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About Morning Oregonian. (Portland, Or.) 1861-1937 | View Entire Issue (Feb. 22, 1900)
THE MORNING OREGONIAN, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1900.
I hs resomcat
Entered at the TestoOee at Portland. Oregon.
as seeend-etaM matter.
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PORTLAND THtmSDAY, FEB. 22, 1000
IMPBRIAX4SM ICILIS EXPANSION.
Newlands of Nevada, speaking In the
house of representatives against the
Puerto Bico bill, said such an act
"would create a congressional des
potism precisely similar to that claimed
by Great Britain at the time of the
Revolutionary war," and that "every
person who votes for this bill an
nounce himself a follower of George
This is not merely the language of
oratorical fervor. It Is gravely true.
What is the difference between the
measures of the British, legislature
against the colonies during the ten
Sars preceding our Revolution, and
the discrimination now proposed in
congress against Puerto Rico and the
Philippine islands? No difference
-whatever in principle. The difference
Is merely in the details of the discrim
ination. Is there talk of "imperial
ism' ? Here you have the real thing!
The purpose behind all this effort Is
oppression of our new possessions by
commercial monopoly. It was the same
spirit that actuated the British minis
try under direction of Lord Bute,
Charles Townshend, George Grenville
and Lord North. The project, started
by Townshend, eagerly adopted by a
stupid and stubborn king, and contin
ued under successive administrations
till the colonies were lost, was not more
or less enlightened than the policy
urged in congress now. The British
ministry resolved on measures of taxa
tion against the colonies, in violation
of long custom and their own charters,
and our wiseacres In congress are fol
lowing the example. But, they say, It
is a small matter; we only tax the
products of the islands one-fourth as
much as the products of foreign coun
tries. But It is the principle, quite as
much as the amount of the tax, that
will make the discontent. It was not
so much the amount of the taxation
that ctr ancestors resented as it was
the arbitrary power asserted in it and
the manifest injustice of the method of
It Human nature has indeed under
gone very radical change, if our pew
possessions are not soon filled with
discontent, with the spirit of resist
ance, and even with positive rebellion,
from treatment so simitar to that
against which our ancestors rebelled
that it may be called practically the
Liberty, the world over, and in all
apes, has been held to consist chiefly in
the rightful enjoyment by a people of
thf fruits of their own labor. A peo
ple is seldom mo ed to rebellion by ab
stract maxims or dissertations on the
theoretical rights of man. But let
them see that taxation, imposed by a
force beyond their control, is unequal,
arbitrary, unusual and unfair, and you
Jind at once an awakening of the spirit
of resistance, a quick accumulation of
the materials of discontent and revo
lution. Under these conditions it vi ill
take armies to hold these dependencies
do n Tftr any people, joined with the
T'nited States, will naturally feel that
thf flag ought to stand in their land
f wr the samf right of person and prop
erty . of industry' and commerce, that it
stands for in the country from which it
The worst of "imperialism" is asser
tion of this doctrine of commercial
monopoly against the new lands under
our flag. All the babble of theorists
against "Imperialism" is nothing in
weight or consequence, compared with
this ugly fact. It is the negation and
destruction of the principle of legiti
mate national expansion under the flag
of the United States.
AVAR IS BUSINESS.
Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener
make a strong military team. Lord
Roberto entered the service as an ar
tillery officer and Kitchener as an en
gineer officer. Lord Roberts subse
quently had large experience in the
quartermaster's department of the
English army in India, and obtained a
kind of knowledge that he turned to
valuable account when he fought the
Afghans fJt Oabttl and Candahar; that
Is. he became familiar with the op
eration of the supply department of
the army. Lord Kitchener is described
as a man of iron internally and' ice-clad
externally, which, by the way, is an
excellent description of Napoleon in his
most splendid years of victory.
Kitchener, like Napoleon, studies
maps, obtains figures, applies cold
mathematical brains and calculation to
all the details of preparation for war,
and then, when he has exhausted all
sources of information, has made all
preparation possible to obtain victory
and prevent defeat, he puts his offi
cers and men Into action as pitilessly
as a chess-player who. having re
solved on his gambit, pushes his pawns
and his superior dignitaries of the game
into the line of struggle and sacrifice.
From the line of common sense, why
Is not this Napoleonic type of iron
souled and Ice-clad soldier the highest
and bent type e great commander?
Sherman did not say that "war is hell,"
but be said that "war is cruelty," and
that Is true, and so. for that matter,
to the aye of the sentimental thinker,
legal Justice is cruelty, hut it te, never
theless, a grim, inexorable necessity o
organised dvflfated society as distin
ruished from aaaxemy or ajasotnte des
2sapoteon.'s battles were bloody, but
they were decisive, and victory "was
leg destructively purchased than de
feat and death in the hospitals of dis
ease, that always follows a wretched,
lingering war in the trenches. So
Grant and Sherman and Sheridan, who,
after patient and scientific preparation,
pushed their men into the firing line,
.lost fairer men relatively tjetween May;
1S64, to November, 1864, then McClellaa.
who "was the architect of nothing but
defeat and retreat, lost fruitlessly
seeking to dig an army out of Rich
mond he dared not fight in the open.
