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About Evening capital journal. (Salem, Or.) 1888-1893 | View Entire Issue (April 16, 1889)
WHERE TOYS COME EHOM
Most of Them the Produot of
Ohoap German Labor.
Why the United States Can Not Make the
Cheaper Kinds orpiaythtnc All About
Dolls, Toy tocomotlTcs, Ten-Cent
ITatches and Other Trifles.
"Of the dolls sold In America," said a
prominent wholesale doaler in toys to a
New York Times man, "nlno-tenths como
from Germany. Of theso a largo propor
tion are mado in ono littlo place, Sonne
bcrs, a town of about ton thousand inhabit
ants in Thuringcn. Almost the entire in
dustry of this place is confined to tho man
ufacture of dolls. The inhabitants are very
poor people and are brought up to doll-making.
"Before it is completed a doll passes
through many hands. Tho heads, hands
and feet are mado 'by one person, tho body
rjy anomer, xno nair 13 urea on by another,
and tho face is painted by two other differ
ent people, ono doing tho rough work and
the second the finishing touches. Tho cloth
Ing is made by another person and the
dresses are put on by still another. All
this labor is dono at Buch starvation prices
that Americans can not compete in tho man
ufacture, although the duty for importation
is thirty-five per cent
"To this town of Sonneberg thoro como
overy year a large number of buyers from
all over the world. I go there myself and
never fail to meet at least a score of Ameri
cans engaged in tho same business. "There
are at least 500 different kinds of dolls, and
tho variety is jemarkable. Tho French In
vent many of tho most attractive, but the
Germans copy them so cheaply that tho
world's buyers go to tho latter for their
stock. For tho manufacture of fino dress
dolls the French still hold the lead by long
odds. Itisonlyinthe cheaper goods that
tho Germans outspeed them. England fur
nishes very fow dolls, and I can now recall
only ono kind that is distinctly English tho
English rag doll, which is mado wholly of
rags, oven to tho face, tho eyes being sowed
on. There are French walking dolls, smok
ing men and othor automatic figures, but
theso do not really belong to the family of
dolls. Thoy are mechanical figuros, too in
tricate in their mechanism to bo classed as
mere dolls. -Of tho rubber dolls fully one
half are mado In America, whore any thing
that is machlnomade prospers to the ex
clusion of imported stuffs.
"Tho price of dolls ranges from 1 cent to
50, but the most popular are those that sell
for 25 cents, 50 cents and $1, although
there has been a great run recently on 5
ccnt and 10-ccnt dolls.
"As with dolls, so It is with othor toys.
Tho most of them como from Germany,
whore they aro mado very cheaply. This
same town of Sonneberg furnishes many of
them, but more como from Nuremberg and
small towns in itsicinity, It is in this dis
trict that magnetio toys, swords, guns,
trumpets, horns, woolly sheep, jumping
jacks, monkeys on sticks, jacks in tho box
and ingenious mechanical toys aro made.
The carved wooden toys come principally
from tho Bavarian highlands, but thoy are
brought to Nuremborg to bo sold. Tho
cheaper grades of wooden toys aro mado in
poorer Saxony and comprise cheap arks and
sots (fcl Iurnlturo.
"How cheaply they make theso things you
can judge from this instance. Hero is a
toy of furniture consisting of three chairs,
a bureau, a table, n sofa and a mirror, care
fully dono up in a substantial pasteboard
box. Now, after having paid 35 percent,
duty and having allowed 20 per cent, for
freight and othor expenses, wo sell such
furniture sets at 75 cents per dozen and
make a reasonable profit. You can hguro
out tho original cost if you choose.
"Porcelain toys tea sots and things of
that sort are also mado very cheaply, tho
waste places in the potteries being filled up
with their molds without mucn additional
cost. Toy horses, cows, elephants, cats,
dogs, lions, tigers and all kinds of animals
aro mado largely in tho German prisons.
Many of theso are ingenious novelties, being
bo constructed as to bo ablo to movo heads
and emit a noise resembling more or loss
tho natural cries of each animal. The retail
price of these tovs runs from 50 cents to 150,
according to sizo and perfection. "Wo sold a
toy horse tho other day for f50 about tho
same time a real racer was disposed of at
auction up-town for a much less sum.
