The Yamhill County reporter. (McMinnville, Or.) 1886-1904, August 02, 1901, Image 3

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Appropriation» by the Hawaiian Legitlatura—
Congre»» «1 Bolte Ditcuue» Reform in
May l»ue Bond».
Fourth International Congress In
Honlulu, July 19, via San Fran-
ciseo, July 25.— The legislature has
Session at Boise.
finished the business of passing appro­
priation bills, for which it was called
The amounts ap­
propriated are largely in excesB of the
estimated income. News is expected
Thirty-six States and Territories and Three
from Washington regarding the
Foreign Countries Represented—De­
power of the present legislature to
order an issue of bonds under the
clared for an Open River.
loan act of 1896. Such bonds have
♦o be approved by President McKin­
Boise, Idaho, July 24.—The fourth ley. It is understood that if he ap­
annual session of the International proves of such an issue, the session of
Mining Congress convened at the Co­ the legislature will be extended long
lumbia theater at 10 o’clock yesterday enough to allow the passage of a loan
morning. Representatives from 36 act. which would greatly relieve the
states and territories and three for­ financial stringency that threatens
eign countries were present.
the public treasury. The appropira-
The meeting was opened with an tions, as finally passed, are close to
address of welcome by Governor Hunt. the governor estimates, as originally
He was followed by Mayor Alexander, submitted, in most cases. The ap­
who tendered the keys of the city to propriation for the militia has been
the visitors. Judge J. H. Richards reinstated in tire bill, and salaries
then welcomed the congress on behalf have been made very near the old
of the citizens, delivering an oral ad­ standard throughout. Departmental
dress that attracted much attention. expenses are considerably cut.
Responses were made by E. L. Shaf-
The government has decided to use
ner, of Cleveland, O., Professor W. for its current financial needs about
H. Tibbals, of Salt Lake, and Tom $235,(MM) that was put up by Chinese
Ewing, of Los Angeles. President L. immigrants who entered the country
Bradford Prince, of New Mexico, then under contracts with the republic of
delivered his annual address. He Hawaii, and Chinese Consul Yang
reviewed the previous sessions and Wai Pin has made a protest which he
spoke of the work to be done. Mr. is said to have forwarded to Washing­
Prince stated that the principal ob­ ton. The money has been lying idle
ject of the congress was to secure the in a local bank. It is the deposits of
establishment of a department of Chinese who came here to work as
mines. He said it was necessary and plantation laborers, each of whom was
the great industry ought to have such j required by the old government to
recognition in order that its develop­ ' put up $36 as a guarantee that he
ment might go forward at a pace that would only do plantation work, the
would keep it abreast of development money to be refunded to any who
along other lines. There were many wanted to go home, to pay passage.
problems confronting the industry, he The consul feared that applicants
said, that cannot be solved satisfac­ would no longer be able to get their
torily without the direct aid that money. In reply to his protest, Act­
could be given through a government ing Governor Cooper wrote to the con
department of mines.
8ul, informing him that the territory
Delegate C. J. Moore, of Colorado, would continue to pay the deposits to
offered the following, which was re­ Chinese who were entitled to them as
ferred to the committee on resolu­ formerly.
tions :
The district of Hamakua, Hawaii,
‘‘Resolved, That the International has been visited by a large cane fire,
Mining Congress, assembled at Boise, causing over $25,000 loss. It destroy­
Idaho, extends to the president and ed between 80 and 85 acres of young
directors of the Louisiana Purchase cane, and about 800 acres of forest.
exposition its fraternal greetings and
promises for it an active and contin­ NOTORIUS BENDERS LOCATED.
ued interest and support.
“We also urge upon the legislature Family of Former Kins»» Murderer» Said to
of the several states such a generous
Be Living in Colorado.
financial recognition of the coming
Kan., July 25.—Four per­
exposition as shall contribute mater­
ially to its already assured success.” sons, said to be members of the notor­
At the afternoon session Secretary ious Bender gang, accused of com­
Mahon read letters from President mitting a score of murders at their
McKinley, Vice President Roosevelt home near Galena, Kan., over 15
and several other prominent govern­ years ago, have been located near
ment officials, all expressing regret at Fort Collins, Colo., and Governor
their inability to attend the sessions Stanley has issued requisition papers
on the governor of Colorado for their
of the congress.
