The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, April 01, 1885, Page 96, Image 4

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of November until May, during which period the rainfall
Id Culuiu auJ regular, iiibuiiiig (niUiu clop uui good
pasturage. In the Willamette Valley the annual rainfall
U from 40 to 00 inches averaging aliout CO inches the
name a at Davenport, Memphis and Philadelphia, while
in all other valleys it is sufllciout to prevent any drought
The rain comes gently and without atmospheric disturb
ance; thundor storms are rare. The fact that the great
bulk of the rain fulU during the four months from No
vemW to March is what has given Oregon audi a repu
tation for rainy weather.
The climate of Middle and Eastern Oregon differs in
this from that of tho western part of the State, that there
id much lex rainfall, liocauso, More crowing tho high
summits of the Cascades, the ocean uir curronta have
loen mLIkmI of the greatest part of their moisture.
Consequently, it is colder in whiter and drior at all
seasons. The raiufull, however, throughout the greater
part of Eastern Oregon is suflicicnt to insure large and
remunerative crojw, whilo in other planes there is an
ntnplo supply in running streams for irrigation purposes.
The range of the thermometer is rarely alxve the sum
mer temjwrature of Western Oregon, sometimes reaching
100 degrees, but only at rare intervals. Ordinarily the
thermometer indicates 5K) degrees as about the highest
summer temorature, and 10 degroos as the lowest for
winter, with occasional lajmes to points below tho zero
mark. For sxcial features of tho climate of "The Coast
Region" and "Southern Oregon," see pages IOC and 110.
If these facte prove anything they prove that the
habitable ortions of this whole Northwestern region are
singularly adapted, by virtuo of their climates, to com
forteble outdoor work at all prominent industries the
year round; that with soils of ordinary fertility the vari
ons cereals, fruiU and vegetables can le grown over a
vast extent of now unoccupied territory; that millions of
cattle, horses and sheep can thrive without sholter or
prepared food on almost unlimited natural pasturage;
and, lest of all, tliat litis is .indisputebly a healtliful and
invigorating climate, where epidemics are uuknown and
no distinguishing type of disease exists.
Hurricanes, floods or otlier storms destructive to life
and pttierty are almost unknown in tho history of this
region. The growing season along tho coast is accompa
nied with bounteous showers, whose absence in the inter
tor is not felt Ixwause of the ItcnofWnt distribution of
lands and streams suiteblo for irrigation. During har
vest time there is rarely any raiufall; in fact, such a
catastrophe as loss of emits from drought or flood would
be considered phenomenal
Tho general Uographieai future, the natural re
sources, tho present and possible future industries, the
land under cultivation and that still oen for settlement
or purchase, tether with a fund of information locally
applied, will m found iu the following detailed descrip
tion of the State by district and counties, and remark
on the condition and poaihilitios of agriculture, fruit
growing, stock raising, mining, manufacturing, ednea
ttoual facilities, transportation, lines, eta.
Willamette Valley.
Vncs, nearly half a century ago, the praises of Ore
gon were sung along the frontier by trappers, who spoke
so glowingly of its great beauty, mild climate and won
derful fertility that a few venturesome men crossed the
wilderness to reach it, the Willamette Valley alone was
referred to; and a few years later, when long trains of
creaking, white-topped wagons toiled annually across the
plains and mountains, the hundreds of hardy pioneers
from the Mississippi Valley were intent only upon reach
ing the groat grassy vale through which courses the
Willamette. It was then supposed to be the only portion
of Oregon suited to agriculture; but though we all now
understand how great an error that idea was, time has
only served to oonfirra the exalted opinion they then pos
sessed of its marvelous fertility and genial climate.
The Willamette Valley extends from the Coast Range
Mountains on the west to the Casoades on the east, and
from the Columbia River on the north to the Calapooia
Mountains, which separate it from Southern Oregon on
the south. Through it run the Willamette River and its
numerous tributaries, such as the Clackamas, Molalla,
Santiam, McKenzie's Fork, Long Tom, Mary's, Tualatin,
etc. The valley is about 130 miles in length by an aver
age width of 100, including the foothills of the Coast
Range and Cascades. Lying wholly or partially within
it are the counties of Multnomah, Clackamas, Marion,
Linn, Lane, Benton, Polk, Yamhill, Washington and
Columbia, possessing one-seventh of the area and three
fifths of the population and taxable property of the State.
The altitude of the valley varies from twenty to four
hundred foot Bbove the level of the sea.
On tho arrival of the earlier settlers the lands were
found to consist of two sorts forest and prairie the
latter bare of vegetation other than the rank grasses
which thon grew luxuriantly upon every open spot. The
prairie extended at intervals on both sides of the river
from the vicinity of the Falls of the Willamette south
ward to tho Calapooias. Nearly all tho elevations of land
separating them were covered with timber and brush.
Excepting the marks of tillage on cultivated fields, and
the evidences of civilization, the valley remains, as regards
ite salient features, about as the first settlers found it
There are the broad and fertile prairies separated by
ridges aud by streams shaded by strips of woodland, and
the heavy forests of timber trees, covering the mountains
and hilly slopes as with a garmeut
The first acta of the earlier settlers were to select the
most available tracts of prairie, while some laid claim to
such p aces as in the nature of things would become most
valuable. Thus tho lands in the vicinity of boat landings
and water powers were soon taken. There was a suf
ficiency for alL though the Donation Land Act, passed by
Congress for the exclusive benefit of Oregon, gave to each
married settler the generous subsidy of 640 acres of land
of hi. own selection, and to the single person 820 acres,
mat act was a temporary one only. With such induce
menu, imm.grante enme i rapidly, and in due process of
time the valley Ucame, as to iU prairie, covered by the