
written law In the ethics of chivalry and
decency that the victor can well afford
to bo magnanimous to his defeated an
tagonist. The writer does not know Sen
ator Howe, but the simple fact that he
was an honorable contestant for this hon
orable position leads him to conclude that
he Is worthy.
It Is stated that when he realized that
Mr. Fulton had secured a-majority of the
votes, by whatever means he may have
employed, the gentleman from Yamhill
promptly withdrew his name 4ind made
it unanimous for the gentleman Irom
Clatsop. That act was only evidence of
his good manners and good sense, but
he did It like a man. What aia Air. r ui
ton do In return? He placed Mr. Howe
upon one of the poorest committees at
his disposal, the committee on counties,
to which nothing is referred but local
quarrels as a rule, .
It could hardly be argued that air.
Fulton did this lgnorantly, for few men
In Oregon know better what Is respectful
in such matters. It does seem that a man
of Mr. Fulton's reputation could not stoop
to such an act to humiliate a fellow
Senator just because he had the firmness
to stand as the candidate of his friends
for a position for which Mr. Fulton stood
as the candidate of his friends. Had
he not aB good a right to be a candidate
as Mr. Fulton had? Must a man be in
sulted! snubbed, humiliated, just because
he happens to have ono friend less than
Charley Fulton? These things seem In
compatible with modern Ideas of decency,
but truly thoy seem to have been done.
It Is only' necessary to look over Mr.
Fulton's list of committees to see a dozen
examples of similar treatment to that ad
ministered to Senator Howe. Take Sena
tor Daly, for Instance. At the last two
sessions It was no uncommon thing to
see tho gentleman from Benton assisting
the gentleman from Clatsop with voice
and vote on many of his pet measures.
Yet what treatment does Mb. Daly receive
In return at the hands of the man ho has
so often befriended? He is given the
committee on horticulture, a subject con
cerning which It Isnot believed he even
pretends to be posted, and a position
which Is frequently made the butt of ridi
cule. At the last session Mr. Daly was
on the educational commltteo, and did a
work In that capacity for which the peo
ple of Oregon will long have occasion to
be thankful to him the drawing the pas
sage of the Daly text-book bill which
annihilates the robber schoolbook trust.
It would have been a mark of recogni
tion to have at least given Senator Daly
his former position, if he did not de
cline H. but instead of that simple cour
tesy. Senator Daly has not only been left
off the commltteo entirely, but two men
have been boldly placed on the committee,
from the county in which the State uni
versity is located, and one from Weston,
the home Of a Normal School. It should
be remembefed that Senator Daly is from
the "home of the State Agricultural Col
lege. bUt Mr. Fulton sees fit to give that
Institution no representation, while he
gives another like Institution two repre
sentatives on the committee. It Is sug
gested that this is done to humiliate Sen
ator Daly, and force him to "stand In"
to save his home college, but this can
hardly be posslblo, for Is It not Just as
much Mr. Fulton's college as it is any
other Senator's? It cannot be believed
that a man who aspires to the dignity of
president of the Senate could take such a
position toward as fellow-Senator. Then
why was It done? Because Senator Daly
happened to prefer Howe to Fulton for
presiding officer? Surely no grown man
could be so shortsighted as that. Then
what could be the purpose of these
The treatment of Senators Josephl and
Mulkey, as well ad others who might be
named, seems to have been along the
same lines. Are not these gentlemen fit
to serve as Senators? Is it rational to
admit that any man who Is honored with
a seat In the Senate is not entitled ta
that Senatorial courtesy concerning which
we all hear so much? These and numer
ous other questions being asked concern
ing the appointment of these committees
are perplexing the minds of thinking peo
ple Just at present, and especially those
of many of Charley Fulton's old friends,
who cannot fathom his motive In thtso
strange acts. None of these friends are
willing to admit that he has lost bis
regard for good form, for the courtesy
due his colleagues, or for the coirimon
every-day Ideas of good behavior. They
would hate to admit that he doesn't know
any better, or that he willfully does what
any well-behaved schoolboy would scorn
to do. But what can they do? Has he
lost his head by again occupying the chair
he once filled with respect? Can't he
stand prosperity? Or has he a mad ambi
tion lurking. In his breast that would
cast "aside everything, every friend, every
regard for decency, to be gratified?