Committees on credentials, perma­ return to this state. The first steps
nent organization and order of busi­ toward bringing the suspects to Kan­
ness were appointed, after which Ma­ sas were taken upon the representa­
jor Fred R. Reed, of Boise, presented tions of Frank Ayers. of Fort Collins,
to President Prince a gavel made of who asserts that one of the quartet,
Idaho mahogany, with bands of silver Kate Bender, was once his wife.
made from the Trade Dollar mine. Governor Stanley issued the requisi­
The gavel, said Major Reed, was a tion upon affidavits of four men who
present from ex-Mayor James A. Pin- went to Colorado to identify the sus­
ney, of Boise.
President Prince re­ pects. The Benders committed a
sponded in a fitting manner, evincing series of murders, the most atrocious
his appreciation of the gift. Pending ever recorded. They lived on a small
the reports of committees some of the farm near Galena and for years, as it
papers prepared for the congress were developed after their flight, they had
lured travelersand buried their bodies
in the yard around the home. All
four members of the family were ac­
cused of aiding in the murdars. The
Tutulia Uncertain Whether It 1» a Part of the family consisted of man, wife, daugh­
ter and son. The parents would now
United State».
be in their 70s and the children about
Tutuila, July 7, via San Francisco, 50 years of age.
July 25.—A controversy has occurred
over the customs as to whether Tu­
tuila is a part of the territory of the
United States in that respect or not. Attornty-Gcnersl Knox Declined to Render an
It was required that importers receiv­
ing foods from the colonies and neigh­
July 25.— Attorney
boring islands of German Samoa General Knox today
declined to ren­
should produce consular certificates der
was asked for
to the invoices of goods from those
treasury, on
places. This meant a further tax and
the question whether or not, under
increase in the prices of the goods. existing
laws, the secretearv is author­
The prevailing opinion is that import­
duties collected on
ers are not required to produce the goods imported the
Porto Rico be­
invoices, as pointed out in the re­
the date of the ratification of
vised statutes, that Tutuila is not a tween
Spanish treaty and the date that
part of the United States for that the
Foraker act went into effect.
purpose, and that instead of protec­ the
general says that inas­
tion, free trade is preferable on those much as the controller
of the treas­
islands where there are no manu- j
ury has given his decision on the sub­
facturers to protect.
The Tutuila ject,
it is a matter for the controller
government has made no decided
alone, and he, therefore, cannot give
move in the matter.
a decision as requested. It is author­
itatively stated at the treasury de­
partment that the government will
procceced immediately to refund these
Supply Train Captured and Burned—Crabbe
duties of the controller. The duties
Attacked by Krittinger.
to be refunded will reach approxi­
London, July 25.—The British war mately $2.(MM),(MM).
office has received the following dis­
The Transport Service.
patch from Lord Kitchener dated
Manila, July 25.—The reports sub­
Pretoria, July 25:
"A train from Cape Town with 113 mitted to Adjutant General Corbin
details and stores was held up, cap by Major James B. nlishire, in charge
tured and burned at Scheepera, eight of the water transportation depart­
miles north of Bolufortwest on the ment of the army at Manila, show the
morning of July 21. Our casualties saving of $3.(MM) daily for the last
were three killed and 18 wounded. three months.
It is expected, in
An inquiry is proceeding.
view of this economy, to ojs’rate some
“French reports that Crabbe, with transi»orts direct between Manila and
Adjutant General Cor­
300 men was attacked in the moun­ Now York.
tains near Craddock by Kritzinger, at bin recommends the use of two of the
dawn July 21. The horses stamped­ fastest transprots in a monthly mail
ed. An all day fight followed. Crabtie service between San Francisco and
fell back on Mortimer. Our loss was Manila, to insure quick handling of
the mails.
•light. ”_______________
Schley’s Request Granted by the
Secretary of War.
Admiral’» Conduct During Santiago Campaign
Will Be Fully Inveitigatcd a» Soon
at Hot Weather Is Over.