"War is not chivalry; war is business,
and the man who exhausts his brains
in conscientious preparation for victory
and against defeat, as did Napoleon
and as does this "lrpn-souled and ice-
clad Kitchener," and then puts in his
men pitilessly, is really the most hu
mane soldier, as he is sure to be the
most successful general.
THE UITI3H.TE SPOILS OF VICTORY.
Whether Lord Roberts and Lord
Kitchener soon capture Bloemfontein
or not, they have achieved a very great
victory at small cost. The Boers, for
the first time, have been outgeneraled;
for the ultimate spoils of victory to
Lord Roberts, even if General Cronje
shall retire in good order and makes a
junction with General Joubert, with
drawing from Natal, are very great
The relief of Kimberley and the res
toration of railway connection with
Cap? Town is of the highest import
ance, not because of the 2500 soldiers
who formed Kimberley's garrison, but
because Kimberley's relief will proba
bly assure the relief of Mafeking, and
from Mafeking, when necessary, a most
formidable co-operative movement of
mounted men could be made on Johan
nesburg and Pretoria, as Lord Roberts'
main column of Invasion moves via
Bloemfontein along the railway line to
Kroonetad. There is a railway leading
from Pretoria via Johannesburg to
Klerksdorp, in the Transvaal, and
there Is a branch railway leading from
Kroonstad, on the Bloemfontein rail
way, to "Vierfontein, in the Orange
Free State, about twenty miles dis
tant from Klerksdorp. It is about 125
miles from Kimberley to Klerksdorp,
and It loolcs, at this distance, as if a
flying column, like that of General
French, could start at the proper time
from Mafeking and make a raid1 across
the Transvaal and along the railway
from Klerksdorp to Johannesburg, just
as Lord Roberts' main column pushed
up the line of the railway through the
Orange Free State on Johannesburg.
The British, with their superiority of J
numbers, could rebuild the railway be.
hind them from Bloemfontein, and hold
it, and with a mounted force like that
of French they could soon wreck the
Boer railway communications in the
Transvaal. With mounted men of the
quality commanded and skillfully led
by General French, the British com
mander ought to make a "crazy quilt"
of the Beer railway communications
within the next thirty days.
But whether Lord Roberts forces the
enemy to a decisive battle or not, he
has dealt a stroke that has robbed
them of all the initiative they obtained
by their sudden declaration of war last
October, which enabled them success
fully to invade Natal, defeat the Brit
ish army, coop it up in Ladysmith, in
vade Cape Colony and capture all the
railway crossings of the Orange river,
save that at Hopetown, from which
General Methuen advanced In his fruit
less attempt to relieve Kimberley.
The ultimatum of forty-eight hours
to an enemy 6000 miles distant gave the
Boers the initiative in Natal and on
the line of the Orange river. By a sin
gle stroke Lord Roberts has changed
the situation. Kimberley is relieved;
Ladysmith Is sure to be relieved, and
Natal sure to be evacuated. The line
of the Orange river is sure to be sur
rendered. The forces of Methuen and
Gatacre are sure to be united in a few
days with Lord Roberts' main column
of invasion; the impending relief of
Ladysmith will release at least 15,000
men for the reinforcement of Lord
The "best way to defend Natal is to
rebuild the railway bridge at Colenso
and defend It by proper works and
sufficient garrison, defend the railway
line to Durban, and scout the country
thoroughly with mounted men. The
defense of the line of the Tugela and
the railway to Durban ought to "be ac
complished with 15,000 men of all arms,
a situation that would enable General
Buller to release at least 25,000 men for
the reinforcement of Lord Roberts'
army; for the release of the Ladysmith
garrison would make Buller's army at
least 40,000 strong.
OUR CONSULAR SERVICE.
A strong and what should prove a
valuable lesson in support of the con
tention that our consular service should
be supplied by men trained in its du
ties, has been presented in the antics of
Consul Macrum, the bumptious, un
qualified youth to whom was intrusted
our interests in Pretoria. The humil
fatlon put upon the government by his
acts would not have been possible had
a man of ability, supplemented by spe
cial training, been In his place. It is
the purpose of those who have charge
of the bill creating the new department
of commerce to transfer to this divis
ion our entire consular service. This
will include the control of our
consul-generals, consuls, commercial
agents, their deputies and clerks, and.
In fact, all that relates to this branch
of the governmental service. The state
department will be relieved of a duty
unsuited to Its functions, and the con
sular service will cease to be diplo
matic and become commercial in its
This Is a perfectly logical evolution.
Originally appointed to care for minor
diplomatic matters and to look after
the welfare of American citizens
abroad, our consuls have grown into
expert observers and commentators on
foreign markets, and our large export
trade Is largely due to their opportuni
ties and effectiveness for advising the
home manufacturer. The main trouble
has been that every change in admin
istration at Washington has been fol
lowed by a change in the personnel of
the consulate, thus throwing raw re
cruits in where experienced men are
required. The plans now being formu
lated look to a permanent and stable
service. Their success will open a dis
tinct Mne of ambition for the very best
element among our young men, and
will offer rewards at least equal to
those of an ordinarily successful busi
ness career, that will make it worth
while for them to devote their lives to
the work. The ambitious youth of the
country could prepare himself for his
work from his entrance Into school or
college, and a fine line of material
would thus be provided from which the
j government could draw as occasion re-
quired. The object is to elevate the
consular service and make It stable and
dependable where It is now vacillating
corn as against wheat.
