The west shore. (Portland, Or.) 1875-1891, December 01, 1877, Page 61, Image 13

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The following address was recently delivered
before the Warsaw (Illinois) Horticultural
Society ly Charles Hay:
How to counteract city uflaanoa and keep
boys on the farm is the subject of our essay. A
more difficult question on a more Important
subject to treat could not well lie selected for
a horticultural or an agricultural essay. The
tendency of all rural popahtioat) both in this
country and in Europe, tor the last half cen
tury, has been to congregate in cities. How to
counteract wns icuueucy is me question oe
lore us.
Cities may be thought to afford more oppor
tunities and facilities for Requiring knowledge
than the country and occasionally fortunes are
more readily accumulated in the city than in
the country, yet tuc lauures in ut.qaiiing
wealth or even a competency in the city art
much more frequent than in the country. The
facilities for acquiring knowledge in the country
as well as the city is the main point to be con
sidered in iii'' discussion of thisquustiuii. How
ehall we present to thu miuds of the. young men
of the country those advantages of culture, of
acquiring that retiiiemeut of taste, those means
of rising in the social scale, which arc so apt to
be thought only attainable iu the city, is the
How to acquire knowledge in the tirst place
and then how to apply that knowledge when
once acquired, so as to render its possessor
happy and contented on the farm, is the ques
tion. I would say in the tirst place, let us
endeavor to introduce into country homes as
far as possible the advantaged of culture to be
found iu the cities.
If possible, it would be well that every head
of a family in the country should be an in
structor. If our boys on the farm could find
jeeted, both in ancient and modern times, they
are an educated and intelligent people. Thev
were intelligent people when they tirat fettled
there. Every head of a family was an instruc
tor. According to the literature "f that day in
the most northern parts of Europe, and long
before the revival of learning in more southern
Europe, they had introduced the best of the
Grew and Roman literature amongst them.
They had produced their authors m poetry,
science aud general literature. They produced
their statesmen and writers on political econ
omy, while more southern Enrol-, favored
with a more genial and more productive soil
and climate, was still clouded in nwdhaval
darkness. One of the most eloquent pages ot
Qibboo is devote! to the description of the
en lightened condition of the people on this
small island, while the rest of more wealthy
aud highly-favored Europe were groping iii
ignorance and superstition. Famine has occa-
times a continual struggle against want. Their
dependence on the sea lor a large portion of
their living early made them adventurers on
that element, and they now claim the honor of
having discovered our norther continent four
centuries before Columbus was born. They
celebrated their 1,000th anniversary in 1874
most of the Europeans sending representatives
on tlie occasion: our ow iiUoverimient, 1 believe,
being represented in the person, it' 1 mistakt
not, of liayard Taylor.
But how has it been that a colony of Norwe
gians in the ninth century should pOIIOM such
a literary population iu the midst of pOTCrky
and destitution 1 The reason is at hand. It
was a literary colony at the commencement.
Every head of a family was eapable of instruct
ing the minora in the household. In thu long
hours of the winter evening, where the sun
only shone from four to live hours iu the day,
it was the custom for one to read while other
niembers of the family InWcd; for all had to
The recent commotions in our larger cities fully
prove this.
High social and official position is not incom
patible with a country residence and farm labor.
Our Vice-1 'resident in Mr. Lincoln's tirst admin
istration was then a farmer on 10 acre of land
Nathaniel Macon, one of the most distinguished
statesmen of the South in its palmiest days,
was a very successful farmer, and labored with
his own hands on the farm. John Randolph
once said of him that he was the wisest man he
ever knew. But why talk to sensible men or
sensible boys and young men aWiit the respoeti
bility of farming aud farmers. Does not all
the world know that the wealth of the world
must come from the soil? What nation in an
cient or modern times ever Kvame great that
did not DIM its prosperity upon the farming in
terests And what nation jis a (siwer has not
disappeared from the map of the world when
its agriculture declined? Look at the old As-
.swiaii. iuii, Iiiiil.ui uili. i . i.-i u. . :aiirc : t no
hears of them now only as he reads ancient his
tory 7 Yet travelers tell us all these once pow
erful empires night be restored to their former
rielies ami power ny wise ami stimuli agricul
ture. So might the land of dudea and Asia
Minor where ml Russian aud Turk are now
fighting for supremacy, a land not worth the
cost of the struggle in its present condition.