Washington. July 25.—Secretary
Long, in accordance with a request
from Admiral Schley, yesterday ad­
vised that officer that he would order
a court of inquiry to examine into the
entire matter of Admiral Schley’s
course in the Santiago naval cam­
Later, the secretary an­
nounced that, owing to the extremely
hot weather, the court would not
meet until September and that he
would turn over his reception room
to the court. The secretary said:
“It is too hot now and I do not be­
lieve it would be very comfortable for
officers to sit in their heavy, full dress
uniforms during August. I issued
an order some time ago dispensing
with the wearing of full dress uni­
forms during a court martial, but this
case will be so important that every
form of official dignity will be ob­
served, even to the guard of marines
at the door. ”
“Will the sessions of the court be
open?” was asked.
“Unquestionably,” was the em­
phatic reply.
“I propose to make
that fact very plain. It would be a
great mistake to have a secret court.
The country has the right to know all
that transpires in the way of testi­
mony offered. Personally, I should
be very glad to have a court composed
of a larger number of officers, but the
naval regulations restrict me to the
selection of three.
I hope to an­
nounce the personnel of the court to­
morrow and this will give the judge
advocate and the recorder ample time
to prepare a list of witnesses who are
to be summoned. 1’ do not believe
that the session of the court will be
prolonged, because after all, a great
deal of the talk over the Santiago
campaign is like the genii’s vapor,
which can be condensed in a small
bottle. ”
“Will Admiral Schley be allowed
to name witnesses?”
“Admiral Schley. ” was the reply,
“will be afforded every opportunity
for the appearance of all witnesses he
may desire. He is also entitled, un­
der the naval regulations, to be repre­
sented by counsel.”
While Secretary Long was not asked
whether the court of inquiry would
be asked to form and submit an opin­
ion upon the facts disclosed by the
investigation, it is considered quite
probable that this course will be pur­
Unless the order convening
the court expressly requires this opin­
ion to l»e expressed, its report must
be confined to stating the facts found.
Although no positive declaration
has l»een given on the personnel of
the court, it is assumed about the
navy department that Admiral Dewey
will be president of the court. There
is an impression that the two other
members of the court will be retired
naval officers, or at least officers who
had no connection with the Santiago
campaign. The selection of retired
officers will have a double advantage
Not only will they be free from any
prejudice growing out of their active
connection with the department, but
they will have no fear of future con­
sequences arising from their course
while members ot the board.
Nome City Brings News of Large
and Rich Strikes.
Port Townsend, July 26. — Tha
steamer Nome City arrived last night
from Nome, biinging 23 passengers.
The passengers report marvelously
rich strikes in the Fairhaven district,
90 miles north of Nome, and that a
stampede had occurred.
The Blue­
stone district is still frozen, and it
will be some weeks before miners will
be able to commence sluicing. The
Kougarok district is also backward,
and 1,500 men are in Teller City
waiting for the season to open. There
are some few claims being worked.
Sunset Gulch, across the heritor,
prospects well.
A strike is reported
on Drase creek, and a stampede is on.
Over $500,000 has l>een sluiced from
winter dumps near Nome, and the
prospects for the future of that coun­
try were never better than at ¡»resent.
Cleared of Insurgent».
Boise, Idaho, July 25.—At yester­
day morning’s session of the Inter­
national Mining Congress the com­
mittee on credentials reported and the
rc|s>rt was adopted. The remainder
of the session was devoted to reading
and discussion of papers.
The following resolutions, offered
by President Prince, were adopted :
“Resolved, that the magnitude and
importance of the mining industry,
which has now reached over $1,(MM).-
000.000 of annual product, call for.
the establishment of a national de­
partment of mining, the chief officer
of which shall lie a member of the
president ’s cabinet.
“Resolved, That the congress of the
United States be respectfully request­
ed to provide by law for the locating
and working of mines of the reserved
minerals—gold, silver and quicksilver
— on Spanish and Mexican land
grants. ”
Another resolution adopted was the
“Resolved, That in the opinion of
the International Mining Congress,
it is not to the best interests of min­
ing that undeveloped mines or pros­
pects be placed on the ‘boards’ or
‘lists’ of mining exchanges and
offered for sale to the general public.”
The session yesterday was enlivened
by an animated discussion aroused by
the reading of a paper by Judge W.
B. Heyburn on “Amendment of the
Mining Law.”
The judge said, in
speaking of the conflicts arising over
locations because of the uncertainty
of the strike of the vein :
“I propose a solution—that all end
lines shall be parallel. When the
first locator goes to the recorder’s
office to file on his claims he should
give notification that he has discov­
ered a new ledge. Then let the near­
est deputy marshal surveyor go #to
that vein, determine its exact course
and then compel all locators to make
their end lines parallel with the first
claim.” The discussion covered the
entire field of controversy.