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer views
wffch misgivings the government's plan
for a 'torn kitchen" at the Paris expo
sition. The fear is expressed that the
chjbfs who will serve up com cakes,
etc., for the visitors at the exposition
will perform their work so well that
all Europe will develop a taste for corn,
and in so doing abandon wheat prod
ucts. These fears are hardly justified
by the records of the past or the pros
pects for the future. There have un
doubtedly been some pretty good cooks
scattered through the corn belt of the
Middle West for the past half-century,
and, as they have not succeeded in
converting all of the residents of that
thickly populated section from a wheat
diet to that of the johnny cake, it is
hardly probable that their arts will
win any considerable number of wheat
eaters in Europe.
It is true, as the Post-Intelligencer
says, that corn can' be produced much
cheaper than wheat, but this is no ar
gument against the expansion of the
market for the coarser grain. The
states of Kansas and Nebraska, two
of the greatest corn states In the
Union, in 1898 produced over 100,000,000
bushels of wheat, and Ohio, which pro
duced 105,000,000 bushels of corn In 1898,
also produced more wheat than was
grown in Oregon and Washington.
Except in rare intervals, the big corn
crop of the Middle West is readily ab
sorbed without prices falling below the
cost of production, and it has never yet
interfered with the market for wheat.
Admitting that the efforts of the gov
ernment will be rewarded by an in
creased demand for corn, the wheat
market would still be unharmed, for
Kansas and Nebraska would at once
abandon wheat-growing and take up
corn Instead. Remove from- the world's
supply the 100,000,000 bushels of wheat
produced by the two states mentioned,
and prices would advance.
The Pacific coast vheatgrower, for
whose interests the Post-Intelligencer
is so solicitous, would derive a posi
tive benefit from an increased demand
for corn that would result In convert
ing the wheat farms of the Middle
West into corn fields. The farmer in
the corn belt can raise corn with
greater profit than he can raise wheat,
when the price is normal, and if the
government can drum up additional
demand' for his product, he will leave
the business of wheatgrowing to the
growers of the Pacific coast, or other
portions of the country where corn will
not thrive. The world is daily gaining
in population, and more breadstuffs
must be supplied. The American cook
can serye up rice in very dainty and
appetizing forms, but it will never take
the place of wheat as an article for
steady diet. On the contrary, the most
rapidly growing demand which the Pa
cific coast now has for wheaten bread
stuffs is from the Orient, where rice
is produced so cheaply that it would
be Impossible to compete with it were
it not for the fact that certain classes
of people in the Orient, as well as in
other parts of the world, will always
insist on having wheat bread. Liver
pool Milling recently printed some fig
ures showing that there was a steady
increase in the number of wheat-eating
people of the world, the gain being at a
more rapid rate now than ever before.
The estimates made by this journal
show that in 1871 the number of wheat
eaters was about 370,000,000. Ten years
later it had increased to 416,000,000, and
at the present time Milling estimates
the number to be in excess of 500,000,
000. In some parts of Europe, the con
sumptive demand has increased 100 per
cent in the past twenty-five years, Nor
way and Sweden being credited with
that percentage of gain, while Austria
and Hungary show an increase of 80
The percentage of the Oregon and
Washington wheat crop which goes to
the Orient in the form of flour Is show
ing heavy Increase every year, and in
time it is not improbable that all of
the crop will find a market across the
Pacific. This will leave us beyond the
reach of the competition of the wheat
which must seek a market by way of
the Atlantic and Gulf ports. Even if
it shbuld not do so, It is difficult to see
where the substitution of corn for
wheat throughout that vast section
known as the corn belt of the Middle
West would prove other than benefi
cial to Pacific coast wheatgrowers. The
demands of an increasing population all
over the world call for the production
of more vegetables, fruit, stock and
other commodities, which must to a
certain extent curtail the amount of
land available for wheat, for the rea
son that they will prove more profitable
than the cereal to the farmers. If the
government can increase the demand
for corn, so as to curtail the wheat
acreage In the corn belt, the Pacific
coast wheatgrower will be a gainer by
The proposed railway line from
Klamathon, Cal., a point some thirty
miles south of Ashland, to Klamath
Falls, Or., will tap a relatively Isolated
region of Southeastern Oregon, rich in
agricultural, timber and grazing re
sources, and withal as picturesque and
beautiful a region as ever invited
home-builders to come in and possess
themselves of its advantages. Its Iso
lation, like that of Tillamook county,
has been complete at certain seasons.
of the year, and it is at all times diffi
cult of access, as any locality Is in this
day and age of the world that must
depend upon freighting by teams and
travel by stage-coach. Notwithstand
ing this, a fairly populous and quite
prosperous community has grown up in
this section of the state. The people,
though loyal to their homes and dili
gent in business, find Isolation irksome
and chafe at the inconveniences and
hardship that it entails. Plainly stat
ed, they want a railroad, and the indi
cations are that the desire will be re
alized in due time.
