Image provided by: Yamhill County Historical Society; McMinnville, OR
About The Yamhill County reporter. (McMinnville, Or.) 1886-1904 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 10, 1897)
rests and long imprisonment awaiting i It is to be seriously considered whether | onerous code of neutrality would only be I necessity for such action wifi be so clew
trial of pending protracted judicial pro I the Cuban insurrection possesses, beyond ' influential within our own jurisdiction a. to command the support autd approval
cedures. I felt it my first duty to make [ dispute, the attributes of statehood which ; of land and sea and applicable by our of the civilized world.
instant demand for the release or speedy alone can demand the recognition of bel own instrumentalities. It could impart
trial of all American citizens under ar ligerency in its favor. Possession short to the United States no jurisdiction be
y. H. BAKNHAKT, Publisher.
rest. Before the change of the Spanish of the essential qualifications of sover tween Spain and the Insurgents. It would
cabinet, in October. 22 prisoners, citizens eignty by the Insurgents, and the conduct give the United States no right of inter- Irgre the Seuafe to Accumpllah the
the United States, hud been given of the war by them according to the rec vention to enforce the conduct of the
M c M innville
By a special message dated the 16th day
ognized code of war, are no less important strife within the paramount authority of
For the relief of our own citizens suf factory toward the determination of the I Spain according to the international code of June last, I laid before the senate of
fering because of the conflict, the aid of problem of belligerency than are the in I of war.
the I’nltejl States a treaty, signed that day
congress was sought in a special mes fluences and consequences of the struggle
For these reasons, I regard the recog by the plenipotentiaries of the United
sage, and under the appropriation of April upon the internal po.icy of the recogniz nition of the belligerency of the Cuban States and of the republic of Hawaii, hav
4, 1897, effective aid has been given to ing nation. The utterances of President insurgents as now unwise and therefore ing for its purpose the incorporation of
American citizens In Cuba, and many of Grant in his memorable message of 1875 inadmissible. Should that step hereafter the Hawaiian islands as an integral part
them, at their own request, have been are signally relevant to the present situa be deemed wise, as a measure of right of the United States and under its sov
returned to the United States.
The senate having removed
tion in Cuba, and it may be wholesome and duty, the executive will take it.
To the Senate and House of Representa
Intervention upon humane grounds has the injunction of secrecy, although th«
At that time a
Instruction« to .Minister Woodford. now to recall them.
tives: It gives me pleasure to extend
pending before that body,
The instructions given to our new min serious conflict had for seven years wasted failed to receive my most anxious and the subject may be properly referred to
greeting to the 55th congress assembled
ister to Spain, before his departure for the neighboring island. During all those
in regular session at the seat of govern-
his post, directed him to impress upon years an utter disregard of the laws of earnest consideration. But should such in this message, as the necessary action
merit, with many of whose senators and
that government the sincere wish of the civilized warfare and of the just demands a step be now taken w’hen it is apparent of congress is required «o determine by
representatives I have been associated
, that a hopeful change has supervened in legislation many details of the eventual
United States to lend its aid toward end of humanity, which called forth expres
union, should the fact of annexation be
tn the legislative service. The meeting oc-
ing the war in Cuba, by reaching a peace sions of condemnation from the nations i the policy of Spain toward Cuba?
accomplished, as I believe it should be.
curs under felicitous conditions, justify
ful and lasting result, just and honor of
Pledire« of the Mew Government.
While consistently disavowing from a
able alike to Spain and the Cuban people. Desolation and ruin pervaded that pro I A new government has taken office in
ing sincere congratulation and calling for
very early period any aggressive policy
These instructions recited the character ductive region, enormously affecting the the mother country. It is pledged in ad
our grateful acknowledgment to a be
of absorption in regard to the Hawaiian
and duration of the contest, the wide commerce of all commercial nations, but vance to the declaration that all the ef
neficent providence which has so signally
that of the United States more than any fort in the world cannot suffice to main group, a long series of discussion through
spread- losses it entails, the burdens and other,
blessed and prospered us as a nation.
by reason of proximity and larger
of a century ha« pro
tain peace in Cuba by the bayonet; that
restraint it imposes upon us, with con trade and intercourse.