The deeper one goes Into the analysis
tho greater the mystery grows. Tho fur
ther questions also arises. Is Mr. Fulton
thus sacrificing his self-respect and old
time friendships for the ambition of an
other, for the possibility of some future
reward? It cannot be possible that he
has so far lost all reason as to throw
himself Into the maelstrom of disrepute
and disloyalty to himself out of miscon
ceived loyalty to another. No man can
afford to do that, much' less a man of
good parts, a man In his prime, who
has every thing to gain and nothing to
lose by being-manly. This strange dilem
ma Into which our friend has drifted Is
beyond solution by any of the brdlnary
methods known to logic or common sense.
But still It must he asked. Why has so
strange an attitude forced Itself upon this
Domentlc and Foreign Porta.
ASTORIA, Jan. 20. Arrived at 8 A- M.
and left up at 10 A. M. Steamer Geo.
TV. Elder, from San Francisco. Arrived
at 11 A. M. British ship iiueen Victoria,
from Nagasaki. Arrived at noon and left
un at 4:30 P. M. British tug Lome, with
coal bare Richard" III,, from Nanaimo.
Left up at 7:40 A. M-British steamer
Argyll. Arrived down at 11 P. M. Satur
day and sailed at 8:30 A. M. Steamer
Dispatch, for San Francisco. Arrived
down at noon British steamer Robert
Adamson. Sailed at noon British ship
Scottish Isles, for Queenstown or Fal
mouth. Condition of the bar at 5 P. M.,
smooth: wind, south: weather, cloudy.
San Francisco, Jan. 20. Arrlved: Steam
er Columbia, from Portland; steamer Cor
onado, from Gray's Harbor; steamer
Hyalles, from Seattle; steamer Bonlta,
from Newport; bark Olympia, from Hon
olulu. Sailed Steamer Brlstoe, for Che
malnus; schooner W. F. Wiseman, for
Port Hadlock; bark Melanope, for Sydney.
Marshfleld, Jan. 20. Salled-Steamer Al
liance, for Portland.
New York. Jan. 20. Arrived L'Aqul
tane, from Havre.
Queenstown, Jan. 20. Sailed Etruria,
from Liverpool for New York.
Hoqulam, Wash. Arrived Jan. 18.
Schooner Gleaner, 13 days from Honolulu,
loads at Hoqulam, for Sydney. Sailed
Schooner Ester Buhune, from Aberdeen,
for San Francisco: steamer Fulton, from
Aberdeen, far San Francisco; steamer
Coqullle River, from Aberdeen, for San
Francisco; steamer Santa Barbara, from
Aberdeen, for San Francisco.
List of Unclaimed Letters Remaining
in the Pootofflce at Portland, Or.
Free delivery ot letters by carrier at the
residence of owners may bo secured b observ
ing the following rules:
Direct plainly to the street and number ot
Head letters with the writer's full addrfsa.
including street and number, and request an
swer to be directed accordingly.
Lettors to stranrers or transient visitors !
the city, whose special address may be un
known, should be marked In tbe left-hand cor
ner. "Transient." This will prevent their bo
lng delivered to persons ot the same or simi
Persons calling for theso letters will pla
state date on which they were advertised, Jan
uarv i!l. They will be charged for at the
rate of 1 cent each.
