Daily capital journal. (Salem, Or.) 1903-1919, October 24, 1914, Home and Farm Magazine Section, Page 11, Image 25

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Road Maintenance and Repair
THERE la no phase of tho road
problem more Important than
that of maintenance. The gen
eral impression that there are cer-
tain types of roads that are ponnai
nent Is erroneous. No permanent
road has ever been constructed, or
ever will be, according to the road
specialists of the department. The
only things about a road that may
be considered permanent are the
grading, culverts and bridges. RoadB
constructed by the most skillful high
Way engineers will soon be destroyed
by 'the traffic, frost, rain and wind
unless they are properly maintained!
But the life of these roads may be
prolonged by systematic . mainte
nance. A poor road will not only be
Improved by proper maintenance, but
may bocome better In time than a
good road without It.
The first and last commandment
In earth road maintenance Is to keep
the surface well drained. To Insure
good drainage tho ditches should
kept open, all obstructions removed,
and a Bmooth crown maintained. Ex
cept for very stony soil the road ma
chine or scraner may be UBtid verv
effectively for this work. The ma
chine should be used once or twice
a year, and the work should bn done
whon tho soil Is damp, so that it
will pack and bake Into a hard
crust. Wide and shallow sldo ditches
should be maintained with sufficient
fall and capacity to dispose of sur
face wa.tor. These ditches can In
most places be constructed and re
paired with a road machine
Keep Woods Off.
All vegetable matter, such as
sods and weeds, should be kept out
of the road, as they mnke a spongy
surface, which retains moisture.
Clods are also objectionable, for thny
loon turn to dust or mud, and for
that reason roads should never be
worked when dry or hard. Bowl
dors or loose stones are equally-ob
jectionable if a smooth surface Is
to be secured.
A split-log drag or some similar
device Is very useful in maintaining
the surface after suitable ditches
and cross section have once been se
cured. This drag can also be used
to advantage on a gravel road as
well as on an earth road. The prin
ciple Involved In dragging Is that
clays and moBt heavy soils will
puddle when wet and Bet very hard
when dry. The little attention that
the earth road needs must be given
promptly and at the proper time if
the best results are to be obtained.
Dragging the Road.
In dragging ronds only a small
amount of earth Is moved, Junt
enough to fill the ruts and depres
sions with a thin layer of plastic
clay or earth which packs very hard
so that tho next rain instead of find
ing ruts, depressions and clods In
which to collect, runs off, lenvlrfg
tho surraco but little affected.
The drag should be light and
should be drawn over the road at
an angle of about 45 degrees. The
driver should ride on tho drag and
should not drive faster than a walk.
One round trip, each trip straddling
a wheel track, Is UBually sufficient
to fill the rut and smooth the Bur-
face. If necessary, the road should
bo dragged after every bad spell of
weather, when the soil is in proper
condition to pmldlo well and still not
adhere to the drag. If the road Is
very bad, It may be dragged when
very wet and again when It begins
to dry out. A fow trips over the
road will give the operator an idea
as to the bent time to drag. Drag
at all seasons, but do not drag a dry
Tho slope or crown of an earth
road should be about 1 inch to the
foot. If the crown becomes too high,
it may be reduced by dragging to
ward the ditch instead of from it.
Fraudulent Radioactive Waters
DR. O. W. TAPE, manager of Hot
Lako Springs, has Just recolved
a copy of the "Weekly News
Letter to Crop Correspondent," Is
sued by the U. 9. Agricultural Dept.
at Washington, D. C, with a "warn
ing" from Hb Bureau of Chemistry
marked with a big pencil, and he
docBn't understand quite how to take
It. Whllo freely admitting that If
he was unprincipled enough to Im
pose on the credulity of the suffer
ing world, ho could easily make a
fortune, because tho waters of Hot
Lake Springs are acknowledged by
those same bureau exports to pos
sess the highest radioactivity of any
waters In America, he declares he
has never had the slightest notion
of bottling them, and doesn't see
why it should be nocesiiary to warn
him. For the benefit of those likely
to be Imposed upon by this fraud,
the "warning" Is here printed In
Attempt Fraud.
There are Indications of tho begin
ning of an attempt to perpetrate a
groat fraud on the American people
through advertising certain mineral
water as possessing radioactivity.
These waters. In some cases, are
taken from springs the waters of
hirh thnv come from the ground
do possess certain radioactive prop
erties. KiBininatlon or many oi moan
waters by the department's spoclul
i.i. in,iiKntna that whalevor radioac
tivity they possess at the spring is
due almost entirely to radium eman
ation rather than to the presence in
the wator of any substance possess
ing radioactivity.
Those emanations In the form of
gas quickly disappear from the water
and as a result, after tho water has
been bottled a short time, It will
possess practically no radioactivity.
The belief long held by many people
that some mineral waters used at
the springs are more effective than
when bottled has been explained by
thnrltles nn the around that
the beneficial effect of those waters
U due to radioactivity. As the ra
dioactivity disappears loon after the
water Is taken from tho spring, any
effect due to the rndloncllvlty must
bo lost In a short tlmo. If the ra
dioactivity of a walur in a spring is
inn four duvn after bottling It will
bo only 60, and 12 days after bot
tling 10. In, a month It will be
nructlriiHv nothlnc comuiired with
the original radioactivity of the wa
tor at tho spring.
The public, therefore, Is warned
to regard with suspicion any water
advertised as pohrobhIiik radioactiv
ity. As far as tho Government's spe
cialists hnve beon ablo to ascertain,
no bottled water, no matter how
radioactive It may have been at the
spring, retains this radioactivity for
any length of time.
The donarlniont Is now Investigat
ing a number of tho so-called radio
active waters with the object of se
curing evidence that can be made a
IjiikIh of prosecution for mlHbrnnd-
Inir In (tin linxt. before the food
and drugs uct was enacted, a num
ber of mineral waters made claim to
curative properties which they did
if (it possess and succeeded In creat
ing a misplaced confidence on the
part of the consumers. This was
particularly true of a number of Im
tmrtfiil waters which were sold ex
tonBlvoly In tho United States with
a statement on the bottle that they
wore wonderful or magical cures for
all sorts of Incurable or chronic ail
The Treasury Department, acting
In co-operation with the Department
of Agriculture, now reiUBos amnis
Inn to the country of foreign wa
ters labeled so as to mislead consum
ers as to tholr real or curative prop-
ert e. The tlcnarinieni rears mai
unless the public Is wnrned the
fraudulent trade In co-called radio
active wator will develop, Just as the
fraudulent trade In other mineral
water was doveloped, to the point
where people with strong lmaglna
(inn will annul their bottlers With
all sorts ot testimonials asserting
that these siimiosed radioactive wa
ters have effected wonderful cure.
1887 nni mf5 r
"The School that gets you a Good -Position
1914 t
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RETAIL!; 118
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