Two boys, brothers, of the respective
ages of 12 and 15 years, were lately
committed to the reform school from
Jackson county as "Incorrigible." The
father, whose name is mentioned in
connection with the commitment, finds
in the Incident opportunity to advertise
himself as an Irresponsible creature,
who, through the function of father
hood, has brought discredit upon him
self, misery UDon his offspring and ex
pense upon the state. Rudolph High,
of Ashland, is not, of course, alone on
his "bad eminence"; but the fact that
"there are others" in no wise lessens
his reprehenslbillty before the public.
One does not have to seek far for an
l answer to the question in such a case,
"Who has sinned, these children or
their parents?" since the echo of the
last two words furnishes it. The sin
may be one of omission rather than
commission, but it Is not the less griev
ous on- that account Its baleful effects,
as witnessed in boys of tender years,
scheduled as incorrigible and turned
over to' the state for discipline and
training, being the same In either case.
The failure of Multnomah and two
or three other Willamette counties to
levy a tax for the scalp-bounty fund
brings biting criticism from some of
the Eastern Oregon papers,, and we
have the Prineville Review expressing
"the hope that the day will come when
the Cascades will become the dividing
line between two states." If the law
shall be held constitutional, Multnomah
will promptly obey It; if it be declared
a nullity, counties on both sides of the
"dividing line" will have to make shift
to respect the supreme court's decision.
Meantime, let us suggest that mutton
anxl wool now command such a price
that sheepmen will not be impover
ished by paying for protection of their
It is waste of time and money to In
vestigate the conditions in Idaho prior
to the action of' Governor Steunenberg
In declaring a state of Insurrection in
the Coeur d'Alenes and calling for fed
eral troops. The country knows the
situation there, and that the democratic
governor of Idaho acted promptly and
discreetly. The congressional Investi
gation is an attempt on the part of
Lentz of Ohio and similar agitators to
manufacture campaign thunder. It is
not probable that their standing be
fore the people will be improved by
recital oT the anarchy which prevailed
in Shoshone county, the re-establishment
of law and order, and the punish
ment of some of ihe criminals.
Secretary Hay's answer to the re
quest of the house of representatives,
touching the matters brought forward
by Consul Macrum, is adequate and
ample. Consul Macrum is a very cheap
fellow. If his mall was opened, he
never made complaint to the depart
ment about it. As to secret alliance
with Great Britain, the insinuation
was not only false, but preposterous.
Consul Macrum's vanity, his desire of
notoriety, and his partisanship for ope
of the belligerents in South Africa,
have led him to make a great fool of
Those few persons who at times have
censured The Oregonian because it has
spoken plainly about pension abuses
may read with profit the following,
from the speech recently delivered by
Pension Commissioner Evans before the
Middlesex Glub, of Boston;
The constant and persistent effort of the many
who make their living1 off of the generous senti
ment of the nation toward its defenders, by
stirring up the animosity of the soldiers against
the government through misrepresentations, li
to be expected from that source, because it
creates business and It brings returns in the
shape of money and fees.
Admiral Dewey's flagship, the Olym
pia, was built in 1893. The vessel is
now to undergo an overhauling, at a
cost of $500,006. Half a million dollars
may strike the ordinary reader as an
enormous sum to lay out for "repairs,"
on a cruiser built only seven years ago.
But here is the example of Portland's
schoolhouses. No sooner do we get a
costly one built than enormous expend
iture becomes necessary for changes
of pjiumblng, heating, and' the like. It
Is mighty hard to get anything done
District Attorney Sewall's opinion on
questions involved in registration of
voters seems well considered and fair.
The officer of registration, by follow
ing the suggestions offered by the dis
trict attorney, will make few mistakes
as to those entitled to register and vote.
"Legal proof" of qualification is what
the law requires, and the suggestions
niade as to the method of obtaining it
in doubtful or disputed cases appear to
follow the general rules of the law.
It was not Consul Macrum, but his
vice-consul, who was bom in Holland
and had become a citizen of the South
African Republic. This corrects a
statement Inadvertently made yester
day. But Consul Macrum has shown
that his feelings were very strongly
with the Boers and against the Eng
lish, and that he was trying to serve
the former as against the latter. This
made him an unfit representative of a
The Kentucky democrats, in partial
legislative session assembled, have
"ratified" their declaration that the
men who received a minority of votes
were elected governor and lieutenant
governor of the state. Henry Watter
son's prophecy is thus made good that
the election was "not to be left to
chance." The conspiracy against ma
jority rule in Kentucky is not to be
Sheepowners in the Looney hills,
Marion county, realizing that it is to
their interest to protect spring lambs
against coyotes, have clubbed together
and1 agreed to pay a good price for the
scalps of these predatory hill-prowlers
during February. There Is no help like
self-help, for the simple and sufficient
reasons that it is based upon self-interest
and is always at hand.
If "Women Voted.
New York Times.