Peace and good will with all the nations
vague promises of reform after subjuga claimed the vital interest of the United
stant disturbance of national interests
of the earth continue unbroken.
tion afford no solution of the insular States in the independent life of th«
and the injury resulting from an indefinite
At that juncture General Grant uttered
A matter of genuine satisfaction Is tne
continuance of this state of things. It these words, which now, as then, sum up problem; that with a substitution of com islands and their intimate commercial de
growing feeling of fraternal regard and
manders must come a change of the past pendency upon this country. At the same
was stated that at this juncture our gov
the elements of the problem:
unification of all sections of our country,
of warfare for one in harmony time it has been repeatedly asserted that
ernment was constrained to seriously in
“A recognition of the independence of
the incompleteness of which has loo long
quire if the time was not ripe when Spain, Cuba being in my opinion impracticable with a new policy which shall no longer in no event could the entity of Hawaiian
delayed realization of the highest blessings
of her own volition, moved by her own in and indefensible, the question which next aim to drive the Cubans “to the horrible statehood cease by the passage of the is
of the Union. The spirit oi patriotism is
terests and every sentiment of humanity, presents itself is that of the recognition alternative of taking to the thicket or lands under the domination or influence of
universal and is ever increasing in fervor.
should put a stop to this destructive war of belligerent rights in the parties to the succumbing in misery',” that reforms must another power than the United States,
The public questions which now most en
and make proposals of settlement honor- contest. In a former message to congress be instituted in accordance with the needs Under these circumstances the logic of
gross us are lifted far above either par
able to herself and just to her Cuban 1 had occasion to consider this question and circumstances of the time, and that events required that annexation, 'before
tisanship, prejudice or former sectional
colony. It was urged that, as a neigh- and reached the conclusion that the con these reforms, while designed to give full offered but declined, should, in the ripe
They affect every part of
boring nation with * large
in flict in Cuba, dreadful and devastating as autonomy to the colony and to create a ness of time, come about as the natural
our common country alike and permit ot
Cuba, we could be required to wait only were its incidents, did not rise to the virtual entity and self-controlled admin result of strengthening the ties that bind
no division on ancient lines. Questions of
a reasonable time for the mother coun- fearful dignity of war. • • • It is pos istration, shall yet conserve and affirm us to those islands and be released by th«
foreign policy, of revenue, the soundness
try to establish its authority and restore sible that the acts of foreign powers and the sovereignty of Spain by a just distri free will of the Hawaiian state.
of the currency, the inviolability of na
That treaty was unanimously ratified
peace and order within the borders of the even acts of Spain herself of this very bution of powers and burdens upon a
tional obligations, the improvement of the
island; that we could not contemplate an nature might be pointed to in defense of basis of mutual interest untainted by without amendment by the senate and
public service, appeal to the individual con-
pr■. aident of the republic of Hawaii on th«
indefinite period for the accomplishment such recognition.
But now. as in its , methods of selfish expediency.
•oience of every earnest citizen, to what
The first acts of the new government loth of September last, and only await»
of these results.
past history, the United States should
ever party he belongs, or in whatever sec
the favorable action of the American sen
No solution was proposed to which the carefully avoid the false lights which i
tion of the country he may reside.
slightest idea of humiliation to Spain might lead it into the mazes of doubt- , of cruel rapine and extermination, that ate to effect the complete absorption or th«
The extra session'of this congress wnich
could attach. All that was asked or ex- ful law and of questionable propriety so long* shocked the universal sentiment islands into the domains of the United
closed during July last, enacted important
pected was that some safe way might be and adhere to the rule which has been of humanity, has been reversed. Under States. What the conditions of such a
legislation, and, while its full effects have
commander, a broad union shall be. the political relation thereof
speedily provided and permanent peace its guide, of doing only that which is the new military
«ot been realized, what it has already ac
clemency is proffered. Measures have al to the United States, the character of th«
restored. It so chanced that the consid right and honest and o'’ good report.