How Wombs Ui s vvtkk Mkn in Knu We have an English exchange named
Iron. It is a hunt -hcarte.l concern ai
at march t from the foUowfol quotation: A
recent case of misconduct bf I drunken sailor
in a third-class railway carriage, the terror of
his female fellow travelers, the eommuniea-tion-roH),
and the general break down of ordi
nary precautions and regulations, has again
provoked a demand lor more carriages sev
apart for Indie on our principal lines of rail
way. Like many other Dries, this last otic is
very fill v, and could only have arisen from a
congenial spirits in the family circle to Mgfa
with and in the neigh liorhood a more enlarged
circle for the exercise of intellectual gifts, he
would not, if rightly impressed, indulge that
spirit of adventure which iniels him to go to
the city in search either of knowledge or of
fortune, when both may be acquired mm cer
tainly iu the country; knowledge quite as
certainly aud fortune more certainly, if even in
a .lower decree than in the city. The failures
in acquiring fortunes suddenly in the city, or
even mat a lUi oi mm aim laoor, are uw em
mon to escape any I
111 attention who will taki
Uu mIm to mnuire into the facts of the Ml
Poverty i the rail with our city population
generally, and wealth, or even a com pete DOT,
the exception. Ute event should impress the
tnin.t. ,.f mir hnvs and vomit: uieii very forcibly
with regard to the extreme uncertainty of
acquiring and preserving a competency in the
city. The events of the at few months
have giveu 01 a fearful warnimj of the danger
ous consequences of a crowded population who
danandlnnoa the income of daily, weekly or
' .1.1.. ' I It- uh..i. o commercial
.ooouuj - - v :v , . ... ....... tt.r i- I ,.l
revulsion comes, such as we nave mm pns aim hiwiji , 7 " .
l t ami aoonoubia both time and mean of
subsistence. As ft consequence the penile are
not only intelligent and cultivated, hut they are
moral above any other people uf Europe.
They nre attached to their homes a probably
no other people are. Now, if a people
dwelling in such a barren inhospitable region
can lie with their homes, wny cnuimi
the young men, and the older ones, too, of our
country, V contented and happy iu their coun
try homes, where suWistenee and every comfort
of life can bo obtained with only reasonable ei
ertion, by all who are Dot debated by indolence
or vicious indulgences. Says an Islamite clergy
man, in ipeaking of the morality of Ins ootuv
tryincn: "The extreme jMiverty of 0OT people
lm nmm ,,( tin- chief cailNCS of this morality."
Hut a (ioriiian author has truly added, after
quoting this remark; there must have been a
strong moral inutioauoii i-ioinit (' nm tj
ba have sueh an effect; otherwise poverty DfO-
dueea a very dilfereut result. Why then, we
rejwat. swing such result in the rural pula
liun of an island where existence can I; ouly
sustained by the strenuous exertions of brain
fchmns dorlnmnJu lastltew years. Lei us now
hope that if no other good results follow from
the late terrible convulsions in our Urge cities
on the labor question, that it will teach our
hoyi and young men that a comfortable ami
independent living may 1 acquired wilh more
certainty in the country than in the city.
On the subject of dometic traili ng and
instruction, if the maiiru ia true that hitery
teaches by example, we will call up the
history and example of the people of Iceland
an island away up in the inortbern ocean, col
nniu.1 more than 1.000 veari aim from Norway
by an intelligent, moral rural population, who
fled frotn religious persecution at llial distant
nril t iht harren and inhospitable island, i
where their courage and intelligent self-reliant
enableil them to maintain themselves in a state
of civil and religious liberty. It is a volcanic
island, as we all know, and nature has rendered
it to far unproductive that life has to Ire main
tained by a continual struggle with the elements
and the barrenness of the toil. Yet with all
the privations to which the inhabitants aresob-
I i n l inhabitants on the island, ma we nut lie
lu-ve that the rural population of any oontsM
of our country, so much more highly blessed with
soil and climate, may be taught to understand
and Mieve that their welfare and pPqerity may
be letter assured in the country than in the
city. Especially when Iwginning with an in
telligent and moral community Is-forehand,
where a fair foundation for future success may
belaid. Having a moral foundation to
with, by cultivating halrita of reading and study
within the family circle: by cultivating (esthetic
tastes in home adornment; by impressing upon
ih minds of the r:-m a ueneratmti that it is Oft
all cold that glitters; that the apearaLee of
wealth in the cities is often delusive; that there
are tnnrv failures in enterprises in the itn
th.n m the country: that the acotmition of
knowledge or wealth doe not ueeessanly belong
to the denizen of the city; that in times of
great commercial dUturlswicea. such as we have
seen of late years, the population of the cities,
fntin the hinhest t the lowest claws, suffer far
more than the inhabitants of the country
j'nHin completely ignorant of the phenomena
of rail wny traveling in tin country. I'h in
stitution of a ladies carriage signifies M mneh
iraate of ipaoa, ami nothing mora. ihes anu
Imt get into the carriage set apart for them.