We foar that our friends the suffra
gists do not quite understand the range
and the nature of the opportunities and
tendencies the suffrage will create for
women in the direction of corruption. If
there were a "body of men in this coun
try so lost to all sense of civic honor as
to wish deliberately to extend the possi
bilities of corrupt administration in our
large cities, we have little doubt that
they would "be found among the advocates
of indiscriminate woman suffrage. In this
city alone, for Instance, the Tammany
vote would be doubled, and the new
voters would be more subject to the pe
culiar influences of that organization than
the old ones. In extending that influence
the classes of women of whom the woman
suffragists think little and know less
would be not merely acted on, but active.
An entirely new type of politician would
spring up, with all' the energy and cun
ning of her most depraved brother, and
with resources that it is necessary only
not to suggest.
New York Times.
It is mischievous nonsense to talk about
the Ingratitude of the republic to Its sol
diers. Commissioner Evans points out that
since July 1, 1861, there have been allowed
1.606,189 claims for pensions. Since July 1,
1885, there has been paid for pensions tht
enormous sum of $2,359,910,975. This is
practically a payment equivalent to $1000
for every soldier in active service on the
Union side, and is considerably more than
that for every soldier who remained In
the service for as long as three years. It
Is estimated by the commissioner that
there are now about 1,000,000 survivors of
the Union army, and of this number near
ly three-fourths, or 746,000, are actually
pensioned. It Is shown that we have paid
in pensions a sum equal to five-sixths of
the national debt at the close of the war,
and arts now paying every year in pensions
a sum equal to 5 per cent on the national
debt at its, highest figure.
C03IPARISON OF EXPORTS.
Proportions of Trade Between Eng-
land and America.
The publication of the returns of Brit
ish foreign trade for the calendar year
1S99 renders It possible to compare them
with thoso of the United States for the
same period. Competing as we do with
Great Britain In most of the great mar
kets of the world, It Is Interesting to note
the relative proportions of the chief ele
ments of the export trade of the two
countries. The value of the domes-tic ex
ports of Great Britain, for last year, does
not greatly differ from our own. Calcu
lated on the basis of the value of the sov
ereign in the gold coin of the .United
States, the British total is 1190,220,665;
that of the United States Is $1,252,906,937.
But while only J3S0.7S7.891, or 30.4 per
cent, of all our exports were these of the
more or less finished products of manu
facture. Great Britain sold abroad of the
products of her mills, factories and ma
chine shops to the value of 51,136,733,629,
being 89.5 per cent of all her exports.
This latter includes the sales In foreign
markets of new ships valued at $45,000,000.
Of the sum of the exports of British man
ufactures $575,000,000, or about 50 per cent,
come under the two heads of cotton man
ufactures and Iron and steel and their
products; of our own exports of manu
factured articles, which include copper in
gots and mineral oil, $125,000,000, or 33" per
cent, are of cotton cloth and iron and
steel products. In other textiles than
those of cotton we are not yet prepared to
compete with Great Britain. In ,tho man
ufactures of silk and wool our exports
are Insignificant; in linen and jute fabrics
they are non-existent, while the aggregate
British exports of these textiles is over
It Is Interesting to note that, while our
exports of cotton manufactures are less
than 7 per cent of those of Great Britain,
there are some markets in which we are
pressing1 the British manufacturer pretty
close. For example, the British export of
gray cotton piece goods to China last year
was $11,387,580, while that of the United
States was $10,273,487. The returns of the
Chinese customs for the year, which are
just to hand, further Illustrate the nature
of the inroads which American cottons
are making on their competitors in that
market. The imports of cotton drills,
jeans and sheeting which are recorded
by the Chinese maritime customs for the
last two years show the following rela
, Jeans Pieces,
English and Indian 123,420
Dutch : "30,280
English and Indian 162,620 169,705
Dutch 10,320 29,4iJO
American 1,190,631 1,581,895
English 606,239 844.253
Indian 16,520 38,727
American 2,315,795 3,825,202
There remains, however, an extensive
range of cotton fabrics used In the Chi
nese and other Asiatic markets which our
exporters and manufacturers have not
touched. These include gray shirtings,
T-cloths and white shirtings all lighter
and finer goods than any yet made in the
United States for the foreign market. Of
bleached cottons, which we do not export
at all. Great Britain sold in China last
year about $7,000,000 worth, and of printed
and dyed goods, in which we are equally
out of the 'competitipn, another $6,000,000
worth. Including cotton piece goods of
all kinds, the British exports to China
last year of these fabrics were valued at
$23,500,000, being a little over 10 per cent
of her total export of cotton piece goods,.
which is valued at $249,000,000. The total
exports of the United States of similar
goods were valued at $19,69S,000. It should
be noted that British India and the Straits
Settlements bought some $88,000,000 of cot
ton piece goods from Great Britain last
year against $300,000 from the United
States. Obviously, our manufacturers have
but touched the fringe of this vast Asiatic
In the comparative table which follows
It will be perceived that under the head of
Iron and steel products there are some
Items In which our exports compare favor
ably with those of Great Britain. In
agricultural machinery we nave long had
an assured pre-eminence, and we are
gradually overtaking Great Britain In the
exports of hardware, as well as of loco
motive engines. Our exports of steel rails
are also rapidly approaching those of
the United Kingdom. The British leather
exports are a stationary quantltyt, while
those of the United States show a rapid
rate of increase. They were $19,226,668 In
1$97; $21,96,822 in 1898, and $26,809,833 in 1899.
