Daily capital journal. (Salem, Or.) 1903-1919, July 28, 1916, Page SEVEN, Image 7

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    Story of WafrCbndifi6ris'6f
Armies at End of Two Year's Conflict
- The British Army inltv of unnrepnredness; of if vou don't proved too gigantic a burden for him dier army and a oitizca one. Thus. lift-
By Ed L. Keen llik it ,,at tht ..... (;ei.mIlnv 9tiu is or anv other mail 13 bear. j-er two years of -war and many disss-
( United Frees stuff correspondent) I "eVpiii the fruits 'of TrepareXe " I There. i no discredit to the memory ters, Jbcatutta.au army believes its dark
London, .luly K(By mail)-Si.ccessiT;,n, sirSouulns Haie has failed ser'i-'of th'e late war secretary in saying : est days are over.
in modern warfare isn't measured miouslv to dent the ' enemv's lines is no
terms of real estate. .'greater reflection upon his military
If it were tireat Britain and her al-;,kill than Hie fuilnres nf his nrede.es-1
lies might point with considerable :
tkri.la irt tha a pimi iui riitn ill ths lnt rwn .
r,,,,v " -'-i
The second anniversary of the war :
finds tae allies in possession ot an tnelliie to cover. The British now oecu
lormer -great teutonic colonies xeept;,,iv trenches extending from the I'hnn
Germun East Atnca. latest advice Iiei of Marieoiirt with the exception
indicates that this particular parcel or o). a verv small Mll nv tlie .,...
land is about to fall into the hands ot i Minns ." total distance of more than
General Smuts and h:s Belgian and . mie8i or aeary one fourth of the
1'ortusese friends a mere matter of eiltire wvstern front. Furthermore,
some 384,079 square miles, or in itself, he lg maintaining heavv reserves, snh
179,2911 square miles larger than (ler-jjwt t0 anv (.aJ for h-ell from tlle
many. J French.
liut as Aapnieon onse.rve.i, rue smusu,
ing of. armies is the only thing that!
matters, liermatry ' n'mies nre today
. 1 ,l.M u.AWA 1
JUSI as imi.ll ui'" ...-..
wvi vMra null. Tlie outnosts mav he
Of 'little more I
regarded as negligible
nccount. in their border aspects.
been the misfortunes of the allies in
.a lipnu, luesopu.auua. uau ...
and 111 the
mi V , t, m,ti f their offensive, this has been direct-
The last year on tl c west ern front, t hle , 'inefficiet eo-ordina-has
been one ot stnleme There - stuff work. The reason is very
have 'been treinendou, both f b ama,eurs
bitten a few slices out of tlie other i f tin tl,i- .wine.
ttw- Aptii 1 imiir.rtnnr ruli turns
have been cnpti.ed and some of tb g. hern
aave neen reeapiureu, u. . times the size of the
a large vaie map .. lu..., Auenst 4. 1914. Man
eye signr TO ueiect ine cmuigc,,
armies, -their losses reeruiteu, reniniu
Defenses Now Impregnable
Under the new style of intensive
trench 'warfare which has been steadi
ly developing on this front during the
two vears, the defences of each have
apparentlv become impregnable. The
- . 1 .. .1. '.naA
mi::, l tw,o
ur. V".
..:Uln .inmnim I.iintl tllA AthPT.
" . r . 8.000,000 War Workers
"Attrition" has become the motto! Adding to this number those who
on the western front lor both nrmies. have been brought in under the recent
Granted enough powerful guns, with conscription net somewhat less than
muiicient ammunition, concentrated i a million and those employed in the
upon anv one sector, either mav at anv munitions and naval ship building in
time clean up the intervening 'wire en-1 dustries, the second anniversary of the
tanglements, demolish the opposing! war finds approximately eignt million
front line trenches and occupy their1 men nnd women directly engaged in
mint onlv to find further 'progress; wur work or in other words, one person
blocked bv more intricate and more i out of every six in the Lintcd King
elaoornte defences in the rear. Vpres. dom.
Loos, Hooge nnd even Verdun are no I This feat is all the more remarkable
longer of especial consequence in the j when one considers that Britain wus
military sense. Thev are merely geo-jnot a military nation, in the sense thnt
military sense, rney are mereiy gco-jiiut u iiuiium minvu, ... ...v
craphical noints with much more geo- the others were. ...
era diV, even mflfe strongly defended,! It was this defkiener of visiot
spread out behind them. ' (caused the British public to pile
1 ..... .... . ..... ..1...,.I.1a.(i vt'ltnt 'nvnt.
