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About The state Republican. (Eugene City, Or.) 1862-1863 | View Entire Issue (Jan. 1, 1862)
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DEVOTED TO THE POLITICAL AND GENERAL INTERESTS OF THE PEOPLE.
EUGENE CITY, OREGON, JANUARY 1, 1862.
OTA-- RMP TRI1 .fl(T1 A
iLi.Ai.iL iiJ 1L, W OLd LL iLJ iLJ iL W 1 AY.
THE STATE REPUBLICAN.
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THE Bit AVE AT HU.1E.
I T. Bl'CBAXAX BEAD.
The maid who binds her warrior's sash,
With smile that wed her pain dissembles.
The while beneath her drooping lash
One starry tear-drop hangs and trembles,
Though heaven alone records the tear,
Ami Kuiiie shall never know her story,
Hur heart has shed a drop as dear
Al ever dewed the tieid of glory.
The wife who girds her husband's sword,
'Mid litllu ones who weep or wonder,
And bravely i-peults the cheering word,
Whut tho'tih her heart be rent asunder
Dooiie-d nightly in her dreams to hear
Tue bolts oi war urouud him rattle,
II itli shed as sacred Mood ss e'er
Was poured upon tue pl.iiu of battle.
Tile in t!icr who conceals her grief,
While to her breast her son she presses,
Then breathes a lew brave words uud brief.
Kissing the patriot brow she blesses,
Witu uo one but her secret G id
To know the pain that weighs upon her,
iSne.ls holv blood as e'er the sod
.l.-j-'ivl i t'r.-eli u's Held of honor.
THE PRE31DEMPS MESSAGE.
Salivarsd to C stress December 3, 1861.
W asihngton, December 3.
Fellow ellhe.it the S:.iate a til Jfjuse of lit
In tlie midst of unprecedented political troub
les, wo have cause ot great gratitude to God for
KJiu.iU.il goo I health and a most abundant harvest.
You will not be supisol to learn that, iu the
peculiar exigencies ol' tlM limj, our intercourse
witu foroig i uitiom has been attended with pro
lou.id solicit:! Je, chufly turning upon our domes
tic affairs. Tile disloyal portion ol the American
people have, during the whole year, been engaged
in an attempt to divide and destroy the Union.
A nation which end arcs tactions and domestic
divisions is evieeto 1 to lose respect abroad, and
uiiii party, or both, is sure, sooiior or later, to
invoke foreign intervention. Nations thus
tempted to interfere are uot always sure to resist
the counsels of seeming expediency. Measures
adopted under such influences seldom tail to be
u:iKrij:i.itj or i.ij irious to those adopting them.
T ho disloyal citizens of the United States, who
have effected the ruin of our country, in reward
tor aid and comfort which they have iuvoked
abroad, have received less patronage and encour
iigeinent than they probably expected. If it
Mere just to suppose, as the insurgent1 have
seemed to assume, that foreign nations in this
case, disregarding all moral, social and treaty
obligations, would act solely and selfishly for the
most speedy restoration of commerce, including,
especially, the acquisition of cotton, those uutioiis
appear as yet not to have seen their way to their
object more directly or clearly through the des
tructibu thai through the preservation ol th.
Union. If we could dare to believe that torcign
nations are actuated by no higher principle than
this, I am quite sure a sound argument could be
made to show them that they could reach their
aim more readily and easily, by aiding to crush
this rebellion, than by giving encouragement to
the principal lever relied on by the exciting ot
foreign nations to hostility ugainst the United
States, as already intimated in the einbarrassmet
of commerce. 1'aose nations, however, not iiu
probably saw, from the first, that it was the
Union which made as well our foreign as our
domestic commerce. They can scarcely fail to
perceive that the etTect ol disunion produces the
present difficulty, and that one strong tiatian
promises more durable peace, and a more exten
sive, valuable and reliable commerce than can
(he tame nation broken into hostile fragment.