Ayer, Mrs G.B McMillan, Mrs D B
Bachard. Mrs' D Malora, Miss Jessia
ijaveaune. Mrs Emma Manning, Miss A
Bailey, Mrs F M
Marsh, Miss Lottie
Martin, Mrs Elmer
Metcalf, Mrs Inez
Metcalf. Mrs Julia B
Merldeth, Mrs Id
Ban, miss Lola
Borcroft, Anna C
Barnell, Mls3 -Bertha
Blair. Mrs Clara
Blumault. Mrs S M
iirocic, Airs B F
Moore, Mrs Chas
Bullock, Miss Marguer-Morse, Miss Mary L "W
ue Murphy. Mrs p
Burdon, Miss Mary Myers, Mrs S
Byrnes, Mrs Jennie Nelson, Miss Eva
Catching, Miss Maggie Nichols, Mrs Minnie
Cady, Mrs Ore Beatrice Nichols, Mrs I L
Carter, Mrs Ruth Ro- Noble. Miss Maudo E
ham Norrls. Mrs C C
Clinton. Mrs Ella J Oliver. Mrs Oscar
Coo. Miss Birdie
Otman, Mrs Mary
Curtis, Mrs Carlton
Daye, Miss Agnes
Daniels, Miss Clara
Davis, Miss Myrtle
Dent. Mrs Willie
Dickinson, Mrs A
Dowty, Miss Myrtle
Eames, Mrs Prentice
Otman, Mrs Mary
Owens. Mrs C
O'Brien, Mrs Llxxle
Ogden, Miss Fanny
Palmer, Mrs Bertie
Patton, Mrs Anna
Penther, Mrs Albun
Perry. Miss Alice
Peterson. Miss Lydla
Emmons Grayes, Miss Phillips, Miss May E
Evans, Mrs Sadie Poole, Miss Bertha
Everest, Mrs Agnes Popplcton, Miss Clara J
Flowers, Miss Marlon Pullen, Mrs Ella
Forsyth, Mrs Con Randall, Miss LUUeT
Foss, Rita Riddle, Mrs Fannie
Frommelt, Miss Marie Richards, Miss,
Freeman. Miss Zella Rockwell, Miss Ger
Gowen, Miss Flo trade
Granneger, Miss Lena Bobbins, Mrs C J
Grant, Miss E Robinson. Stella
Griggs, Mrs Carrie Rowley, Miss Annie
Gunyon. Mrs Mary Seldcr, Miss Dora
Haggblom, Miss Alina Sherman, Miss Lottie
Hamilton. Miss FrankleSmlth, Mrs Addle
Hansen, Miss C Lena Smith, Miss Minnie
Harding, Mrs Ella Smtth, MJss Olga
Harney, Mrs Luella Smith, Mrs Cary
Hart, Mrs Frank Smith Miss Jennie
Hartman, Mrs Flora Sowell. Mrs
Haycox, Mrs Bertha Stene, Jennie
Hennessy, Mrs j j steenson, Miss Marga-
Hcntrlckson, Mrs Roosa ret
mckie, miss Miiarea
Stewart, Mrs Jaa
Hunt. Mrs J E
Skinner, Mrs Lizzie
Taylor, Mrs C A
Thomas, Miss L I
Thomas, Mtss Gusale
Temms. Mrs H M
Uhlman, Miss Minna
Van Wyck. Alloo
Wagner, Miss Bertha
"Walters, Mrs Laura
Wemme. Mrs A
Joseph, Miss May
Johnson, Miss Alma
Ketching. Miss Mar
Knock, Mrs H T
Lakln, Mrs Dora
Lamkln, Mary A
Lone, Mrs M J
Learv. Mrs Luella
West. Mrs-1 J W
Lee. miss i, itamona wneiege, irene
Loesel, Miss Frlscle White, Miss Lillian K
Lowell, Mrs Etta C-2 Wilson, Miss Helma
Lowe, -Mrs O C "Wilson. Mrs Frank H
McCormlck, Mrs C E "Winters, Miss B
McDowell. Miss R "Winn, Mrs F W
McDonald, Mrs Rosa Woods, Miss Julia A
MtDonald, Miss Myr- Tokum, Mlfls Lylla
tle-3 Zlegler, Mrs Isaacs
McQulre, Mrs Helena
A & F Mfg Co
Adams & Mtlls-2
Adams, H M
Allen, G J
Ankers, Wm F
Ashby. W J
Barker, George J
Borden, A W
Borders, E W
Boyle, J W
Brooke, Samuel P
Brown, H F
Brown, Master Otto
Burrell, C P
Calderwood, W M
Carson, John M-2
Chalker. H M
Chambers, Charles D
Collins, Geo E
Conner, Roswell E
Corson, J R
Dyer, Dr Chas L
Daly, Harry E-2
Detrlck, L L
Dlerks, A W
DeLong. I N
Eddy, James S
Gill. Hugh .