Grent Britain still is paying-the pen-!ono
Arc You Past 30 Years?
Take Hot Water and 'Anuria"
People are realizing more and more I
j .u . .1 , i . i 1
very da. that the kidneys, just as do;
every da that the kidneys, just as ;
the bowels, need to be flushed oocn-.
sionally. The kidneys are an elimina-!
tive organ nnd are constantly working, 1
enrntino tho nnisons from the hloml. '
Under this continual and perpetual I
action thev are apt to congest, and
then trouble etnrts. Uric acid backs
up into the system, causing rheuma-1 acid poisoning. Then ask your drug
tim. nenmliiin. dronsy ami monv crist for "Anuric" and you will very-
other serious disturbances. Doctor
Pierce of Buftnlo, New fork,- advo-
t.s that every one should drink I
plenty of pure water between meals. I If you have that tired, worn-out feel
Every day should exercise in the out-, ing, baikache. rheumatism, neuralgia,
door air sufficiently to sweat profusely, or if your sleep is disturbed by too tre
and from time to' time stimulate the ; quent' urination, get Dr. Pierce Anuric
kidney action by means of "Anuric." Tablets Pt drug store, full treatment
This preparation has been thoroughly ; $1.0.0, or send 10c for trial package to
tried out at his Sanitarium, in the sime i Dr. Pierce, Invalids' Hotel, Buffalo,
way as his "Favorite Prescription" for In. Y.
Travel Center
Over the
Ask local agent
John M. Scott General Passenger Agent, Portland, Oregon
Coos Bay Riiilroad Celebration: Murshfield snd North Bend, August
ttth. 25th and 20th. Low round trip fares. .
sor (ie,lern French , -rcrc upon his.
m i . i . . i .. i
i rue, ne nn nun mure men. mm, wiiii-
mln)ition9 hut he has had a loimerf
Are Poorly Officered
Tint Haig's nrmies are suffering
1 rum 111c pmt uni'i 1 us iiiwt- ui
.r.lr. thot- iniwlonnntnlv nf-
i. . . . .. .
fil'"ed' '"P'iUy in the staff depart-
i..!Ulciu.. in lieuny eer, iiismiu-e bmiici
nue , , , , r:.: 1.
I lit' wjir sianeu, wuere me rL(isu ui-
mies have met with reverse or have
fBik,(l , ,uuia ,he immediate ob.jeCt
sutdcient num
that is now ten
one she had on
ifestly this -per
iod .has been much too snort whereiu
to compete with staff efficiency of n
military machine of lorty years
Hut if Britain's sureesses in the
field have been overly brilliant, no one
will dispute that her achievement in
recruiting. OT2a...ng rTaiiiing uuu
eaiiiimiiie an nnuv or more tciau iie
on ine -viminmrv priuripiv, iw
been one of the marvels of military
sion that
man's shoulders what eventually
weak women and "Golden Medico
Discovery," the standard herbal systen
of whu,h now come j,
"Golden Medical
of hich now come in
thl,.t form for convenience of carrying
and taking). "Amine " 19 now being
introduced here, and many locnl people
are duilv testifying to its porfectness
When' you have backache, dizzy spells
or rheumatism, heed nature's warning.
lit means that you are a victim to uric
soon become one of hundreds who
dailv give their thankful indorsement
to this powerful enemy to uric ocid.
for Outing Trips
is the week-end fare to the
beautiful Newport Beaches; it's
cool, and comfortable at the
beach. You don't have to exert
yourself swimming, just camp
and rest near the sound of the '
oeenn breakers. Week-end fares
return limit is Monday.
Writs or ask for
booklet en
for information.
railed, in .art. As an organ-j ,
" and trainer of human war mater-, !
was superb. England s new ar- ;
m.v wa8 proper y labeled Kitchener s , .
4rmv ' (111
- ; , , i
tne mcnuuie-ai .siue wi;.,
. . . '
T,lea r-nulanu woue up. . at was uu-1
ti....i irniiAini iiioi .w ...... . v
man s war, Lloyu ueorge was muur
minister of munitions with authority
to .commandeer the industries of the
The Russian Army. ..