It is not my purpose to review or discuss with
loreign States, because whatever might be their
wishes or dispositions, the integrity of our Gov
eminent mainly depeuds not upon them, bat
wpoii the loyalty, patriotism, virtue and intelli
gence of the American people. The correspond
ence itself, with the usual reservation, is herewitn
submitted. I venture to hope it will appear that
we havepracticed prudence and liberality towards
foreign powers, avoiding causes ol irritation,
and with firmness maintained our own rights
and honor. Since, however, it is apparent that
here, as in every other State, foreign danger
necessarily attends domestic difficulties, 1 recoui
mend that adequate and ample measures be
adopted lor maintaining the public defences on
THE COAST DEFENCE.
under this general recommendation
provision for defending our coast
tKvurs to the mind. I also, in the
coast line reaany
tion, ask the attention of Congress to our great
lakes and rivers. It is believed that some Ibrti
tications and depots ol arms and munitions, with
harbor and navigation improvements, at well
elected point upon these, would be of great
importance to the national defence and preserva
tion. I ask attention to the views of the Secretary
of War, expressed in his report upon the same
general subject. I deem it of much importance
that the loyal residents of Eastern Tennessee and
Western North Carolina should be connected
with Kentucky and other faithful parts of the
Union by railroad, and therefore recommend, as
a military measure, that Congress provide for
the construction of such a road as speedily as
po a ble. Kentucky will, no doubt, co-operate,
and through her Legislature make the most
judicious selection of the line. The northern
terminus must connect with .Home existing rail
road, and whether the route shall be from Lex
ington or Nicholasville to Cumberland Gap, or
from Lebanon to the Tennessee line In the
direction of Knoxville, or some still different
route, can easily be determined. Kentucky and
the general Government co-operating, the work
can be completed in a short time, and when
done it will not only bo of vast present us fill
ness but also an invaluable permanent improve
ment iu all the future.
Some treaties designed chiefly for the interest
of commerce, and having no grave political
importance have been negotiated, and will be
submitted to the Semite for their consideration,
although we have failed to induce some of the
commercial powers to udopt a desirable meli
oration for tho rigor of maritime war. We
have thns far removed all thocobstaoles from the
way except such as are merely of temporary
anil accidental occurrence.
REPARATION TO TUB BRITISH SHIP PERTHSHIRE.
I invite your attention to the correspondence
between her Britannic Majesty's Ministers,
accredited to this Government with the Secretary
it State, relative to the. detention of the I5ntnh
-hip Perllttklre, in Juno last; by tho United
States steamer MuimchuieKs,, for it supposed
breach of the blockade. As this detention was
occasioned by an obvious misapprehension of
I he facts, an J as justice requires that we should
comm't no bellig.-rcnt act not founded on strict
ri"ht, as guaranteed by public law, I recommend
that an appropriation be made to satisfy all
reasonable demands of the owners of the vessel
for her dctctitior.
T:iK CLAIM AGAINST CHINA.
I repent tho recommendation of my prede
cessor iu his annual message to Congress iu De
cember last, iu regard to the dispositions of the
surplus which will probably remain after satis
fying the claims of Amui-icm citizens against
Chin i, pursuant to the awards of the Commis
sioners under the act of 3 I of March, 1359. If,
however, it should not be deemed advisable to
carry the recommendation into fleet,- 1 would
suggest that authority be' given for investing the
principal over the surplus referred to, in good
securities with it view to the satisfaction of such
other claims id our citizens against China as nre
not tinliki ly to arise hereafter iu the course of
our extensive trade with that Empire.
RECAPTURE OF VESSELS FROM THE PIIIATES.
By act of the 5lh of August last, Congress
authorized the President to instruct the com
manders of suitable vessels to defend themselves
against and to capture pirates. The authority
has been exercised iu a single instance only. For
the more effectual protection of our extensive
and v.il table commerce in the eastern seas, it
especially seems to me that it would also be
a IvisaMe to authorize the commanders of sailing
vessels to recapture any prizes which pirates
tray take of United States vessels and their car
go, and Consular Courts be established by law
in eastern countries, to adjudicate the case, in the
event that this should not be objected to by the
PROPOSED RKCoQSITIOM OF HATTI AND LIBERIA.