Green & Co
Green. D D
Heins. J D
Hlett, A B
Hobble. J L
Kert Knight, Eber
Kocher. G N-2
Kubli, Kasper K
Lane, L M-2
Lehman, A E
Love, James Fuller
Luckey, W A
McCulloch, J A
MacFarland, H A
McKinney, M J
Mack. J O
Martin. J M
Mitchell. Frank N
Montgomery, M E
Moroland, W G
Myers, A A
Neat, A N
Newspaper Pub Co
Nixon, C A
O'Brien. Mike V
O'Brien. O V
Pacific Commercial Co
Palmer, Mr & Mrs B
Patchens, Dr H
Pederson, P K
Piper, A L
Pierce Oil Co. "Walter
Pierce, "Wm R
Portland Furn Co
Reinhart. J F
Rosenthal, B N
Sherman, Mr & Mrs
Smith, Capt J E
Southern Ores Nav Co
Soreng, A M
Stanton. B C
Stafford, A O
Steel, Samuel .
Stewart, J '
Storey. Wm H
Stratton Bone Cutter
Bund & Nylund
Tannenhof, Mr & Mrs
Taylor, Chris A
" Thomas, Albert L
Tucker, W P
Turner. L C .
Hoven, Vektor t.
Turner & Wolf
Hoffman. Master FrankVan Lanon, Geo
Von Lanen, John
"VanSwlver. J W
Wallace, N W
"Whldden, Ray W
Whit. G W
"White Smith Music Co
White. J L -
White. Henry C
Williams. A M
Howard. Jas a
Hubbler. R W
Imperial Music Hall
Irwin. M J
Jackson, M S
Johnson, F P
Johnson. E L
Wyatt. A H
Jensen, tapt & Mrs TATounr. Mr
Jones. A Toung, A D
Bosso, Anselmo Galgtietto, Martlno
Perata. G iSunnan Prels
Comatls, M O
Coleman. CPU Myers, Mrs Sue
Eckler, Mrs E P Pierce & Price
Jcnsma. Mrs John Snell, Miss Frances L
McKensle. Master WlllWest, Mrs Emily A
Muller, Miss Marie Zlegler, Miss Lora A
A. B. CROASMAN. P. M.
Tho Ingredients of Hood's Sarsaparilla
are in effect, strength, .vigor and tone
what you, want.
Downing Hopkins & Go.
WHEAT AND STOCK BROKERS '
Room 4, Ground Floor
REMEDIES FOR TRUSTS
Steps That Led to Combinations Mast
First Be Retraced as a Prepa
' ration tor Further Remedies.
BOSTON, Jan. 20. The New England
Free Trade League gives out the follow
ing letter by Professor John Bascom, of
It is n,Qt surprising that the people of
the United States have been startled and
alarmed by the sudden accumulation of
walth in the hands of a few, and havo
been, ready to resort to direct and violent
legislation against trusts, the most con
spicuous objects in this concentration of
power. Our free institutions must se
cure proximate equality of social advan
tages or they lose their value and their
charm. We are not to be cheated with
the empty appearance of political power
when the sbstantial blessings of life are
taken from us. Our Institutions are good
or bad, according to the breadth of op
portunity they confer upon us all. We
need not be socialists, looking for an Im
mediate or an arbitrary division of wealth
and yet may hold fast to a general equal
ity of opportunities in each generation as
of the very substance of liberty. If we
cannot secure this, If labor and skill be
come unavailing, or yield between man
and man very disproportionate returns,
then the foundations of the social and po
litical fabric give way.