By William Philip Simms.
(United Press staff correspondent.)
l'etrograd, July 1 (By- mail.) "The
BiHsian army is twice as big as it was
when the war started, is better fed,
equipped, and munitioned. Militarily,
we are 'able to carry our part of the
It was the president of the duma,
Mikhail Kodzianko, who told me this, a
leader known to Russia as a frank, out
noken man. This man knows something
about armies. He began life as an of-j
ficer from a military academy. Me is
aetiely engaged on army problems
Duma member Sergius Snidlovsky,
leader of the Progressive Bloc, control
ling element of the assembly, gave the
same answer,, adding:
"The army is better than it has ever
been. Its spirit is perfect. In the
conntrv the neoplc arc too busy to be
pessimistic. Townspeople love to tell
alnrnuug tales which grow. At the tront
with the soldiers it is as nnotner worm.
Everybody is cheerfnul. To some neu
trals.' the Russian army has been a dis
appointment, judging it by German
standards of perfection. Judged other
wise, the Russians have accomplished
heroic things. .
Russia s vasrness
Russia stretches twice as far from
east to west as the United States. Nhe
is as wide as from ftew Xork to an
Francisco. Her population is thinly
distributed over this tremendous area
40 times that of Germany railways are
few and, for a campaign against tier
many, inconveniently laid.
When war began, the Russian army
was undergoing complete reorganiza
tion. Mobilization caught it at the :
worst moment. The new untried mo
bilization scheme as stopped and the
old one resorted to.
Russiu is 60 per cent peasant and re
serves cannot be notified quickly as ia
Germany. Once notified, many must
walk great distances to the nearest set
tlement. From here the first small
group walks or rides to a village on a
ruilwuv and from here to a city to be
equipped and despatched to tlie army,
It is a slow process, hard to improves
upon Until Russia has better transpor
tation and communication.
Quick-mobilizing countries mobilize
on the frontier.
Russia, unable to
mm;.,... r,f m. m. tl,o oncmv'n
ury line in time, concentrates in
the interior. She cannot hope to begin a
war on the offensive but expects to ical perfection necessary for the mili
coinmeiice hostilities in a clash inside itary requirements than attained it be-
her own territory against inva
Russia then performed a heroic thing
when she threw herself across the bord- to a call en masse which would serious
er into eastern Prussia five days after ly affect the French Industrial, eco-
the war began, unprepared by at least
a month, though she knew herself to
The world knows the disaster to the
Russiuns among the Mnzurinn marshes
of Rennenkamp's defeat at Osterode
Into in AiimiHt after he had thrown von
Hindenburg back from Insterburg, Ko-.a
nigsburg, Allenstein and Gumbinncn.
This was kushih s tirsr sacririce.
Her Work Was Heroic
It is only 180 n.iles from the nenrest
point on the Russian frontier to Berlin.
I.ooking at the map, Bidewnlk strateg
ists opined that Russia ought to make
the distance in SO dnvs. But even had
Russia mobilized, struck via short line, 'has spared her men by superior genius
she would have reached Berlin only to,'" organization. '
receive a mortal blow from north and Upbuilding the material side of the
south cutting off and dooming her in- French machine involved greater gen-
vnding army. Both eastern Prussia ana
Gnlicia had to be occupied before tlie
. ' 1, l i
i-oseti route id uerun coutu even oe ui-
;v.,.,ln,l . Tnr.inr.nl
So Gnlicia was
...... n,i .,,;.l I,l.rtr
and Przemvsl taken bv the' forces un-
iler General Russki who mastered
country clear to the crests of the Car-
Then time, distance, luck of railway
facilities, bad roads and other physical
hindrances outdid him-these and great -
Iv reinforceu Austrian armies framed
with Germans and led. in part by Ger-
! m.. tj. s
man ornccr. me nunninu rem-ai .run.
i- i. .. n.o rult
BlikH V he Western front by the
, . , D ... i . , ,,,,
french and British, unabU, , to
an inch there. thefieraHS prteeted
tneir trenches barbed-w.re-entangle-
ments-nd.mach,e-gun.y.tem from the
Channel to kwitzorlaua, then threw her
was captured, Plock. taken and one by
one. qu cklr he historic cities and for-
treses of 'all Poland, including War-
rpniftintntr aTrpnirrii on roinoa. lamt.
saw. the capital, fell
ti fi unbeatable -
Ti is said Germany aimed to crush
Russia and make a separate peace after.