Last year the United Kingdom itself
bought from us $10,802,144 of leather and
$710,134 of boots and shoes, not to mention
the Australian purchases of about $1,CQ0,
000. Making allowance for the difficulty of
separating articles which appear under
different classifications in the two re
turris, the following table presents a fair
comparison of the relative proportions of
the chief manufactured articles exported
by Great Britain and the United States:
U. S. U. K.
Beer and ale 2,145,000 $ 8,300,000
Biscuit and bread 894,000 3.000.0C0
Spirits, distilled 2,188,000 10,400,000
Sugar and candy 3,615,000 1.9SO.O0O
Cotton yarn and twist o&iSS
Cotton mfrs 19.69S.000 200,000,000
Hardware 8,943,000 10,000,000
Iron and steel, and
their products 105,689,000 245,000,000
Steel rails 6,122,000 li.OOO.OOO
Locomotives 4,767,000 7.000,000
Agricultural mach'y.. 13,594.000 3,500,Ov.O
Steam engines 494,000 19,000,000
Machinery, total 19,721,000 98,000,000
Leather, and mfrs, of 26,809,000 7.000,000
Railroad cars 5,036,000 5,000,000
Bicycles 4,8a),000 3,000,000
Sewing machines 4,103,000 5,900,000
Glassware 1,716,000 4,500,000
Paper, and mfrs. of. 5,6.1,000 4,000,000
Wool. mfrs. ot... 1,229,000 72,500,000
JANUARY'S FOREIIGX TRADE.
Not Known Which Articles Embraced
an Increase ot Imports.
New York Tribune.
In January the merchandise exports
again exceeded imports, and by $41,793,955
quite enough to increase materially the
Indebtedness of other countries to the
United States, even after all possible al
lowances are made for contrary Items, in
terest, undervaluations and the like. As
was shown by current weekly reports, the
outward movement of the great staples
was comparatively small, and It proved
$10,400,170 smaller than in January of last
year. But this loss was more than com
pensated by the Increase in other domes
tic exports, chiefly of manufactured goods,
which were In value $11,862,771, or 30.3
per cent more than in January of last
year. It Is an odd coincidence that ths
quite unusual gain corresponds closely
with the increase of 30.2 per cent in Im
ports for tho same mopth. The volume
of domestic exports not of the great
staples was $50,9S8,905, against $39,126,127
last year, $33,541,766 in 1S9S and $29,378 304
in 1897. Four years ago the minor exports
were only 57.2 per cent of the value of im
ports in January, but this year they have
"been about 66 per cent.
It is a mystery which cannot yet be
wholly solved in what articles the great
Increase of Imports occurred. The official
reports show that only $6,600,000 of the In
crease was In free goods, and this may
be readily explained because during the
last week of the month the Increase at
New York alone was $518,000 In coffee, and
larger in some materials. But there re
mains the much greater Increase of $11,
000,000 in dultablo goods, for which no ade
quate explanation appears. There was, ln-
J deedj a considerable Increase in Imports of
drygoods, but at N-aw Yerk that lsczease
was la amount only $t,56,W9, lnetudtBg
$614,000 for warehouse, aot to be ptaaed
upon the nmrkat at present. It will be
remembered that the isports at New
York are usually about two-thirite & the
total imports, so that the increase in this
class does not appear to correspond at all
with the great Increase la dutiable goods.
The Increase was curiously distributed, for
in mtecelteneous drygoods no gain, what
ever appeared, but a decrease of $41,103
compared with last year, aad in woolen
goods the increase was insignificant, only
$39,000 during tho month, while in. flax
aad hemp goods ft was $167,(100, in silks
$9n,000. and in cottons $836,608, these gains
being in all quite largely for consumption.
As these branches of manufacture are
now crowded wKh orders for domestic
goods also, and the production of such
goods in this country probably nuch ex
ceeds $100,000,000 a month, against $3,me
imported at New York, and perhaps J
0O0.OCO in all. the increase In imports cannot
he regarded as a serious menace. In fact.
It is probably due In the main to increased
importations of goods of such cheraetsr
and cost that they may be fairly classed
There still remains, however, the In
crease of about $6,100,000 in imports for
which no explanation can be given uatK
the detailed official statement has been
published. It appears that in several
weeks there has been a large increase m
Imports of hides, which are now classed
with dutiable articles, though bearing a
very low rate, and there were noticed not
long ago heavy Imports of hides from
Calcutta, with the explanation that, ow
ing to the famine and the plague in In
dia, great quantities of hides at remark
ably low cost were likely to be sent to
this country. But even with this Item In
cluded the Increase in imports remaining
unexplained is unusually large and sug
gests the possibility that on the Pacific
coast there may be more Important trans
actions than have been reported In cur
rent dispatches. Meanwhile, the month's
account of the precious metals shows net
exports of gold amounting to $3.7S.StS. and
also net exports of silver amounting to
TO GIVE AWAY HIS FORTUNE.
Dr. Pearsons Will Soon Have Noth
ings bnt nn Annuity.