The extraordinary success of a few
trusts, like the Standard Oil trust, and
Sugar trust, the mastery they have gained
over the present and the still greater
mastery they are thereby securing oyer
the future, the eagernss with wblch their
examples are being emulated In every
form of manufacture, have awakened the
people, like an earthquake shock, to a
sudden and extreme sense of danger. This
threatened concentration of power Is cer
tainly an evil that cannot be wisely
neglected or spoken of slightingly. It has
already reached large dimensions, and Is
redoubling Its efforts for farther progress.
Its many failures do not cancel Its great
In the flurry of this fear we are In dan
ger of do'.ng Inefficient and foolish things,
and of missing the sober remedies which
lie close at hand. A trust Is coming to
be defined as any combination of caoltal
so large and so exclusive In Its object as
to be dangerous to general freedom. There
is nothing peculiar In trusts to separate
them from corporations, and they can be
resolved Into corporations.
In Inquiring Into the, new danger which
has been developed In connection with
trusts, we are to remember that corporate
action has been our most remarkable de
velopment, and one of the most successful
of our productive agents. How, then,
has it so suddenly taken on an Inimical
form, and, like an Infuriated elephant,
broker, from the hand that has held It to
service? Combination brings- immense
power. We cannot afford to sacrifice that
power, for Its ultimate object Is the gen
eral welfare. We cannot let It accu
mulate without the strictest surveillance,
or it is at once diverted from its public
service and begins to trample under foot
those whom It should aid. The first In
quiry, therefore, the wise man makes Is:
"Have we given Insecure conditions, In
adequate safeguards to this powerful
mechanism of production, and If we cor
rect this error, will It resume its steady
and safe revolutions?"
This question admits but one answer In
reference to tho terms we have made for
capital and Willi capital In Its "unprece
dented expansion. Our. first duty Is to
modify thee terms, and" then watch the
These unwise terms conceded to capital
are numerous, and we know that its un
safe accumulation of power has, In some
of the most marked cases, come In close
connection with our negligence. Thus
the Standard (Oil Company owes its pros
perity largely to unfair terms made with
railroads, and has been built up by the
negligence of the people In prosecuting
their own rights, by their failure to re
quire that the highways of commerce
should render equal service to them all.
Other formidable combinations, as the
sugar and steel trusts, have been safe
guarded by the tariff. The people have
protected them In their Infancy, and nour
ished them in their strength, till they can
bid us all defiance and shape legislation
to their wishes.
Competition, once regarded as the suf
ficient remedy for combination and exac
tion, has been found to be somewhat less
universally applicable than was supposed.
We are now In danger In turn of under
rating it both in its Intrinsic importance
and In Its corrective power. The possi
bility of competition means tho preserva
tion- of liberty, it one is exciuaea irom
taking part in one and another form of
nroduetlon. he so far loses a central por
tion of his rights. In the triplet, "life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness," an
essential part is liberty liberty in all
the productive opportunities of life.
Shorten In one's liberty and to that de
gree you render nugatory the other two,
life and the pursuit of happiness. Un
restrained competition stands for unre
strained powers, and the prosperity that
goes with them:
The immediate purpose of protective
duties Is to restrain -competition and build
a wall around the protected Interests. We
start In excluding the competition of the
foreigner. It is not strange that we should
pass on to an exclusion of competition by
our fellow citizens. If we can perma
nently raise prices by law against our
fellow citizens, what principle of equal
ity or good fellowship remains to prevent
a still farther pushing up of" prices by
combination. The result Is the same, and
the method is more legitimate. We have
not, in our second step, gone beyond the
domain of economics.
What conclusion, then, can possibly be
more plain than this, that, In a commun
ity. In which competition has been re
stricted first by protection, then by com
bination, till tho liberty of production
has been lost, we should 'retrace our steps,
remove our duties, and give to competi
tion all the freedom possible. ' Till this Is
done and the results fully disclosed, legis
lation to limit the right of combination is
likely to be harsh, unsatisfactory and In
effective. What we want Is not more, but
less legislation, a full restoration of nat
ural forces, that we may see what cor
rection there Is In them. Throw down the
wall with which we have made the great
corporation so safe In getting power and
let it contend In Its use of that power
with the full stream of commerce which
Is wont to bring beneficent opportunity
and liberty to the great mass of citizens.