If any good reason exists why we should per
severe longer iu withholding our recognition of
independence and sovereignty of llayti and Li.
Iieria, I am unable to discover it: though un
willing to inaugurate a new policy in regard to
them without the approbation of Congress, I
submit for your consideration the expediency of
an appropriation for maintaining Charge d'Af-
laires near each ot these states. It does not ad
mit of doubt that important commercial advan
tages might be secured by favorable treaties
The operations of tho Treasury during the
period which has elapsed since your adjournment,
has been conducted with signal success; the pat
riotism of the people has placed at the disposal
of the Government the large' means demanded
by the public exigencies. Much of the National
Loan has been taken by the industrial classes.
whose confidence and real for their country's de
liverance from its present peril have induced
them to contribute to the support of the Gov
ernment the whole of their limited acquisitions.
This fact imposes peculiar obligations to econo
my in disbursement and energy in action.
1 he revenue, from all sources, including the
loan, tor the fiscal year ending the 30th of June,
1800, was $86,835,900 27, and the expenditures
for the same period, including payment on ac
count of the public debt, were (84,578,0.14 38,
leaving a balance in the Treasury, on the first of
July, of $2,257,803 93. For the first quarter
of the fiscal year, ending 30th of September,
1861, the receipts from all sources, including the
balance from July 1st, were 1 102,53-2,501) 27.
The expenditures, were $93,239,733 09, leaving
a balance on the 1st of October, 1861, of ,492,
776 18. The estimate for the remaining three
quarters of the year, and for the fiscal year 1862,
together with his views of ways and means for
getting the demand contemplated by them, will
be submitted to Congress by the Secretary of
It is gratifying to know that the expense
made necessary by the rebellion are uot beyond
the resources of the loyal people, and to believe
that the same patriotism w hich has thus far au
tained the Government will continue to sustain
it till peace and Union shall again bless the land.
I respectfully refer to the report of the Secre
tary of War for information respecting the nu
merical strength of the arrny, and for recom
mendations having iu view an increase of its ef
ficiency and the well being of the various branch
es of the service entrusted to hi care. It is
gratifying to know that the patriotism of the
people is equal to the occasion, and that the num
ber ot troops tendered greatly exceed the force
which Congress authorized me to call into the
I refer with pleasure to those portions of this
report which make allusions to the creurutble de
gree of dleipline already attained by our troops,
and to the excellent sanitary condition of the en
The recommendation by tho Secretary for an
organization of the Militia upon a uniform basis,
is a subject of vital importance to the future
safety of the country, and is commended to the
serious attention of Congress.
A large addition to the Regular Army, In con
nection with the defection that has so considera
bly diminished the number of its officers, gives
peculiar importance to his recommendation for
increasing the corps of cadets to the greatest ca
pacity of the Military Acadomy, by more ad
I presume Congress has failed to provide Chap
lains for the Hospitals occupied by volunteers.
This subject was brought to my notice, and I
was Induced to draw up the form of a letter, a
copy of which properly addressed to each of the
persons, and at the dates respectively named and
stated in a schedule containing nlso the form of
the letter marked A, and herewith transmitted.
These gentlemen, 1 understand entered upon the
duties designated ut the time respectively stated
iu the schedule, and hive labored faithfully there
in. I therefore recommend that they be com
pensated at the same rate as chaplains in the
army. I further suggest, that a general provis
ion be u.ude for Chaplains to serve at hospitals
is well as with regiments.
The report of the Secretary of the Navy pre
sents, in detail, the operations of that branch of
she service, tho activity and energy which have
cliaractcrizoJ its administration, and the results
of measures to increase its cflieiency and power.
Such liavH been the udditioiis, by construction
and purelnse, that it may almost be said a navy
has been treated and brought into service since
our difficulties commenced ; besides iblockading,
our extensive coast squadron, larger than ever
lie ti re assembled under our fl ig, have performed
duties which have increased our naval renown,
I would invite special attention to the recom
mendation of the Secretary of tho Navy for a
more perfect organization, now so defective and
unsatisfactory ; and suggestions submitted by
the Department will, it is believed, if adopted,
obviate any difficulties, and tend to promote har
mony, and increase the efficiency of the navy.