Wnrnnw. But Russia was not crushed.!
She knows defensive, fighting too we...
She lost much,.but her army-is stronger
now than ever. A high French official
said to me:
"Russia is unbeatable. She is too big.
She can keep on retreating until at last
the enemy will be swallowed tin."
in the retreat rrom X'olanii tdc sriny
had much to contend with. It was bad
ly munitioned. The minister of war, Gen
eral Soukhomlinov, deemed responsible
for the army during this period, has
been relieved of his duties and now
awaits trial in the fortress of Peter and
Paul, on an island in the Neva.
When Grand Duke Nicholas was sent
to the Caucasus, the czar himself took"
command of the Russian front proper.
He now spends little time in Petrograd.
For the last few months, the citizen
organizations of Russia have been back
ing up the army with vigor. So unified
are these groups that there are today
two armies fighting for Russia a sol-
TBeErench Army
By Henry-Wood '
(United Press staff correspondent)
.PariB, July 1 (By .niail)j"Witiiin
P" of
maintaining her own unequal end in
the world's greatest war, France has
built up a military machine that to
day the French contend i9 superior to
the organization which Germany was
forty years in preparing. ' . "
France is not a military natiou. She
does not boast of her war engine, but
she takes credit for genius in organ
ization and resourcefulness which she
woukt have preferred to employ ' in
pursuits of peace.
That her armies today are superior
to those of Germany, France feels has
been demonstrated by the successtul
resistance to date. Germany has had
to divide her organization on various
fronts, but has opposed man for man
on the French front, and there is rea
son to -believe that in most combats
she had Jiad numerical 'superiority.
Barring the first two months of the
war, wiien unprepared France fell back
under the impetus of this world's Co-
losus, she has held . her own. Before
the war ends, she expects to have dem
onstrated that she can do more than
France feels Verdun is the supreme
test of the present relative efficiency
ot the two fighting machins. Best es
timates availuble here place the total
of German troop9 employed there
since the beginning of the battle at 1
000,000. France can givd - the names
and numbers of German regiments to
establish this figure.
France has had no more than half
that number. The Germans themselves
place the total of French troops at Vcr
dun at 500.000. Home neutral military
experts give the same figure while
the Swiss and Argentine military at
taches with the crown prince's army
place the figure so low as 8,"iO,OO0. Vet
the French have more than held their
own at Verdun.
5,000,000 In Service
This intensive organization has cost
France tremendous effort. Since the
beginning of the war,' 5,000,000 French
men have worn tne rrencn uniiorm
actual service. With a population
of fewer than 40,000,000 -one person
of every eight in France, regardless
of age, sex or physical ability, has ser
ved. Before the wni, eacn class as it was
called to the eolors with its attainment
of military age, gnvc France but 330.-
000 soldiers. Since war began, the
classes of 1916,; 1917 and 191S, the
last not called but its number kuown,
have yielded 30(ljOuo men each. The
explanation is that when France had
to create a military machine in a hur
ry .societies for, military prcaration
sprang up. The -youth of:, r ranee r)e
gan in these societies a course of rigid
.;iw..,i. r,.;i i.rnniv o,i,uti , v, i
the result that 50,00o' more soldiers
in every class have attained the phys
fore the war. France can still
another million men without recourse
nomical and commercial lite that is
running as smoothly ns her military
niacin nc. She does not' believe she
will ever have to do it.
Military Engine Perfect
The French military engine has at
tained its present perfection without
terrible toll of human life. The class
'of 1910 was called out and prepared
but it has never been sent to the
front; the class of 1917 still is in train
ing, while the class of 1918 is simply
in the hands of privnte societies for
military preimrution. France's new
steel helmet alone has reduced the
head wounds X 1-3 per cent. France
, " ... v.. ........
who is wearing tie same uniform or
'nuinrr nil ALIlen nf till. MAP TnH fPfill l
I nc eniereu me war wmi. nn hum-
been entirely refitted many times. Be-
sine ine muiiiuons niui riinerv u.
complisli meats, the above fact . is not
'ven wormy or mcuiiou.
"". muitary accompnsu-
Iment of France has been the generous
J'P Mended her allies, espcially the
l , 1nl. , .,.