"Of tho wooden toys fully one-half are
mado in America. Thoy include ABC
blocks, building blocks and games, nnd are
easily turned out by machinery. Iron toys
are also mado largely hero, and so aro tin
toys. The tin for tho latter is imported
from Europe, and when tho toys are finished
they are expox ted for tho European market.
Tho majority ot tho rubbor toys como from
Franco, chiefly from l'arls, although the
manufacture of this lino of playthings is
constantly increasing in America, and the
American rubbor toys are really the best to
bo had. Tho reason that Amorlca has not
taken the lead in tho manufacture of rubber
toys is found in tho fact that tho demand
for other rubbor goods is so great as to
shut out toys. Toy watches are largely
made in France and aro remarkably cheap.
We sell watches with chains, charms and
movablo hands for 85 cents per dozen, after'
having allowed for duty ana ireignt.
"Of the standard games tho best chess
men como from England; bacltgammon ana
checkers are made almost altogether- in
America; bone doralnos, dice and tho
rhearwr Grades of chess come from Franco ;
toy printing presses, locomotives and all
that line of goods aro domestic. Toy print-
in cr nresses were furnished formerly al
most wholly by tho Germans, but latterly
tho Americans have superseded their Teu
tonic brethren in this Industry. In educa
tional toys Amorlca leads the world, and ox-
ports largo quantities. BO It noes msu iu
the manufacture of outrdoor games, lawn
tennis, croquet, base-ball, etc."
A LITTLE FORESIGHT
iriiv Tt T of More Cse Than An Unlim
ited Quant ty of Afterthoucut.
' A littlo foresight is of more value than
much aftersight, says the Sunday-School
Times. Foresight is the planner, aftersight
is the critic, of our deeds. What painful
scenes, embarrassmonts, regrets, disap
pointments, self-accusations, the habit of
looking ahead and planning to meet and to
arrange tho future will avoid! Time and
money spentindeslgnlnga building perfect
ly, in definitely predotorminlng prinoiples
and rules of action, and marking off limits
before embarking In any new project, In
mapping out work, In arranging ongage
monts, in avoiding conflicts of duty and the
Impossible demand to be in two plaoes at
one time, are well spent But the fore
thought is more difficult than tno after
thought The one requires intense applica
tion to systematic consideration and search
of the field of the possible; the other sug
gests itself instantly ad naturally. Any
body can see that the door is in the wrwig
place after the bouse is built, or oan say
that the speeoo was a mistake aiur it bad
been delivered and Its effect noticed. It is
easier to criticise well than to construct
well; but it Is more useful to oonstruet a
plan perfectly boforebftnd, than to eriueUe
'BMiTDM F '
THE CAPITAL EVENING- JOUKNAL.
I.i: WILMS Nutmj Publii
M. U CUAMHEUMN'.
No. 211 Commercial Street, Salem, Oregon.
AR13 TI-IE LEADERS IN
Gents' Pine Dress S
Also a large lino of Ladies', Mis-scs' nml Cliihlruns' canvas shoes for
summer. Jlemeinbvr they will make it nn olyeot for vmi to cull on them
ami they will show you the best linos of goods in the" oily. This llrin is
well known to all the citizens of Bileni, and sm rounding count rv, us a
jinn that handles nothing but reliable 0n1s. Take the people's word for
It and call on these srntlcmcn when in want of foot-wear.
Their Spring Stock is Unsurpassed in Quality anil Prices.
IvOOK OUT !
Something is Going (o Drop at
BODWELL'S NEW SHOE STORE,
95 Siato Street,
)ocontcmplnte.neli.ingorbtisincsssoon,inil will therefore make Sweeping Ito
iliu'tlons In ecitnln lino ot Hoots nnd Shoes In order to reduce nur stock-ton minimum..
c want Money! on need Hoots nnd Shoes. Como nnd OMiiiiine goods and prices
ana see If It will notpiyjou to l.iy In one ortwojo.in supply nt the prices uoolR-r
GOODS MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES !
Achildcnnbuyiischenpasamnn;ntourbtore. We mean business, nnd If you worn
shoes look us up. YOUUS KOlt "KOLD KOIN;"
BAILEY F. BODWFIvL,
Success in Business requires preparation I Therefore, thoroughly master
Commercial Arithmetic, Business Penmanship and Business Correspon
dence, Book-keeping by both Single and Double Kntry, tho nature and
correct use of Commercial Papers, Commercial Law and Business practice.