REVISION OF THE NAVY RECOMMENDED.
I respectfully recommend to the consideration
of Congress the preset t condition of the statute
laws, with the hope that that body will be able to
find an early remedy lor many inconvenicncic
and evils which constantly embarrass those en
gaged in their practical administration. Since
the organization of the Government Congress has
enacted some five thousand acts and joint resolu
tions, which fill more than two thousand closely
printed pages, and which are scattered through
many volumes. Many of these acts have been
drawn in haste, and without sufficient caution, so
that their provisions aie ofteu obscure in them
selves, or in conflict with each other at least, so
doubtful as to render it difficult for even the best
informed persons to ascertain especially what
statute law is really in force. It seems to me
very important that statute law should be made
as plain and intelligible as possible, and be re
duced to as small a compass as may be consist
ent with the fullness and precision of Uie will of
the Legislature and the perspicuity of its lan
guage. This, well done, would, 1 think, greatly
facilitate the labors ot those whose duty it is to
assist in the administration of laws, and would
be a lasting benefit to the people by placing
before them, In a more accessible and intelligi
ble form, the laws which so deeply concern
their interests and their duties.
I am informed by some, whose opinion I re
spect, that all acts of Congress now in force, and
of a permanent' character, will have to be revised
and re-written, so as to be embraced in one vol.
ume, or at least two volumes of ordinary and
convenient size. 1 respectfully recommended to
Congress to consider the subject, and if my sug
gestions be appropriate, to devise such a plan as
to their minds shall seem most proper for the
settlement of the end proposed.
VACANCIES ON THE SUPREME BENCH.
There are three vacancies on the Bench of the
Supreme Court ; two by the decease of Justices
Daniel and McLane, and one by the resignation
ot Judge Campbell. I have so far forborne
making nominations to fill these vacancies tor
reasons which I will now state. Two of the out
going Judges reside within the States now over
thrown by revolt, so that if successors were ap.
pointed in the same locality, they could not serve
upou their circuits, and man of the roost com.
petent men the e probably would not take the
personal hazard of accepting to serve even here
upon the Supreme Bench.
I have been unwilling to throw all the appoint
ment Northward, thus disabling myself from
doing justice to the South, on return of peace ;
although I may remark, that to transfer to the
North one who has hereu for been in the South,
would not, with reference to the leiritory and
population, be unjust.
During the long and brilliant judicial career
of Judge McLane, his circuit grew into an em
pire altogether to i Urge for one Judge to give
the Courts more than nominal attention, rising
in population from 1,470,000 in 1831, to 6,151,
405 in 1801.
Besides this, the country has generally out
grown our present judicial system of uniformity,
as originally intended. The system required
that all the States shall be accommodated with
Circuit Courts attended by Supreme Judges,
while in fact, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Kan
sas, Florida, Texas, California and Oregon, have
never had any such Courts, nor can this be well
remedied without a change of the system, be
cause the adding of Justices to the Supreme
Court, enough for the accomodation of all parts
of the country with Circuit Courts would create
a Court altogether too cumbersome for a judicial
body of any sort, and the evil of it will increase
as new States come into the Union.
Circuit Court are useful or they are uot use
ful. If useful, no State should be denied them ;
if not useful, no State should have them. Let
them be provided for all, or abolished as to all
Modifications occur to me here which I think
would be an improvement upon our present sys
tem. Let the Supremo Court be of convenient
number in every event ; then let the whole
country be divided into circuits of convenient
size, Supreme Judges to serve in a number cor
responding to t eir number, and let the indepen
dent Circuit Judges be provided lor all the rest ;
or, secondly, let the Supreme Judges be relieved
from circuit duties, and Circuit Judges provided
for all the circuits: or. thirdly, dispense with
Circuit Courts altogether, leaving the judicial
function wholly to the District Courts and an
independent Supreme Court.