The temper of the trust Is a malign one,
dlsregardful of the general welfare In
pursuing Its own interests. But protection
from the beginning has nourished thl3
evil disposition and consecrated It as
patriotic. When, therefore, it culminates
in combinations, it is only the flower and
fruit of a plant of our own planting; It is
only a" completion of what we have jus
tified to ourselves from the beginning.
Take the Iron Interest, which has been
afavorlte object of protection. It Is not
i content With, Its immense natural ad
Chamber of Commerce
vantages; It Is not content with high
duties; a nail trust must be formed and
prices which reach every household In
the land be pushed up SO and 100 per cent.
The Interest of the workman has been
kept in the foreground as a cloak, and
colorable claim, in framing protective
laws, but what sympathy was shown with
the workman In the Homestead affair?
Why was there tho need of a lew to pre
vent the importation of contract labor?
What respect does that infant Industry,
now that It has passed Into the hands
of millionaires. Into the stage of political
power, manifest for the needs of the Gov
ernment that has nourished It to these gl-
gantlc proportions? When plate armor Is
called for, extortionate prices are forced
down only by the threat of competition
restored In their manufacture by the
state. What a comment on protection!
'i-e destruction of foreign competition
and then an effort to escape the results
Dy Lrovernmental competition. Let us
have all the competition there is in the
commercial world: let us feel every wind
that blows; let us free ourselves from the
artificial shackles that we have laid on
production or allowed to grow up In It,
and then we shall be prepared to say what
further remedies for remedies we must
have are needed.
The. Douglas County tax levy' has been
fixed at 20 nulls.
The Sclo school district will hoik a
meeting January 26.
J he Pendleton school district has lev
a special tax of 8 mills.
A remonstrance against the proposed
new charter for Cottage Grove is In cir
culation. The 'coal shaft being sunk by W. A.
Maxwell at. Coos City is now down
about 300 feet.
School District No. 1, Crock County,
will hold a meeting January 2S for the
purpose of levying a special tax.
Several carloads of Weston bricks have
been shipped to Mission station. They
will be used for Government buildings.
An acetyllne gas plant belonging to J.
P. Williams, of Long Creek, exploded
last week, and slightly Injured Mr. Will
lams. If you have never used Carter's Little
Liver Pills, go at once to the nearest drug
store and get a vial. They will surely
please you. Don't forget this.
The Yellowstone Park and
Pioneer Dinlns-Car Route
Ualoo DtjJt. 6tha-J JSi
1:45 P. M.
Overland KiujeSs l-r
7:oi A. M.
South lienJ, AUru!Ci.,
Uij ujpia. Tacon.j, Se
attle, North iaklnla.
huutuati, Moscow, Leu
1 s t o n. Grangevllle,
Rowland, it. C liutte.
Billing:), Kargo, M.
Paul, Allnneapund, Cn:
cago, Boston, Vasll
Ington, D. C. New
York, and all points
tan and southeast.
. Kansas Clty-St. Louis
Special for Taeoma, Se
attle, North Yattiina.
Helena, Uutte. Hilling-'.
Omaha, St. Joseph.
Kansas City. St. Louis,
Baltimore, New ork.
Boston, and all point?
eSBt and southeast.
17:30 P. M.
Baggage, checked to destination ot tickets.
Union Depot connect'ons in all principal cities.
Through car service via Northern Paclflc
Burllngton Route, train No. 4. for Omaha, St.
Joseph. Kanias City. St. txmis- Oulck time
and unequaled accommodations. The only Un
running Pullman standard and Pullman up.
holstered tourist sleepers, the finest in th
world, Portland to Minneapolis and St. Paul
For any additional Information, tickets,
sleeplng-ca;- reservations, maps of routes, etc.,
call on or write to
A. D. CHARLTON
Asslntnnt General Pnsaenger Anient.