Dr. D. K. Pearsons, who in the last M
years has given to colleges and charitable
institutions gifts amounting to $2,500,000,
Is about to deed away the remainder of
his fortune, $1,500,000 in all, hi similar be
quests. For the maintenance of himself
and his wife for the remainder of their
lives Dr. Pearsons wMl stipulate only that
an annuity of 2 per cent be paid by those
who receive his gifts hereafter. On the
$1,500,000 which it is his Intention to be
stow this will mean a. yearly income for
the doctor and his wife of $30,060, which
will cease when both he and his wife are
Plans for the disposal of the remainder
of hte fortune to colleges and other Insti
tutions have long been matured by Dr.
Pearsons, but it will be some time, he
thinks, before the last of his great prop
erty, all accunmulated In Chicago or close
by, will have passed to other hands. Who
the beneficiaries will be end how much
they will receive are sttll unsettled.
"I have schemed for years to be ray own ex
ecutor," Dr. Pearsons said, "and to see 'with
my own eyes whatever good my gifts are doing.
Of what use would it be to allow some one
else to distribute my fortune for me after my
death? It would mean less money fpr the te
stltutiona I hope to benefit, for the executors
would have to receive a share. Now I shall be
my own executor, and la addition I shall have
the pleasure of seeing and knowing that my
gifts are rightly- placed. All I shall ask is an
annuity. The property will pass from, my
Dr. Pearsons will be 80 years old In a
A HARMWESS TREATY.
Would Give Clear Title to Do What
Is Now Doubtful.
New York World.
It may be that upon investigation the
United States will find It expedient them
selves to build an Isthmian canal. There
fore It would be wise to pass the Hay
treaty, which leaves us free beyond ques
tion to build if we wish. It certainly can
not be an infringement of the Monroe
doctrine or any other doctrine to obtain
a clear legal title to perfom an act which
is of doubtful legality so long as the
Clayton-Bulwer treaty stands upon the
law books of the republic.
No matter how the canal Is built, no
matter whether It is fortified or not, who
would intrust a warship to it in time of
war, when a stick of dynamite that could
be carried In the pocket and thrown from
the hand would wreck both ship and
canal? As the secretary of the navy, Mr.
Long, put it In the World yesterday,
"We would have liked nothing better than
to have had Cervera enter just sueh a
Why squander money in fortifying when
to fortify would be worse than useless?
Why Irritate Europe to the purpose? Why
excite the suspicions of our uentrai ana
South American neighbors with silly and
costly displays of useless guns?
So long as the question of public or
private construction is open, the Hay
treaty Is not very Important. If public
construction should be determined upon
the Hay treaty would at least clear up
a doubtful question of International law.
Therefore it will do no harm to pass It.
And ks provision for a neutral canal has
the merits of common sense and cour
tesy. ' .
"I don't see why so many people envy
a character like Napoleon."
"It's due to the native egotism of the
human race. Every man Imagines that
If ho bed been In Napoleon's place he
would have been considerably smarter and
managed to keep away from St. Helena."
Treading: the Popular Way.
Snarley How did he become so popu
lar? Yow He'll repeat the story you told
him yesterday to you today and say that
It was the funniest yarn he ever heard.
To Destroy All Fear.
"Somehow' said the highly respectable
gentleman, "I can't ever get over my boy
hood fear of a pouceman.
"Why don't you try running a saloon?"
asked hte friend.
"With Reasonable Anticipations.
Detroit Free Press.
"Wife, Where are those new handker
chiefs I bought?"
"Why, Edgar, you already have so
many that I put them away to give you
on your birthday."
t a '
Stephen Phillips la' London Chreniele.
O f or a living' man te lead!
That will not babble when we Meed;
O for the sUent doer of the deed!
One that is happy in hte height; ,
And one that, in a nation's night.
Hath solitary certitude of light! j
Sirs, not with battle III begun
We charge you, net with flelds uawon,'
Xor heacHoag- deaths against the darkened gun;
But with a lightness worse than dread;
That you but laughed, who should have led.
And tripped like dancers amid all oar dead.
You for no failure we impeach,
Xor for those bodies hi the breach.
But for a deeper shaHowness of speech.
When every cheek was hot with shame.
When we demanded words of 8ae,
O ye were busy but to shift the blame 1
No man of us but eleaehed his hand.
No brow but burned as with a brand.
You! you alone were slew to aaderataedt
O for a living man to lead! i
That will not babble whea we bleed: I
0 for the silent deer of the deed? '
koto Ae wmm
It is setmlismli leiay say- "By
There is vscy mtt sesMnestnfout fcx hug-
stasia every sbjfc.
It's hXwsn when
the Heat begins to
hunt you Oom PawL
The English oMcer who tsehlsiK laagers
nonaged' to escape the hap.
It is said to be hanottte in take a
leaser unless yon take- a star wtth you.
Kentucky democrats shew gseat respect
for the law. alter they haw ikad It to suit
Think of the harts say nnowstai Wash
ington wowht have ochoa tedar If he
"Over the skver," saM tha Xeess te Bul
ler. as be eaeeeai the Twgefe. lor the
The report lha JOpNac Is writing a
poem entitlea, The Absent-Xfaaad Burgh
er is probably a canard.