OF JUSTICE IN
The unfavorable consequences of the present
insurrection is the suppression in many places of
all ordinary means ot administering civil justice
by the officers, and in the forms ot executing
law. This is the case in whole or in part, in all
the insurgent States ; and as our armies advance
upon and take possession of parts of these States,
the practical evil becomes more apparent, and
there are no courts or officers to whom citizens
of other States may appeal for the enforcement
of their lawful claims against the citizens of the
insurgent States. There is a vust amount of
debt constituting such claims, some have estima
ted it as high as $200,000,000, due in large part
from citizens even now making large sacrifices
in the discharge of their patriotic duty to supt
port tho Government.
Under the circumstances, I have been urgently
entreated to establish, by military power, Courts,
and administer summary justice in such cases.
1 have thus far declined- to do it, not because 1
had any doubt the end proposed the collection
of debts was just and right in itself, but be
cause 1 have been unwilling to go beyond the
presence of necessity iu the casual exercise of
power; but the powers of Congress, it is sup
posed, are equal to the anomalous occasion, and
therefore I refer the whole matter to Congress,
with the hope that a plan may be devised for
tho administration of justice in all parts of the
insurgent States and Territories. It is, however,
uot to be a permanent institution, but a tempo
rary substitute, aud to cease as soon as the or.
dinary Courts can be established in peace.
CLAIMS AOAINST TIIE GOVERNMENT.
It is important that some more convenient
means should be provided, if possible, for the
a ljnslmeiit of claims against the great casualties,
in view ot their increased number by reason of
the war. It is as much the duty of the Govern
ment to render prompt justice against itself, in
favor of citizens, as it is to administer the same
between private individuals the investigation
and adjudication of all claims, in their nature,
belong to the Judicial department. Besides it is
apparent that the attention of Congress will be
more than usually engaged for some time to
come with the great national questions. It was
intended by the organization of the Court of
Claims mainly to remove this branch of business
from the halls of Congress ; but, while the Court
has proved to be an efficient and valuable means
of investigation, it, in a general degroe, fails to
effect the object of it creation, for want of pow
er to make it judgments final. Fully aware of
the delicacy (not to say the danger) of the sub
ject, I commend to your careful consideration
whether this power of making judgments final
may not properly be given to the Court, reserv
ing the right of appeal, on questions of law, to
the Supreme Court, with such other provisions
as experience may have shown to be necessary.
THE POSTAL DEPARTMENT.
I ask attention to the report of the Postmas
ter General. The following is a summary
statement of the condition of the Department :
We give the figures as we find them, without
attempting any correction, though it ic evident
they have been jumbled in the telegraphing.
The revenue from all sources, during the fiscal
year ending the 4th of June, 1861, including the
annual permanent appropriation of $700,000 for
the transportation of th free mail matter, was
$949,296 40 being about two per cent. less
than the revenue of 1860. The expenditures
were 1 13,606,709, showing a decrease of more
than eight per cent, as compared with those of
the previous year leaving an excess of expend
itures of the revenue from the last fiscal year of
over $557,402 71 of gross revenue for the year
ending J une 30th, 1861 ; estimated at an increase
of eight per cent, on that of 1861, leaving 86,
830 00 which should be added to the earnings
of the department for carrying free matter, viz.,
1700,000, making $9,382,000. The total ei
penditnres for 1863 are estimated at $1,252,800,
leaviug an estimated deficiency of $3,345,000, to
be supplied from the Treasury, in addition to the
THE DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA.
The present insurrection shows, 1 think, that
thofextension of this District across the Potomac
River, at the time of establishing the Capital
here, was eminently wise, consequently the
relinquishment of the portion which lies in the
Slate of Virginea was unwise and dangerous. I
submit for your consideration the expediency of
re-establishing the original boundaries, through
negotiations with the State of Virginia.
REPORT OF TUE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
The report of the Secretary of the Interior
with the accompanying documents, exhibits the
condition of the several branches of the publio
business pertaining to that department. The
depressing influences of the insurrection have
been especially felt in the operations of the
patent and general land offices. The aash receipts
from the sale of the publio lands during the last
quarter, have exceeded the expenses of our land
system about $2,000,000. The sales have been
entirely suspended in the Southern States, while
interruption to tho business of ihe country and
drawing of large number of men from labor to
military service has obstructed settlement in the
new States and Territories of the Northwest.