They refuse to do so, either on the Metn)li
tanorauy other railway. It is known that
our sister hate each other with a hate to
which that of men for one another is "as moon
light unto sunlight, ami as water unto wine,"
and that more bitterness i compressed into
the short ipaoe ipent in the drawing room after
dinner than would last a maie ciuoiorai.
mouth, so that it is not wonderful that ladies'
carriage should be abandoned to servant aud
liabies. The llritifh matron will not, except
in church, ! forced to keep to her own side.
Do the contrary, she pursues unhappy man
even in In amusements, lie cannot yacht,
hunt, or even shoot without her: she haunts
criminal trials, and at last has pursued the
hapless creature into hi club. How, then, can
she lie execteil to oe. upy a ladies carriage on
a railway? As a proof, however, that the
writer who pmiic ladies' carriage i not the
only person DMWH the age, we may cite the
instance, of the 'ommittee of the LsSOdOM
Library, who have set apart a room exclusively
for ladies It is a nftf that More iwriietra-
ing this rash act the Committee had not visited
the reading nom of the British Museum,
where unlucky men wamlrr alsuit in hopeless
misery, unable to tlnd s scat, while the liart
reserve! for ladies is wholly unoccupied, owing
to the horror w hich these fair creature niter-
for each other, ami tin ir invni'-ible desire
to mingle on equal tems with the inferior sex,
Vh .lot'KSHY CKE. Half pint ric-e, leaser
iM.mful of butter, two tablesiKHtnfuls of milk
two tablepfxwifuls of tine rice Hour; loil the
rice quite soft, and stir the butter in while hot.
If the bread i w snted for breakfast, the rice
must be Uriled the night before; and if wanted
for tea it must be prepared in time lor it to le
, cold )efore the other ingredient an
tuned in. When ready to bake, stir in the
milk and nee Hour; spread the mixture alout
half a inch thick, in a ihallow well greased
lUke half an hour in a moderate oven.
"They all do It"
There are few books that comprise as much
vicious teaching within the since of four or
five hundred panel as is contained in this little
phrase "they all do it." which has been pla
canlcd on thu bill-hoanls, and called into the
ears of the public for some time st. This ia
the one sentence which takes the courage com
pletely out of youth, searing their conscience
as with a red-hot iron, and permitting despair
to carry them off molly Into the depths of
"Oh, they all do it; why should not you?"
That is the suggestion, "That man there lie
and cheats, and will commit any crime which
the law diH's not make dangerous. So it ia
with all of them. There is no use in your try
ing to he different from other people." Such
is the way the temptation comes to the young
man tftrOWO on the w orld with littl" know!
edge of it way, and perhaps shielded only by
the loose training of an over-foud mother.
IVnole are cros-dy unmoral" it is said. "Even
temperance advocates get drunk in private;
hureh deacons sw indle savings Hanks; all you
ee of morality is but a surface show. Iteueath,
there is concealed wickedness. Von will lind
you must follow the multitude;" and the youth
with tlie pleasure oi the world thus held up
before hi glowing imagination, and full of
Isidily hualtli, plunges forthwith into what he
baUavM to be the world.
If the devil had concentrated all his cunning
during thu centuries which have- elaosed since,
his ejection from Paradise, he could not have
preduced a more powerful argument with
which to conquer the soul of man than this,
i nay nu do u.