ready been set on foot to relieve the hor local administration, the quality and de
complished assures us of its timeliness and
eration of this offer, addressed to the
“The question of according or of with
To test its permanent value
Plan of Secreturjr Gage,
Spanish administration, which had de holding rights of belligerency must be rors of starvation. The power of the gree of the elective franchise of the In
further time will be required, and the peo
The secretary of the treasury has out clined the tenders of my predecessor and judged in every case in view of the par Spanish armies, it is asserted, 4s to be habitants, the extension of the federal
ple, satisfied with its operation and re lined, a t>lan in great letail lor the pur which for more than two years had poured ticular attending facts. Unless justified used, not to- spread ruin and desolation, laws to the territory or the enactment of
but to protect the resumption of peaceful special laws to lit the peculiar conditio#
sults thus far, are in no mind to withhold pose of removing threatened recurrence more treasure into Cuba in the fruitless
by necessity, it is always, and justly, re
from it a fair trial.
of a depleted gold reserve and saving us effort to suppress the revolt, fell to oth garded as an unfriendly act and as a agricultural pursuits and productive in thereof, the icgulation and needs or labor
from future embarrassment on that ac ers. Between the departure of General gratuitous demonstration of moral sup dustries. That past methods were futile therein, the treaty has wisely relegated to
count. To this plan I invite your care Woodford, the new envoy, and his arrival port to the rebellion. It is necessary and to force a peace by subjugation, is free congress.
If the treaty is confirmed, as every con*
ful consideration. I concur with the sec in Spain, the statesman who had shaped it is required when the interests and ly admitted, and ruin without concilia- ,
tion must inevitably fail to win for Spain
Wece««lty of Putting Our Finance« retary of the treasury in his recommenda the policy of his country fell by the hand rights of another government, or its peo the fidelity of a discontented dependency. sideration of dignity and honor require^
wisdom of congress will see to it that,
of an assassin, and although the cabinet ple. are so far affected by pending civil
lp<»n a Sound Banis.
avoiding abrupt assimilation of element»
issue notes to the face value of the of the late premier still held office and re conflict as to require a definition of its
The ReformN for Cuba.
Tariff legislation having been settled by bonds which they deposited for circula
Decrees in application of the foreshad perhaps hardly yet fitted to share in th«
the extra session of congress, the question tion, and that the tax on circulating ceived from our envoy the proposals he relations to the parties thereto. But this
bore, that cabinet gave place, within a conflict must be one which will be recog owed reforms have already been pro highest franchises of citizenship, and hav
next pressing for consideration is that ot notes, secured by the deposit of such
few days thereafter, to a new administra nized in the sense of international law as mulgated. The full text of these decrees ing due regard ' to the
the currency. The work of putting our bonds, be reduced to one-half of one per
tion under the leadership of Sa gas t a.
' has not been received, but. as furnished in ditions, the just provisions for self-rule
finance« upon a sound basis, difficult as it cent per annum.
I also join him in
Spain's Friendly Reply.
•‘Belligerency, too. is a fact. The mere a telegraphic summary from our minister, in local matters with the largest political
may seem, will appear when we recall recommending that authority be given for
liberties as an integral part of our nation
The reply to our note was received on existence of contending armed bodies and the reforms are:
the financial operation of the government the establishment of national banks with
All civil and electoral rights of penin will be accorded to the Hawaiians.
since 1866. On the 30th day of June ot a minimum capital of $25,000. This will the 23d day of October. It is in the direc their occasional conflicts do not consti
No less is due to a people who arte»
that year, we had outstanding demand enable the smaller villages and agricul tion of a better understanding. It appre tute war in the sense referred to. Apply sular Spaniards are, by virtue of the exist nearly five years of demonstrated capacity
ing constitutional assembly, forthwith
liabilities in the sum of $728,868,447 41. On tural regions of the country to be sup ciates the friendly proposals of this gov ing to the existing condition of affairs in
fulfill the obligations of self-govern
the 1st day of July, 1879, these liabilities plied with currency to meet their de ernment. It admits that our country is Cuba the tests recognized by publicists of autonomy has been proclaimed by de ing statehood, come of their free will to
had been reduced to $443,889,495 88. Of our mands. I recommend that the issue of deeply affected by the war in Cuba and and writers on international law. and
cree to become effective upon ratification merge their destinies in our body politic.