253 Morrison St., Cor. Third.
Tho St. Louis Special Is a first
class train for first and second
In addition to sleeping, dining and
reclining-chair cars, It has a tour
ist car. This car runs through
from Portland to Kansas City. The
rest of the train goes to St Louis.
Berth rate, Portland to Kansas
City, :5.00.. t
Train leaves Portland at 11:30 P.
Information on request.
TICKET OFFICE: Cor. Third and Stark Sts.,
R. W. Foster, Tloket Anont.
WHITE COLLAR LINE
STR. HERCULES takes the place of
BAILEY GATZERT (Aldor-street Dock).
Leaves Portland dally every morning at 7
o'clock, except Sunday. Returning, leaves As
toria every night at 7 o'clock, except Sunday.
Oregon phone Main 251. Columbia phone 201.
AltoEia and Pomona
Dally (ex. Sunday) for Independence. Salem
and all way landings. Lrave Portland 0:45 A
M.; leave Salem 8 A. M. , Independence, 7 A.
M. Office and docile foot Taylor su
Union Depot. Sixth and J Streets.
THREE TRAINS DAILY .
FOR ALL POINTS EAST
Leaves for the East, via Huntington, at U:00
A. M.: arrives at 4:30 P. M.
For Spokane. Eastern Washington, and Great
Northern points, leaves at D K M.; arrived at
7 A. M.
Leaves for the East, via Huntington, at 0:00
P. M.; arrives at 3.40 A. M.
THROUGH PULLMAN AND TOURIST
OCEAN AND RIVER. SCHEDULE.
Water lines schedule kubject to cnaago with
OCEAN DIVISION From Portland. leaY
Alaswprth Dock at $ P. M.; sail every days:
tie. W. Elder. Jan. 2. 12. 22; Feb. 1. 11. Co
lumbia. Jan. ?. IT 27; Feb. U, 115.
From Sua FrancUeo Sail very 0 days.
Leave Spear-street Pier 24 at 11 A. M.: Co
lumbia. Jan. ;. 13, 23. Feb. 2. 12. GeO. W.
Elder, Jan. 8. IS. 2S: Feb. 7. 17.
Columbia IUveti division.
portland and astoria.
Steamer Hassala leaves Portland dally, ex
cept Sunday, at '8.00 P. M.; on Saturday at
10.00 P. M. lteturnlng, Itaves Astoria aallr.
except Sunday, at 7.00 A. M.
WILLAMETTE IlIVEB DIVISION.
POUTLAND AND SAliEM. OR.
Steamer Kuth, tor Saiatn, Independence and
way points, kae3 from Ash-street Doelc at 6
A. M. on Mondays. Wednesdays and Fridays.
Returning, leaves Independent at S A. M.,
and Salem at 0 A. M.. on Tuesdays. Thursdays
COItVALLIS AND ALBANT.
Steamer Modoc leaves Portland at 0 A. "M.
on Tuesdays. Thursdays and Saturdays. Re
turning, leaves COrvallls at U A. M. on Mon
days. Wednesdays and Fridays.
YA3IHILL RIVEIt ROUTE.
PORTLAND AND DAYTON, OR.
Steamer Elmore, for Oregon City, lluttevllle,
Champoeg. Dayton and way landings, leaves
Portland, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays
at 7 'A. M. Leaves Day ten far Portland and
way points Mondays. Wednesday and Fridays
at 6 A. M. .
SNAKE RIVER ROUTE.
RIPARIA. WASH.. AND LEWISTON. IDAHO
Steamer Spokane or steamer Lewlston leave
Rlparla daily at 3:40 A. M.. arriving at Lew
lston about 3 p. M. Returning, tbe Spokane ot
Lewlston leav. Lewli'on daily at 8:30 A. M.,
arriving .at Rlpar.a same evening.
W. 11. HURLRURT.
General Passenger Agent.
V. A. SCHILLING. City Ticket Agent.
Telephone Main 712. 0 Third st.. cor. Oak.
CHINA AND JAPAN. FROM PORTLAND.