The receipts of the Potent Office have declined
in nine months about $100,000, including a large
reduction of the force employed necessarily to.
make itself sustained.
Tho demands tpon the Pension Office will be
largely increased by the insurrection. Numerous
applications for pensions, based upon the casual
ities of the existing war, ha'o already been made.
There is reason to believe that many who are
upon the pension roll, pnd in receipt ot the
bounty of Government, are in the ranks of the
insurgent army, or giving them aid and comfort.
The Secretary of tho Interior has directed the
suspension of payment of such per sods, upon
proof of thoir disloyalty. I recommend that
Congress authorize that officer to cause the names
of such persons to be stricken from the pension
The relations of the Government with tha
Indian tribes have been lately disturbed by the
insurrection, especially in the northern Superin
tendency and that of New Mexico. The Indian
country, south of Kansas, is in possession of
insurgents from Texas and Arkansas. The
agents of the United States, appointed since the
4th of March, for the Superintendency, have
oeen unaoie to reacn tneir posts, while the most
of those who were in office befors that time.
have espoused the insurrection cause, and have
assumed to exercise the powers of arents bv
virtue of commissions from the insurrectionists.
It has been stated in tho publio prass, that a
portion of these Indians have been organized as
a military force, and nre attached to the army of
the insurgents, but I have nothing official upon
the subject. ' Letters have been written to the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by several
prominent chiefs, giving assurance of their loyal
ty to the United States, and expressing their
wish for the presence of Federal troops to protect
them. It is believed that on the reoccupation of
the country by the Fedeaal foi 'ces, tbe Indians
will immediately cease all hostile demonstrations
and resumo their former relations to the Goveru
AGRICULTURAL BUREAU &UOQESTED.
Agriculture, confessedly the lareer interest of
tho nation, has not a department or a bureau,
but a clerkship only assigned it In the Govern
ment. While it is fortunate the great interest
is so independent in its nature as not to have
demanded or extorted more from the Govern
ment, 1 respectfully ask Congress to consider
whether something more cannot be given volun
tarily, with general advantage. Annual reports
exhibiting theconditioh of agriculture, coincrco
and manufactures, would present a fund of
information of practical value to the country.
While I make no suggestions as to details, 1
venture tho opinion that an agricultural and
statistical bureau might profitably be organized.
THE AFRICAN SLAVF TRADE.
The execution of laws for the suppression of
the African slave trade has been oonfineJ to the
Department of the Interior. It is the subject of
congratulation that the efforts that have been
made lor the suppression of this inhuman traffic
have recently been attended with much success.
Vessels being fitted out for the slave trade have
been seized and condemned. Two masters
engaged in the trade, and one person who
equipped a vessel as a slaver, have been convicted
and subjected to the penaltihs of fine and
imprisonment; and one captain, taking up a
cargo of Africans on hoard of his vessel, has
been convicted of the higest grade of offense in
our laws the puutshment of which is death.
The territories of Colorado, Dacotah and Ne
vada, created by the last Congress, have been
organized, and civil administration has been in-
augnrated there, nnder auspices especially grat
ifying, when it is considered that the leavea of
treason was found existing in some of these new
countries when the Federal officers arrived there.
The abundant resources of these Territories, with
the security and protection offered by the organ
ized Government, will doubtless invite to them
a large immigration when peace shall restore the
business of the country to its accustomed channels.
I received the resolutions of the Legislature of
Coloradowhich evinced the patriotic spirit of
the people of the Territory. . So far the au
thority of the United States ha been upheld in
all tbe Territories, as it is hoped it will be in
future. I commend their interest and defence to
the enlightened and generous care of Congress.
I recommend to the favorable consideration ot
Congress the interests of the District of Colum
bia. Tbe insurrection has been the cause of much
suffering and sacrifice to the inhabitants, and as
they have no representative in Congress, that
body should not overlook their just clsims upou
(Cnnrluded on frnrlh Pup.)