Learn, also, Shorthand and Type-writing, Manifold, and Dictation work.
All these are needed in business, and are thoroughly taught by exper
ienced teachers at the SALEM BUSINESS COLLEGE
Griswold's Block, Salem, Oregon.
-jfff fn' ""fliiiTjiii' lifjjsjv
S H O
WM. BROWN & CO.
Leather and Findi
CASH PaID FOB
Wools, Hides, Pell? and Fokh !
231 Commercial bt. balem, U'.
l Hi f MTin
THE BEST STOCK OF STOVES
" ' IN THE GITY IS AT
R. M.'WADE .& CO'S
' !. ' 282 to 286 Commercial Street, SALEM,
Charter Oak Stoves,
AND MANY OTHER LEADING STYLES,
Also a uii.iit'tt Sud ol ilaruware and Farts MadiiRtry, Wagwis ud Cairiae
Boys mid Girls.
Tlie school will open on the 21th
of September. Thorough InMrne-
Hon In the primary, nml
LATIN AND ELEMENTS OF lll'SIC
TKt'tMR anil Airiher Information tn-i i
bad on sjtnlleiitton to
IIKV. V. II. irST,
Onv. Chenickcttv tmil suite -.
MERM1MY (IF lllBk'!
Most "uiiPiwrnl school of music on I hi
northwest coast, Abuul
150 STUDENTS LAST YEAR.
Pluno, Orptti Sinking, Violin,
Harmony, und Counter
point. Dlolonias'on completion ot com e
Tcnehers: .. M. Piirvin, r'uinftip I".
Jones, KvuC'ox. Assistant. I.ttluM.Hmltti,
Klrst term begins Monthly, September
3d, 1SSS. Semi lor cntnlogue. Forluither
X. M. PARVIN.
Musical Dhoctor, Salem, Or.
Trucks and Drays.
MORGAN & MEAD
Aio now provided villi lino new drnys
nnd tiucles nnd nro prepared to do nil biisl
ness in that line in the best of shape.
They iflve their peional supervision to
nllwoik. Corner fatnte nnd Cummeicml
One hundred ncros of etin elearl mil, lino
for divldiup up Into small tracts. Is only
tin co-fourths ol a mile fioiu hiilem post
olllce. l'iico$s7iper ii"ie.
THOMAS & P.VYNK.
C o in p n n y .
Flic nnd Mn-llnc.
JOS. ALIli:itT, Aijcnt, - - Snleni.Oicgon
Family Groceries Provisions, Fruits Etc.,
Commorolul Streot, Snlum, Or.
Country produeoof nil kinds nlwnys ou
linnd. If you linxonot tindcd with mo bo
foie, I respectfully solicit n 1 1 i it I liellovinj;
I c.-in suit you both In pilces unit iiunllty.
THE OLD RELIABLE
Ilhicksmlth nnd Wiuinn iruikor, John
Ivniuht is now lullv estnbliNhid ut his new
nuimers on Jjlbeity Street. Ho umw nil
mo now nieinoui. m nm Hit turn nmiuwn
specialty of diseases of horse's te .
Flunk Lynch Iimh ihargo of tho wagon
'lcp.irtnionl nnd docs n geneiiil reinilrlKK
buHltiPHH. These gentlemen me too well
iinown lor us in try mid revtminend them
Mr. Kulifhi ha i heoii hero l'o IB yours
$50. HORSES. $50.
Ono hundred head of brood ninio hiiiI
young hoi son for snlo. Korty or lllty
colts oxpecliid m tho sprint; Tho line
hoi sos, Clyde and l'ui"heou stock, weight
sixteen nudseventuen lumilred; hao been
with tho baud for ho msl thieo ours.
JrlKinul stock fioi.i I lie bent iiuUty ot
nmrw. For i iitlctilnra itcldie. or see
W. 1(. JIYAItM,
wit. Hnlum, or.
ORECONIAN RAILWAY CO.
OIIAS. X SCOTT, - - Herniver.
OnnndaflcrFeb. 18 ISSD.and until fiu liter
notice tinlun will run dolly (except Bui r
Jnj) lib follow"
l.v. 3.15 pm
ituy k ijininiMf,
Hnt utile JBliei.,1
O l' OHtdtf,
(tiumutton Irickeu at twojeenti per
inlleou nuleat atutlomi h,rli( Mgena.