Higher education has its disadvantages.
They have now discovered that whisky is
not an antidote for snakebite.
Washington never mads railway jour
neys through the South rounding up 'dele
gates to the nominating convention.
Candidate Bryan beneves in "foraging
en the enemy." He Is making trips In
the private ears ot railroad presidents.
When Count Bout de Casmilane sailed
for home. ex-Conml Xacmna arrived to
8M the vaeirani. Thas natave always evens
If Washington were altve today he would
probably eolobrate his birthday oy exter
minating the baribarhm who is masquer
ading under his name.
The persistency with which Colonel Bry
an 1s making speeches around the Mexican
gulf coast, would Indicate that he has
some doubt of the "solid aonth."
Clark of Montana finds, mwch to his dis
gust, that "money talks." "Say," wouldn't
anybody have thought that he was a niaa
who couM make better investments?
The populists at Lincoln deckled that
Mr. Files coahi not break into the con
vention. "Jimmy" Weaver effected an en
trance withont dtftculty, and the mlddle-
of-the-roadess mad oat. Sharp practice
It appears that Qween Vieiocia yester
day heard that Ladysflmth had been re
lieved, or was just about to be relurved, co
she threw on her sunboanet and ran
out of Windsor cesMe to tell everybody
the news. When the report ctosed sha
was talking over the back ferice about
it, with one of the ladies of the (neighbor
hood, in high glee.
Oregon populists will meet in Portland
today to set the machinery in motion for
carrying the next presidential election. la
the declaration of grievances they will
probably refer to the general advance in
wages, all over the country, and the con
sequent teadeney of the hub owing class
toward better elothes and mere comfort
Three men whs have been newspaper
reporters at Albany, jX. Y., have become
members of the cabinet. The late Daniel
Manning, Dan S. Lament and Charles
I Emory Smith sat side by side reporting
the proceeomgs pi tne JNew iora legisla
ture less than 36 years ago. It must net
be argued from this that all newspaper
reporters go wrong and get into politics.
It is said that Speaker Henderson nearly
always walks wtth a polished hickory can 3
made from a tree on the battle-field of
Corinth, where be lost his leg. On the
silver top is engraved "J. X. A. to D. L.
H." The eane te the gitt of Congressman
"Long John" Allen, of Mississippi, who
fought on the opposite side during tho
civil war and who Is now a prominent
1. If George Washington had lived in
these days he might have preferred to lbs
a railroad president.
2. Wonder if the expression, "Thank
your stars," originated wtth the father
of onr country. It certainly has a patriot
ic flavor to H.
3. At least there is one thing George
Washington escaped. Bis name has never
been used to advertise cough medicine.
The South African war has brought out
a lot of things in military science hitherto
unknown. As nearly as can be ascer
tained, one kop is worth two kloofs, and
one kloof has a value of two kopjes.
Therefore, when one Beer is on a kop he
is equal to two Britons on a kloof, and
one Briton on a kloof is equal to two Boera
on a kopjs. Hence the advice of our
strategy board is to take aU the kops in
sight and eome out on top. This strategy
preposition is easy.
Professor E. K. Morris takes up, la the
English Historical Review, the famous an
ecdote about Wolfe and Gray's "Elegy."
Stanhope's narrative of the morning when
Wolfe went down the St Lawrence to
meet victory and death, declares:
Net a word ww spoken, not a pound was
heard beyond the rippllnr of the stream. Wolfe
aleae mas tradition has told us-repeate n a
low voice to the ether offlceis in hte boat these
beautiful atansas -with which a country church
yard msplred the muae ot ray. One neblejtoe.
The paths of glory lead wt to the sv8.
KMtet have saeaaed at audi a. moment fraught
with mournful meantog- At the close of me
recitation Wolfe added. "Jtow, gentlemen, 1
weeki rathrr be the author ot that poem thaa
But the story as told is almost Incred
ible. Wolfe, after giving strict orders for
absolute silence, would not be the man to
break hte own commandment and risk the
failure of hte enterprise by the recital.
even m a low voice, of nearly the whole
of a poem of 128 lines. Professor Morris
has had the happy thought of verifying
the facts by reference to the original au
thoRiiy. That the incident occurred te
evident from the clear testimony of Pro
fessor John Rohteon, but It is also clear
that it happened not on the morning on
which Quebec was taken, but on the pre
vious evening. Thus m ths true form of
the anecdote. WoMe Is sot guilty of a mili
Laura Garlaad Carr la Boston Transcript.
The afr te len and coM m sharpened steef.
It seeks through etoth aad nam for bene and
T to anrehmtlag- as to death's ewa dart.
It has nemeaey. It heeds no appeal.
TJwOagb. every eaaelc aad crevtce It wUl steai-
PaeMag. peeatstent, to the Inner part.
It reaenes tar o'er country towa and martl
AM Mm. an saaetaace most tta pteetace f eeL.
shows ae pi ami usee for yeath or as.
Per high or low. for gentleeoaa or wnl.
On aK It meete tta energtaa ragssw-
JMhtogr too grand or mean -. taat Its ekiK.
It feds ae hutted aad it shews ae n&-
Just nrm aad grim it sratebee-aad te sMB.