' 111 November 1914 when the K ema.
army retreated for three weeks before
41'e A"9.'?." ,n.y'on . 'n'
of ammunition, it was the steamers ot
, r . ... . ,
'ne Messoggenes Maritime . and tlie
,?"iC'"'taV rrvvrt.Cv
ed to Sa onika the heavy arm ety
lm, Krench ammunition that enabled
h Serbians to turn the only decisive
. h ,h ,u nave'wou
destruction of an entire af
' J
. i . . . i .
B" Zn1vJTuJ?ntonAihM ,0 maeb of t,,e ' hc
frAdriStte wol,ld 'he t0 get " fttvo'"
M.m urlgeT hea ?m" f -J'c-" 1 " "5
French guns up the all but iuaccessi
hle of tlie Montenegrin muii-l
uin d ,ann them. 1
jjas Serbia"'-- ,
i. . ... .... j.f ....
til ,n,t It" lii
MoteR,o that Fram-d did; the, twoi
..i.i ..iii.i. ;,..;., rhnlrl
ili,lin.l.nci and the present Salonika
Vxiwdition would, never have been net-;
I .V ' ...,Mt.. :iw..1."".an,ll..,,ilr
p., hn. rendered eveu irreater ai.nle:' control ox me wus bum i uer
to her allies. So far lck as the Bo!
kan wars the remarkable efficiency of
French artillery had been demonstrat
ed. Germany began .the war' With Sn
abundance of heavy artillery but they
could not compete with the mechanic-1
al perfection of the French guns or
the . superiority of ' the French artil
lery fire. - - r-
this "was Trance's great military
secret, jealously guarded for years. She
has. since .shared,. it generously with
her allies.
French artillery officers early in the
fire that rendered possible this years''
war perlerteil tne nussiau ariiiierv
great -drive throngn. Calacia. finns
furnished the .Russians ny tne japs
are French models, .Other nations
were auieu.
When the present war began, it was
one of the national scandals, in Italy,
that her artillery did not have a single
modern field piece. France allowed
her to equip her entire army from the
Uupout works.
Since the beuinnine of the present
wr, France has orgauized,- -fought and
bled with all the superior .genius ann
generosity of. which the trench nation
has ever been capable.
The German Army
By Carl W. Ackennan
' (United Tress staff correspondent)
"Berlin. Julv 1. (By mail) The eee-
bnd year of the war will be known in
Germany's military history as the year
of political strategy. The moves of
the military chessboarl or r.urope nac
been dictated by international rela
tions. Fighting" was framed to help
the diplouiutas. .
The coal lias been victory wneTe pos
sible, and to keep the allies from win
ning over neutral powers or starting
offensives. From this standpoint the
year has been as successful as the first
year of the war -when the military
stratozv was to be beat back the ene
my armies in France and Russia. The
first year mas one of military events
for military .purposes; the second year
one of military movements for polit
ical pur Kites.
An army is not supposed to play pol
itics but in a groat war there is al
ways danger of other nations coming
in and the strategy of an army must
be dictated by the then national aims
of the nation. For instance, instead of
invading Servia the armies used there
might have been used against Russia.
Riga and even Moscow might have
been taken. Had this been done, the
military move would have been against
Russia only, and tne etiect wouiu noi
have been great outside that country.
But the armies were sent into Servia.
Bulgaria joined the, central powers and
the united offensive kept Roumania
and 'Greece neutral. That .campaign
solved for many months the Vexing
Balkan problems.
Temptation on Roumania
The situation there since has not ma
terially changed. The allies have oc
cupied Sulonika. For months they have
had thousands of soldiers there to
feed and pay. For the central powers
this has been a valuable thing because
it has further divided tlie . attacking
power of the allies. The presence ot
the allies in Greece, however, has been
a. permanent invitation to Roumania to
join hands with Russia and cut the lino
of communication between neruu uuu
Constantinople. If Roumania did brea
her neutrality it might not be a diffi
cult thihg for the allies to .bridge tho
Balkans between Roumania and Greece
and perhaps force the fall of Constant!
noplpe via Adrianople.
With this possibility continually con
fronting the diplomats of rJu'ropc; with
Bukarest excited by the intrigues of-the
ministers, Roumania was at times on
the brink of declaring war. One of
these moments was last February. At
about the same time the German corre
spondents at the west front reported
that papers had been found indicating
that the French were preparing a great
offensive on the west front Alarch 15.
therefore two birds could be downed
with one stone, it mere was a ucrman
offensive on the west front the French
f nrccs could be occupied and an often
ivc from that side of the allies could
be postponed. At the same tinio an im
pression could be made in Roumania to
show that the German army was not at
the end of its resources.