Counts'tlon 11 Ibo'it und Fulquftrt
Uuullns with w .-i.ijicr "i Hy of Uitlwin "
Cli K. N. HCOTT, Kecehor
Oeneral OMeee, N W Cor. Pint end I'lu
Willis and ChamberSin,
Heal Estate' and Insurance iknts,
jgeapiR maw gggyjK zzL-prjaii-i-
k Buy and Soli Real Estate, Negotiate Loans
Transact a General Agency Business.
OPERA HOUSE, Court Street, - - SALEM OREGON.
Wo luivo on our list a great variety of very tlosirablo propjrty for
bale, mill its our busliiiM-t in not altogether conliml (0 Heal IMato tnins
nutiotis, wo nro ablo to furnish purclmsoru theso bargaliiH without olaiinlng
Our long rosliloneo in this country and familiarity with its condition
and peculiarities render us competent Judge of wlioro tho best lands aio
to bo found and purchases made.
AVo have faith in Oregon of Its future greatness; and oHpeclally tills
section of the 'Wlllamuttco Valley. Tho man who invests hero in real
property runs no risks, It will bo more prolltable than bank stocks. Our
soil and climate aro notoxcoileil, and people aro liudlng It out. Now is
tho time to buy.
We arc situated co (hat parties uitikliiir Investments, if desired can
to 'tiro loans on tho most rcasonab'o ter.us,
The following partial list will showsomooftlie properties
wo aro olleiing for sale.
100 acics, (ij miles south of Salem, all under fence now barn and fair
house small orchard road by the place. Payment down, balance on
time nt 8 per cent. 1'rieo $.3,000.
102 acres, r miles southwest fiom nervals,, good house and barn with
orchard iti acics under plow. $l,i00 ilonn, balance 011 time. I'lico
S-l7.no ior acre.
1 17 acres, ! miles north of Saloiu, Iniproveiuenls lli'sl-cluss- .'SiiO acres un
der plow plen.y ol stock water and range. Will .divide land. S-10
per acre for Improved part.
100 acres, 7 miles east of Salem 80 acres in cultivation 50 in pasture
rest in young timber all under lencc lunniug water gootl,;bottse
barn umnary -oiclmid bell stock If wanted. $27 per acre.
20'! acres, 12 miles northwest of Salem on lino between Polk and Yam
hill counties excellent laud ami goon ueigiioornooil all under leneo
p.iittniniiner-fnllowcil. Pait payment' down, balance 'jii time. $20
520 aerow, 10 miles 0.1st of Salem, all fenced 2 go .d bouses fair barn
good ot cliai'd several springs on the place--gwid roads to Salem, $00
100 acres, 7 miles cist of Salem well 'inlercd with barn and orchard.
Tho land is lluoly situated and cm bo divided Into two places the
road running on two sides one-half mile from railroad. $US per
200 acics, 12 inllcs east ofSaIcui excellent Improvements all In culti
vation well watered and lluoly situated, $0.5 per acre.
M acres 00 acres in glowing uraiii fair hotiuo and barn I acres
mt'udow line j otingot chard one-half mllo from P. O. crop goes
with place. Possewion given at sale. Price $2, 100.
0 acres, adjoining oast Salem with house barn and orchaid can to
divided' Into tt-2 acre lots facing town liana delightful view will
be woith double pt'esoul price soon. $8,000.
851 acrts. 11 miles from Haleiii 800 acre In cultivation two houses and
bams with orchard plenty of running water no better stock and
1 1 I I.. M. ...!.... ...,,,,.1., ..II C. ..II., .11., I.I,,. I I
1111 uniitf iiiuii 111 AtiiuHJii vimiiii mi 11.-111111 m iiiHutu nn" jiiiinj
lleliU und pastures, A bargain ioi'mimc one, Half down, balance on
time to suit, flfj per acre.
07S acre, 8 miles from Sulem all under fence lift) ii'inm at one time un
der plow Man pasture laud road along ono side oau bo divided to
suit purshiiteor. One-half down, balance ou long time. $17 per acre.
00 acres, R miles li.ini Salem li acivs in orchaid 1 III gardou fiO 11111I' r
plow Imluiicc gisid imsturo good house and barn. A chance for
some one wanting garden propel ty. 18,000.