For rate, accommodations, etc., apply to
OREGON RAILROAD & NAV. CO..
Aisnts. Portland. Or.
L Au 1 I
Depot Fifth and
for Salem. Rose
burg. Ashland, Sfev
San Franclsoo, Me
jave, Los Angeled.
El Paso, New Or
leans and th East.
At Wood burn
(dally exce.pt Sun
day), morning train
connects with train
for Mt. Angel. Sll
v e r t o n, lirewns
vllle. Sprlngn eld.
and Natron. and
evening train far
Mt. Angel and Sll
verton. Albany passenger
Sheridan pass'gr ..
S:30 P. M.
7:43 A. M.
4;00 P. M
1(7:30 A. M
10:10 A. M
0:50 P. M.
8:23 A. M
Daily. UDally except Sunday.
Rebate tickets en saie between Portland. Sac
ramento and San Francisco. Net rates $17 first
class and $11 second class, including sleeper.
Rates and tickets to Eastern points and Eu
rope, Also JAPAN. CHINA, HONOLULU and
AUSTRALIA. Can be ootalned Irom J. B,
KIRKLAND. Ticket Agent. 140 Third street.
Passenger Deptt, foot of JeCerson street.
Leavn" for Oswego dui.y ut 7:2, 0H0 A. M-I
1230. 1:35, J :2ft. 4:40. 0.23, 8:Jj. 11.30 P. M.;
and 0:00 A. M. on Sundays only. Arrive at
Portland dally at -0.33. b.30. MO.GO A. M.:
life. 3:10. 4:!W, O.IB, .40. lo.OO P. M.; 12:45
A M. daily, except Monday, 8:30 and" 10:03 A.
M. on SuudayH only.
Leave for Dalla dally, except Sunday, at
0:06 P. M. Arrive at Portland at U:3U A. M.
Passenqer train leaves Dallas for Alrlle Mon
days, WedneiKlays r nd Ftidays at 2:40 P. M.
Returns Tuesdays. Thursdays and Saturdays.
C. H. MARKHAM.
Gen. Frt. & Pass. Agt.
Ticket Offics 268 KorrissnSt. 'Phone 680
Tbe Flyer, dally to and
from St. Paul. Minne
apolis. Dulu,h. Chicago
and all points East.
7:00 A. il
Through Palace and Tourist Sleepers. Dining
and Buffet Smoking-Llbrary Cars.
JAPAN - AMERICAN LINE
STEAMSHIP TOSA MARU
For Japan. China and all Asiatic polnU will
About February 4th
Astoria & Columbia
River Railroad Co.
For Maygers., Rainier.
Clifton. Astoria. War-
renton. Flavel, Ham
mond. Fort Stevens.
Gearhart I'k., Seaside.
Astoria and Seashore
S:00 A. M.
11:10 A. Si.
7:00 P. M.
0:40 P. M.
Ticket office 233 Morrison st. and Union Depot.
J. C. MAYO. Gen. Pass. A.gt.. Astoria. Or.
Pacific Coast Steamship Co.
THE COMPANY-S steam
ships Cottage City, Senator
and Al-Kl Lave TACOMA 11
A. M.; SEATTLE U P. M.:
Jan. 6. lu. 15. 20. 25. 30;
Feb. 4, 0. 14. lu, 24. March 1.
Steamer leaves every fifth day
tnereaiier. .runner informa
tion obtain company's folder. The company
reserves the right to change steamers, sailing
dates and hours of sailing without previous no
tice. AGENTS N. POSTON. 249 Washington st.,
F. W. CARLETON. N. P. R. R. Dock. Ta.
coma. TICKET OFFICE, 018 First ave., Seat
tle M. TALBOT. Com'l Agt.: C. W. MILLER,
Asst. Oen'l Agt. Ocean Dock. Seattle.
noorjALL. PERKINS a CO.. General
I Agents, San Francisco.
f( SUNSET -Tl
O COENJi SHASTA) !l
tr rouT3 Jnj
,;3, Jj J