Politics Caused Verdu Move.
Political necessity dictated the battle
of Verdun. The initial success of this
attack encouraged many people to ex
pect the curly full of the fortress but
the French were strongly prepared to
resist and the policy of an offensive on
a large scarle was changed to a. "nib
bling." This process has been contin
ued for three months, because in the
meantime the German correspondents
reported thut the French had shifted
the time for their offensive to May 15.
Since then the German army has at-
tacked Verdun continually and kept a
large French reserve force on the!
ground, preventing a unity oi French
forces at nny other purt of the front
for an allies offensive.
During, the Inst year the allies have
asked: "But what is Germany gaining
by all her victories f The farther she
invades our lands, the more she defeats
! herself. As long as we control the sens,
Germany's military victories -can guin
I U A. nn,l.:., W u iA a.,pn in vln Ka.
, cause we control the seas."
This contention of the allies is worth
enrcfu consideration. Jf Germany earns
. nothing by her victories on land, the
war might as well stop, one might ar -
gue. But viewed from the-standpoint ; an. I bitter com. Aipino warrarc uevei
tuat this second year of the war has -oped many innovations in military sci
been a year of political strategy, Ger-'cure.. Like giants throwing huge snow
munv's gain on land have had their di
plomatic results. Roumania and Greece
at tliis writing still are neutral. Italy
has been administered a blow in the
Trentino at a time when France and
Knglund were at the height of their
lack of interest and confidence in
Italy's campaign and when Italy was
nbout to stimulate the public interest in
the war by a celebration of the first
year of Italy's fighting.
Flghtia: for Peace 'Terms. .
If Germany and her allies did not
central powers had not attacked and
occupied Servia, could they have made
the bids for terms in ths Balkans they
can make uowt It: the German army
o.d not occupy Vtarsuw could tho Ger
't Germany will nut make jieaeeuntt
there arc s-ssnreeccs that Poland will
uot again fall imp the sands of the Run,
sian government t - Every mile of land
gained by the-central powers from the
allies can bo. checked off against the
"any soivc. . rp ,
'" " "K" m.
any more keenly than the loss of Bel
gium to the King of that country or the
occupation of Servia by the interests of
Russia and the Karageorgevich dynasty.
Judging solely from appearances in
Berlin and at the front the close of the
first two years of the war does not find
Germany nor her allies exhausted in a
military way. Germany has not yet
called out all of her 1910 class, while
France has called the 1917 class. If
Germnny does this her army can be in
creased "at any time over tinO.OOO men.
-The summer and fall months may see
jreat .battles, in mors tnan one war the
-i.'The Italian Army.
(By John H. Hearlcy, United Press
; Staff Correspondent.).
' Rome, July 1. (By mail.) Italy to
day is fully satisfied with the results of
the first year of the Austro-Italian war:
Tho once strongly fortified Austrian
mountain line.'from Giudicarie to Mon
falcone practically is all in her hands.
Only a smnll section of Italian territory
in the neighbrohood of Setre tomrauui
has been taken. . . - .
The history of Italy's -war on land
reads like fiction. When tne European
strife began, the Italian kingdom was
unprepared. . The standing army of .230,
000 was disorganized and unequipped.
Big and petty politics were dangerously
mixed in it." The country's finances
were in a bad way.
Italy 's military bouse had to be put
ia order. All eyes turned to Luigi La
donna, chief of the general staff. His
'father before. ham had led the Italians
into Rome in 1870. Like him, he is a
quiet-man of few words and big deeds.
C'adorna in twelve months worked won
ders. The army was increased to more
than 1,500,000, trained ana equipped for
all kinds of warfare. The hum of mu
nition and gun-making machinery was
heard through the land.
The enemy, it was believed, would at
tempt to enter the country through the
Trentiuo in the west and the Isouzo in
the east. The Italian campaign was
planned to retake Trent and Trieste,
lock these two gates against invasion
and press on possibly to Vienna. The
meeting of two Austrian armies on the
historic plains ot Lombardy tor a possi
ble conquest of Italy had to be pre
vented. The great battle .Napoleon had
fought on Lombardian soil had taught
its lessons.