Store and ktock of iiuTolmiidUo with wurebotiso worth KiOOO aU" rusltlenco
ifdctflrHl, ltuaUxl ou O. AO. Jt. H., good loattioii for biitiluuM no
bettor grain section In the WllluniBtto Valley.
Good hoiiso with oiic-lnUf Here of laud, in North Salem near street car
line when extended If wld oou. $fc00.
Half b'otik Fast S.iloin, 0,1 mill on. ok with good hou.su and Ijuiu.
Plenty of fruit 13250.
"WcoflVr for I he first tliue-abnit 30 Iota In A. K. Waller's addition to
Hali in, ranging In price fMiii $&0 lO$A00. The locution Is line, upon
the iilgn st gruunu in Kisi Stilem, over-liKikliig the entire city and In
tilttln vii-w 01 all IhcfcStule Jiulldlugs, with the Coust and Casemlo
Xoiintalnsiu the dlttiuacv, wlillt) slill e.istwfrd loom up tluwever-
IPSllllg Slinn wnna.
Prompt Attention Given to All Inquiries
'0PJ5KA UOUSii BLOCK, COURT ST.,
Saleai, ; : Oregon,
THE YA0UINA R01TE.
OREGON PACIFIC RAILROAD
Anit Orognn Development company's
steHinshlp line. 2JS mlle Hliorter, a) hours
iPKstime tlmn by nny otliei mute. First
elns tlirough ptiiwenccr nnd freight lino
from lVirllHiit' nnil nil points in the Wil
lamette vullev to nuil from yau Francineo
TIME SCHEDULE, (Except Hnnttnys):
Lenvo Albany 1:001 St
Lfwve Oor-nlll8 1:101M
Arrlo Yniiultin - - folOI' 11
l.enc nqnlim- - -8:15 AM
l,rcie t'orVHllls KhHiiAM
rrlvi Altmny ---.... 11:10 AM
o t C. traius connect nt Albany and
IhPiiliuxo t.lilns connect nt YAQUINA
'li tlii" Oieiton Develonment L'o's I.ino
1 "sti.i-iislilps between liinulnu nnil Snn
si UMl US, FltOM SAN FltANCISCO
itliinetto Valley, Thun-ilay Dee .
A ill. lnette Valley Monday " 17.
iM.imrtle Valley Sunday " 80.
Sit Minis. FltOM YAQUIXA.
lln motto Vnlley. Wednesday Dec. 12
w ill.-iinelto V.illey Monday " 24
This company reserves tho right to
tiuUKC sailing dates without notice.
V II. l'asM'HEers n-om Portland nnil nil
illametlo Valley points can mnko close
ii'tincctlon llli the trnlns of tho
YAl-UINA ItOUTKnt Albany orCon-nllis,
mil n destined to Han Francisco, should
ut tango to nn 1 oat Ynqulna tho evening
boftito date of halllus.
rasstiiwr ami Ficlslit K.itfs Alwnrs tlir
liwost. l'or lnforiiie.tloti apply to Mossre
lll'I.MAN & Co., Ficlght nnd Ticket
AseiitH ax) and SSti Front St., Portlnnd, Or.
V.C. HOGUK, Ac't Gcn'l Frt. A
Pass. Agt., Oicgon Paclllolt. P.. Co..
n II. HASWKMj, Jr. Gen'l Fit; &
Pass. Agt. Oregon Development
Co., SOI Montgomery st.;
Ban Francisco, CalJ
TIME TAIILE UIVEIt DIVISION.
The elegantly equipped stenmbaits, 'm
M. Hong, dipt. Geo. Itnubc; tho N. H.
Ilentley, ('apt. J. 'P. Coulter; tho Thrco
Misters, dipt. W. P. Hhnri; mo In servlco
for passenger nnd freight tnilllo between
Con 'tills unit Portland and lntcnncdlato
polntK, making thicu lound trips each
week ns follews:
NOIITII HOUND .ecves Corvallls Mon
day, WednoKilay nnil Fildny at 8 a. m.
An Ives nt Salem Monday, Wednesday nnd
Fililny nt.1 p. 111. Leaves Salem Tuesday,
Thursday and Satittdayattla.nl. Arrives
at Portland Tuci.day, Thursday and Satur
days! .'I.."i0 p. 111.