The delegates are practically a unit
on the proposition to work for the
establishment of a department of
mines at Washington, with a secre­
tary who shall be a member of the pres­
ident’s cabinet. A committee will
be appointed to visit Washington dur­
ing the coming session of congress
and press the question. There was a
committee appointed on legislation at
the Milwaukee session last year.
Their efforts, however, were direct ’d
in the main, to securing changes in
the present national mining laws,
which were adopted many yearB ago
and have not been sufficiently amend­
Washington, July 25.—The report
of Captain W. C. Langfitt, Corps oi
Engineers, United States army, sta­
tioned at Portland, Or., on improve­
ments of rivers and harbors in Ore
gon, Washington and Idaho for the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, to­
gether with recommendations relative
to future appropriations was made
public yesterday. The following are
the recommendations for future ap­
propriations :
Columbia and Lower Willamette
rivers below Portland, $725,000.
Improivng Columbia river between
The Dalles and Celilo, either by con­
struction of boat railway or by means
of canals and locks, $214,579.26.
Mouth of Columbia river, $600,000.
Columiba river to Cascades, $150,-
Columbia river, near Vancouver,
Snake river from Riparia, Wash.,
to Lewiston, Idaho, $28,000.
Mouth of Couquillc river, $75,000.
Willamette river, above Portland,
and Yamhill river, $70,000.
Entrance to Coos bay, $142,970.64.
Tillamook bay $27,000.
Siuslaw river, $65,(MX).
Clatskanie river, $12,588.47.
Lewis liver. Wash., $11,960.
Cowlitz river, Wash., $7,000.
Couquillc river, from Couquille
City to Myrtle Point, $3,000.
Long Tom river, annually, $500.
Coos river, $3,000.
This makes a total of $2,147,598.37
for the rivers and harbors of the three
The report discusses in detail the
work l»eing done now ujarn each pro­
posed improvement, as well as mak­
ing recommendations for the amount
to be expended in the future. In
each instance the recommendation is
that the amount be expended during
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903,
the estimates being in all cases made
for that year.
Manila, July 26.—Colonel Zurbano,
with 29 offieers, 518 men, 243 rifles
and 100 bolos, has surrendered to
Lieutenant Hickman, of the First
Flood» in Hungary.
cavalry, in Tayabas province. The
ex-insurgents have taken the oath of
London, July 26.—The valleys of
allegiancb to the United States, and the Danube anti other Austro-H tin*
their surrender clears that district garian rivers have been flooded by
of the revolutionary element.
violent rains, says the Vienna corres­
pondent of the Daily Express. In
Torpeodo-boat Adder Launched.
Budapest, 300 dwellings were ren­
New York July 25.—The United dered untenable.
Entire villages
States torpedo boat Adder was launch­ have been swept away. Twenty-six
ed at the Crescent ship yards, at Eliz- persons were drowned at Lipolz,
al»ethport, N. J., today. The launch­ where houses of two stories were sub­
ing was private.
Saurcts of Chiiu’i Revenue.
To Help Revenue Raider».
To Relieve Strained Relation».
London, July 25.—Great Britain’s
counter proposition to Russia’s sug­
gestion of 10 per cent customs is that
the sources of Chinese revenue al­
ready earmarked shall be accepted for
the present as adequate, says s dis­
patch from Pekin to the Daily Mai).
Later, if these do not suffice, the
power«, Great Britain suggests, could
consider new sources. Several powers
support the proposal, which has a
frail chance of adoption.
Monterey, Tenn.. July 25—Tht
posse from Nashville to reinforce the
revenue raiders engaged in Saturday’s
battle reached here today under com­
mand of Revenue Agent Chapman and
United States Marshal Overal. They
found the region quiet and informa­
tion concerning moonshiners hard to
obtain. Thomas Price, the wounded
deputy marshal, is still alive, but «an
liv« but a short time.
New York, July 26.—A dispatch to
the Herald from St. Petersburg says:
The sojourn of Count Osten-Sackeo,
the Russian ambassador to the Ger­
man court, in the Russian capital
has been prolonged, There in good
authority for saying that this is du«
to Germany’s desire to relieve the
strained relations between the two
empires arising from Russia’« strong
disapproval of Germany’s policy in
the far East.