Cadorna's Good Work.
Cadorna and his intimate associate,
General Porro, laid their preliminary
plans well. Both knew the tricky moun
tainous frontier of Austria, -with its
natural defenses and fortifications, per
fectly. Disguised as beggars, they are
said to have studied every -nook and
cranny or the hostile border;
Four fronts with 14 zones were estnb
lished, the Trentino, Dolmite, Coxitis
and Isonso. At the very beginning of
hostilities the right bank of the Isouzo,
excepting, the bridgeheads of Gorizia
and Tolmibe, fell before tho Italian
arms followed by the capture of Monte
Nero and Plava. These things took less
than a month.
During Julv and August the invasion
of Austriuii territory continued, exten
sive inroads, on enemy soil were made,
especially in the Carso and Trentino,
By October the lsonzo front was blood-
soaked. Tho fighting about Gorizia,
the key to Trieste, grew heavy early
this year, JUarch and April crowned
the Italian offensive with the capture
of Co) di I.nnn. The Austrians in May
delivered their first big offensive. A
fierce onslaught wus made on Monfal
cone which fell, but later was retaken.
Meanwhile on a 50-mile frout in the
Treatiuo 400,000 Austrians and im
mense quantities of ammunition were
concentrated. Then came the tremen
dous attempt to open tho way to Ve
netia. Thousands of Italiaus were
mowed down. For the first time in tho
war tlie enemy set foot on Italian soil
and about 500 square kilometers of ter-
ritory was occupied. It was mountain
ous country dotted with Alpine hamlets.
The Italians still held about 4000 square
kilometers of enemy soil, including the
fertile pluins of Monfalcone and impor
tant villuges.
Pressure Relieved by Russia.
The Italiuns theu began to push back
the enemy, slow up-hill work. Mean
while General Brusati was openly
charged with responsibi..ty for the
Austriuu invasion anil deprived of his
command for "neglect of duty." This
invasion oost the Italians 20,000 in pris
oners and almost as many in killed and
wounded. Austrian losses were heuvy,
too. The initiation of the Russian of
fensive in early Juno relieved the pres
sure of the Italian front.
By then, Ituly's army had grown to
almost 4,0110,000 men and plans for add
ing a million more were made. Ine
Italian eumpuigu bus tuken a tremeu-
dous toll in dend and wounded because
in the beginning Victor s forces were
deposed in unfortified valley while the
Austrians were strongly entrenched on
the ovei looking mountains. Uphill
fighting had to be waged for many
months before it was equalized
The Alpinists huvo been the heroes of
Ituly's war. Their catlike agility is
marvelous. Ihcy have been forced. of
tentimes to climb sheer walls of moun
tains, pulling up men and cannon be
hind them to bcgiti tho slow process of
fortific.ution. lrenches had to be tun-
nelcoin tne rocK or newn in sonu ice.
Moving gluciers and avalanches added
jto the dangers us also did heavy snows
bulls, one army hurled avalanches at the
other. Mountain hamlets and hundreds
oi combatants and non-combatants were
wiped out by this picturesque arm of
war. . Speciully made smoked glasses
had to bo worn by the soldiers as a pro
tection' against snow-blindness. Freez
ing weather occasioned the invention
of extremely warm but light clothing
for the military.
Above Snow Line.
''Iteat Balls" were invented. These
were made by soaking rolls of tightly
drawn paper in prepared oil and grease,
When lighted, they retained their heat
and flame for about 15 minutes. Ropes
lifted baskets of them to Alpinists and
soldiers, fighting in the clouds, thou
sands of feet above the sea level. They
were used to warm canned foods, and
Sk..s and snow-shoes were also intro
duced to war. Engagements between
whole companies of Austrians and ltul
in in on skits have been frequent.
: The spirit of the Italian army Is Yine,
I'nofficinl estimates place the Austrian
losses at approximately 450,000, about
Hi 1, 000 of which are said to bo in killed.
Austrian prisoners are rumored to bear
the 100,000 mark. The enemy damages,
it is asserted, are not counterbalanced
bv the Itulian casualties. The presence
of the king is the field is an inspira
tion to the fighters.
(Tomorrow the story will be nbout!
the navies of the warring countries.)!
' "
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ON Good Seal Estate Becurttji.
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