Rut YonUfl man listen. The sentence is n lie:
as base and foul a lie a ever was conceived in
the mind of man or devil. They rfost'l "all do
There are thoiinaiul uihui thousand ol
good, pure men and women iu this world, lad
a it may seem, wu are leading upright live.
l'liev U-licve in Cod. ami in the command of
virtue, mid an going along with the happiest re
sults to thenUWVN and their ticighlmrs. There
are men w ho think that tiny are put into this
world not to gratify tbalr own luise apatite,
hut to 1h true and noble and high minded
men. There are man who would disdain to tell
a lie. There are men who would disdain to bo
aooaaeory to a w omen's fall. There are men
who would disdain to take an advantage in
trade, or to do auv other sclliidi or im-an action.
There are man who try to be just, alwas, and
kindly ImiMi iii words nml feelings to all.
There are men who lead hmnble, unpretentious
live, and who without making it known to the
world are tlailv doing a vast amount ot good
among their futlnw men.
And. i it strange to ny these men lead
ry happy lives and as a rule very successful
lives. While the iinpiineipled man may enjoy
temporary raoonin, poonei or later he will bui
fer for his lack of honesty. There nn a thou
sand ways iu w hich v irtue revenge herself upon
him. Bttt til one way or another be gets his
deserts. There ore plenty of criminal around
you, it is true. Rut they am to be pilied, not
imitated. Never believe that what some do,
all do; make in your own paraon a standing ex
ample ol the falsity of "They all do it."
.V. ft Mrrrmitilf Journal.
The illustration which we give on this jtage,
is descriptive of one of the notable incidents of
country life, namely, bee hunting. Although
baahnntara in then- report! of these advent
ure generally report natisfactory returns ill
honey, they almost invariably dwell most on
the plaaanrable axottamant attending the hunt.
Tin programme oi the bee. hunt rariea eotne
w hat in different I . i - i A very common
mode, and one which we will upsu is Iteing
mod by partus in the accompanying picture is
follows: Ihc i, n'. i resort hi the daytuno
to localities when- these wild sw arm are sup
posed to exist, and endeavor to rnticu the boo
away from their tree-hive. A common
method to accomplish this parpOM U to create
a strong but agreeable lor, by filling the ooll
of old lumey comlw with aniseed and burning it
betw een heated iron or stone, i in attract
the bean, and in thu vicinity of these enticing
fume, honey or somu other bee food isplai-ed.
The been feed oh tins.
Wlileli piUnuf, tW I0i mrrry Iftaieh BOOM
, tlie lent "Kill "f llilrr Kin ct "
Thu liunter follow them iu their llight and
tlms ascertain their retreats. At night they
repair to thu detected hiding place, provided
With axes, torches and vessels for traiixo-t-ing
their swunt treasure to their homes.
A Fi.v is TUB Kan. Two curious designs
are in great favor lor jewelry ami tuoocii imr
One is tin- chicken's daw. Such claws
.1,. ., ... I nhlak-M I,, . as lit:dlc J t
The ormaaMnt hsik fonnidahlu on velvet Ixiwe.
It is also teen for drediiks. ItaU and mice
are having a tine scramble over lailius rings
and shawl-pins. Itut thu uukindest thing in
tins line is tlie real ny. 11 is simpiy mouimi
a ntud ami wurn in the ear j lady may
take it iu her head to put on "lie only, and a
friend ia eure to approach with a compliment,
fancying it is real. He w ill I0M wonder at the
insects perseverance aim ttnieavor vt lrignien
il. wlicii tin- wearer will laugh ami say he
been caught. It i ratlu-r .11.. but the old
sticking plaster monfhr had no more sense in
them. There are so many obnoxious butzing
thing in this world that, whether two to six
legged, it ia a satisfaction to catch one now and
then. ii-m l.tttrr.
Finn Lino Mr. CampUll Morilt, ot
lUltiui'Te, ML, has recently patented a new
method of preserving the juice of lemons, cur
rauia, (rnge im ciinrr iruiwi. im no
juice, with or without sugar, with any kind of
cooked meal, makes tue mass into casna anu
liakea them. These eases are afterward ground
up and used to make a very jialatable fruit
farina. The fruit juices are said to retain their
original flavor ami character indefinitely, and
thus the fruit bread may lecome a valuable and
convenient addition to the daily ration of soldiers
in the field.