Baptiit Young Peoph’» Union.
Chicago, July 26.—The eleventh
annual convention of the Interna­
tional Baptist Young People’s Union
began in this city today.
Over i
15,000 delegates and visitors from all ;
parts of the United Staten and Can­
ada are expected to bo present at the
meetings, which will hold five days.
Today was spent in informal reunion.
The conference will ue opened form­
ally at the Coliseum tomorrow.
Ai lcinir a Permanent Pasture.
On many farms It would certainly
pay to abandon the old pasture as soon
as possible, and do the work necessary
to get the uew held In shape. Most
farmers are not Inclined to take for
pasture fields anything but such mead­
ows that no longer yield profitable crops
of hay. This Is a mistake, for they are.
often times by this practice, turning
land Into pasture fields that Is too valu­
able for that purpose, and which might
be reseeded after the proper manipula
tlon, and be made to yield large crops
of hay. One of the best growers of hay
In the country recommends the follow­
ing mixture for permanent pasture:
Red clover, (> pounds; Alslke clover, 4
pounds; Kentucky bluegrass. 3Mj
pounds; orchard grass, 3V4 pounds;
meadow fescue. 3^ pounds; redtop, 31-a
pounds, timothy. 3 pounds. These seeds
are well mixed, and the tuiallty given Is
the seeding for an acre. The seeding Is
done about the 1st of September, after
preparing the ground thoroughly during
the summer. If started at once the
ground may be plowed now and sowed
to buckwheat, which should be plowed
under when in bloom. This would add
the desired humus to the soil. After
plowing under the buckwheat, just be­
fore the sowing of the grass seed mix­
ture, the ground should receive the fol­
lowing fertilizer: One hundred pounds
of acid phosphate, thirty pounds of
dried blood, twenty pounds of nitrate
of soda and thirty pounds of muriate of
potash. This gives 180 pounds of mix­
ture to the acre, to be well harrowed in
before the seed Is sown. After the seed
la sown, the ground should be well
rolled. The first season after seeding,
the grass might be cut. but the cattle
should not l»e turned into the field until
the second year.
The Plum t'arcn’lo.
In an old book we read some years
ago a report from some one who tried
the experiment of taking a rough board
some six or eight feet long and coating
It with coal tar, then nailing it to a
pole that would raise the board well up
among the branches of the plum tree. I
The odor of the coal tar was so often !
give to the curculio that he had as
many plums as the tree ought to stand
up undT. although they had not pro­
duced a crop before for some years,
and he had threatened to cut them
down. The boards should be put up
when the trees are in full bloom. He
was led to try It by the fact that an­
other had obtained a crop from a tree
near which he put up a building and
covered the roof with coal tar. If so
simple a remedy will drive away those
troublesome insects It should be known
generally, as It Is but little trouble or
expense, though to be entirely effectual
we think the tar should be renewed as
often as every two or three weeks, as
the curculio Is about nearly from the
time the fruit sets until It ripens. The
poles or boards may be tied up to pre­
vent blowing down.—Massachusetts
Plough man.
Lonirfetlow Rush Henn,
The bush bean that Is early Is very
desirable, especially for the market gar­
dener. and the Ixmgfellow bush beau
seems more nenrly to meet the desires
of the market gardener than any of the
sorts now In cultivation. The pods are
often six and one-half or seven Inches
manner of feeding stock, or a plan of
preserving roots, ensilage or other fod­
der. A farmer may contemplate a sys­
tem of underdrains for his wet Aelds.
in which case nothing short of a visit
to some farmer who has thus drained
Ills lands will enable him to gain so
many valuable bints and suggestions
regarding this important work. Such
visits not only give new Ideas, but are
a wholesome recreation, and many a
farmer who at Arst thought may say.
“I can’t afford it,” will And by experi­
ence that he has spoken too soon. Take
a day to go and visit some of the best
farms In your county, and the way will
open for further visits and a wider
knowledge of the best methods of car­
rying your special line of work to a
successful termination.—Farm. Field
and Stockman.
A Henrir Milk ^too1.