-OUTII llOlTNU-I.cn vet Poitland Mon
'.lay, Weiitiesday and Friday at tl n. in.
A 1 1 1 cs at Snleiii Monday, Wednesday nnd.
Fildav nt 7:li p. m. Leaves Salem Tues
day, Thuisday and Snluiilay at (I a. m.
Art box at CnrwillN Tuesday, Thui-sday
Siitiiiday at ":!XI p. in.
For height nuilpasscnacr nitos npply to
tho captains and pursers oftho respeetlvo
bnalsf nr to V. M. Datlimr, ngent, 200 and
20J Front Ktreel. Porllrnd; Ullbcrt lltos.
nacnlH,S.ilciii' I. M. Adair, agent, Albany
t A, Miller, agont, CorMjll or totho gen
eral fielvht and passenger iigcnl. Corvnllis.
O. A ('. tiains couuoet at Albany nnd
F. W. noWKN.Kuperlntendeut.
Win. HOAG, General Manager.
Soiillinni Pacific Company's Line.
THE MOUNT SHASTA llOCTB.
Tltnc Iiotworn Snlrni nml .San I'tat-flHii
TI1I1 ty-si Hours.
CALIFORNIA IIXIMtnsS T11AIN ItUN DAIT.1
IIIU WIXN l'OHTIuM'lt ANtlH. 1
i-M) p. III.
U:ll p. 111.
7: 1.1a. m.
I.v. I'oitlalid ArTl 10:11a. in.
I.v. Salem I.v. 7:Ma. 111.
Ar. San Finn. I.v. 7.1X1 p. m.
ahhi:n(1i:u tiiain ( iiaiia ix
V.W a. 111.
11:10 a. m
.':I0 . 111
Portland Ar. I .1:l." p. 111.
Kilem l.v. I I'Aft'J p. 111.
lUlguno l.v. I U.HO it. 111
PULLMAN BUFFET SLKBPERS.
TOURIST SLEEPING CARS
For ai't'ommodi.tloii ol second claws
passe 1 1 211 r attached to opro"s trains,
TI10H. P. company's lurry makes con
neclloii wltl nil tho regular trams on th
Fjii-t Kido Dlvlalou limn KKitol F strco
iVcst Siilc Division, Between Portland
I1A1I.Y (KXC'IIIT Ht'NllAV).
7:ffTi. 111. 1 r.vrPoTtlnnd"Ar. I :20 p. 111.
l'J.2f ji. in. I Ar. CorvalllH !. It'll) p. 111.
t Albany and Coi'tiiIIIs connect wTlTJ
trains ofOiCKon Pncllloltallroad.
'Ihtotigh tickets to nil points south and
east via t'uUlot nin
Kl'HliHMTHtAIN (lAn.YKMIKI-rHUJ TMY.)
isDHJiTHu X7. PiTrllaTul Xi: 0:0Oam.
h.UJ . in. I Ar.Mi'Mlnnvlllol.v. 5:4 J n. 111.
To nil polbtH
SOUTH ami EAST
C ALIFORN I A. .
For full information regarding rates,
maps, otc, npply to tho Company agent,
K. P. ItOG IlltS, Asst. Q. F. nnd Pnss.Ag'U
II. KOKHI.Hll, Manaser.
Oregon Railway anil Navigation
Columbia River Route.'
I'raliiK for tlio oast Kavo Portland at 7:i5
1 m and 8 P 111 dully. 'VI 0 ots to and from
prlucliml iMilutH lit the United States, Can
ada und Is 11 rope.
ELEGANT NJLMANN PAL'.C CARS
Emlgriuit Sleiliit' Cum run lbrou(;-"on
o.tpri'M til Ins to
ftUtl BT. PAUI
Frei or Clmrgo and Wit ou CLuuge.
ConiieotloiiH nt Portland for San Fran
oiihx) and Pujet Bound point.
Por lurthar iwrtlonlara Impure of I. A.
Mmiiilniir, HKnt of the oonirwny, 2U
Cunuuerauil utrnet, Hulem 1 ieg u, 01
A. U Muxwsll, G. I. & T. Pt . tlund
A. I. MAXWELL, O. l'.r A
H. H6LC0MB detenu" Mrimer,