The little stool shown In the accom­
panying Illustration Is unique In th«
way In which the legs are Inserted, be­
ing spread over a large space, and It la
impossible to turn the milk over. The
drawing Is out of proportion. The stool
should be 12 inches long and <8 inches
wide. The seat Is made of two Inch
pine boards. Holes are bored almost
through the board, but not quite. These
W«»’ t
are in slanting directions, so that tha
legs when fltted will occupy the posi­
tion indicated In the drawing. Now
take a pair of old broomsticks, whittle
the ends so that they will At into th«
holes, drive them In tight and saw them
off any length desired.—Exchange.
Infertility of K -<s-
There has been tnuca complaint th«
last season aur;; pvG.trymen of the
small portion of chicks hatched from
each setting of eggs, whether placed In
the incubator or with the old hen. Nat­
urally there are various reasons given
for this loss, but mainly under the gen­
eral heading of infertility of the eggs.
Every one who hns handled poultry
knows there are various causes for in­
fertility. There may be a weakness in
the structure of the hen or of the cock.
Also the feed has a great deal to do
with the fertility of the egg. A hen
that Is overfed or kept very fat Is not
as likely to lay fertile eggs as one that
Is thinner. The food given to the laying
hen has also something to do with th«
Infertility of eggs, for hens kept largely
on a diet of corn will produce eggs that
are much more likely to be Infertile
than those from hens fed on a variety
of foods. Meat foods nml green foods
are absolutely essential for laying
fowls, If we would have from them
eggs strong In fertility. The head of
the flock should also receive careful
attention, as he must be well fed and
not permitted to run with too many
Cold Mora •• oa Farias.
There are few farms where a suf­
ficient quantity of fruit or vegetables Is
grown to warrant the erection and
operation of a cold storage plant; on
the other hand, the suggestion that
such a plant could be built and op­
erated profitably In any section where
the fruit crop of a dozen growers was
very large is worth consideration.
Such a plant could readily l»e operated
on the co-operative plan at compara­
tively small expense to each share­
holder. With apples, for Instance, It is
only possible to get the highest prices
for winter fruit by holding the crop in
cold storage until late winter. As this
Is now done the grower obtains but a
little more than he would In the fall
sale of his crop when the storng«
charges and shrinkage are taken out
New Varieties of Htrawt.err'ee.
in length, pale-green In color, straight
and round. They are entirely free from
the tough Inside akin usually found on
string beans. The flavor Is delicate.
In season It Is often a week earlier than
any other good sort. The vines yield
prollAcally, and the crop ripens uni­
formly in size and nearly at the same
Visit Hacceaafal Farmers.
Two causes contribute much to th«
running out or rapid deterioration of
new varieties of strawberries that are
sent out with testimonials of large
fruit and great yields. First, the largo
yields are obtained by heavier manur­
ing and better care than they get In or­
dinary Acid culture, and In the haste to
obtain plants to sell, the vines that
have l>een weakened by heavy bearing
are again forced to send out runners,
as many as possible, and all are taken,
whether they are near the old plant or
at the extremity of the runner, wher«
we think the young plant is but a
weakling.—American Cultivator.
Cllp*»«-I Work
I have worked a clipped horse two
summers and think I shall never work
him another summer without being
clipped. He used to sweat profusely,
and the hair would twist up and make
him look bad, and It would take a man
an hour to clean him oft and make him
look decent. After clipping ne hardly
sweat at all. stood the work better,
kept easier and was always clean.—
Michigan Farmer.
Nothing will contribute more toward
success in any vocation than enthusi­
asm which Is founded upon faith in
your own abilities to succeed In your
own undertaking. If anyone anywhere
near you la making a success In your
adopted line of work, or specialty, you
should by all means visit him and see
just how he manages, and why he suc­
ceeds where others have failed. Farm­
Black berries.
ing In all Its branches as now proAt-
Head back the young cane« of rasp­
ably pursued needs constant study, and
during the comparative leisure every berries and blackberries Io three feet,
one should review the past and plan and the laterals also when they get
for better results In future. There Is I longer. They may be pinched with th«
no other method of learning about any thumb nail and Anger in a entail patch,
farm subject equal to being on the but this soon makes the Angers sore,
farm where such work Is practiced, and where there are many bushes to
and having It explained by those who go over it la better to uae a pair of
have made It a success It may be the shears or a sharp sickle.—Exchange.