interest-bearing obligations, the figures national bank notes be restricted to the that our desires for peace are just. It de which have been observed by nations of by the cortes. It creates a Cuban parlia
The Dispute With Japun.
are even more striking. On July 1, 1866, denomination of $10 and upwards. If the clares that the present Spanish govern dignity, honesty and power when free ment, which, with the wsular executive,
The questions which have arisen betwee®
the principal of the interest-bearing debt suggestions I have herein made shall ment is bound by every consideration to a from sensitive or selfish and unworthy can consider and vote upon all subjects
Japan and Hawaii by reason of the treat
©f the government was $2,332,331,208. On have the approval of congress, then I change of policy that should satisfy the
affecting local order and interests, pos
the 1st day of July, 1893, this sum had would recommend that national banks be United States and pacify Cuba within a the existence of such a substantial polit sessing unlimited powers save as to mat ment of Japanese laborers emigrating to
reasonable time. To this end, Spain has
the islands under the Ha wahan-Japane««
■been reduced to $585,037,100, or an aggre required to redeem their notes In gold.
decided to put into effect the political re fest to the world, as having the forms ters of state, war and the navy, as to convention of 1888. are in a satisfactory
gate reduction of $1,747,291,108. The inter-
forms heretofore advocated by the pres and capable of organization, the functions which the governor-general acts by his stage of settlement by negotiation. Th it
e«t-bear Ing debt of the United States on
ent premier, without halting for any con of ordinary government toward its own own authority as the delegate of the cen government has not been invited to medi
the 1st day of December, 1897, was $847,-
This parliament re
people and to other states, with courts tral government.
M5.620 The government money now out Attitude of the Ad ml nlst rution In sideration in the path which, in its judg for the administration of justice, with a ceives tthe oath of the governor-general ate, and on the other hand has sought no
ment, leads to peace.
standing (December 1) consists of $346,-
the Present Rebellion.
the liberties and intervention in that matter further tha#
The military operations, it is said, will local habitation, possessing such organiza privileges of the colony, and to it the to evince its kindliest disposition toward
681,016 of United States notes; $107,793,280
The most important problem with which
tion of force, such material, such occupa
such a speedy and direct adjustment be
•f treasury notes issued by authority of this country is now called upon to deal,
tion of territory as to take the contest colonial secretaries are responsible. It has
the act of 1890; $384,963,504 of Silver certifi that pertaining to its foreign rela ducted with all regard for private rights, out of the category of a mere rebellious the right to propose to the central gov- tween the two sovereign states in interest
cates and $61,280,761 of standard silver tions, concerns Its duty toward Spain and being accompanied by political action insurrection, or occasional skirmishes, and , ernment. through the governor-general, as shall comport with equity and honor.
the Cuban insurrection. Problems and leading to the autonomy of Cuba, while place it on the terrible footing of war,
modifications of a charter and to invito It is gratifying to learn that the appre
With the great resources of the govern conditions more or less in common with guarding Spanish sovereignty. This, it is to which a recognition or belligerency
new projects of law or executive meas- hensions at first displayed on the part ol
ment and with the time-honored example those now existing have confronted this
! ures in the interest of the colony. Be Japan lest the cessation of Hawaii’s na
would aim to elevate it.
tional life through annexation might im*
•f the past before us, we should not hesi government at various times in the past. a distinct personality, the island to be
“The contest, moreover, is solely on sides its loóal powers, it is competent-
tate to enter upon a currency revision The story of Cuba for many years has governed by an executive and by a local land; the insurrection has not possessed first, to regulate electoral registration and pair her privileges, to which Japan prop
which will make our demand obligations been one of unrest; growing discontent; council or chamber, reserving to Spain itself of a single seaport whence it may procedure and prescribe the qualifications erly laid claim, have given place to up-
Jess onerous to tile government and re- an effort toward the larger enjoyment of the control Of the foreign relations, the send forth its flag, nor has it any means of electors and the manner of exercising righteousness in the government and sin
Mevo our financial laws hom ambiguity liberty and self-control; of organized re army and navy and the judicial adminis of communication wi'h foreign powers, suffrage; second, to organize courts of cerity of its purpose to deal with all poo-
sistance to the mother country; or oppres trations.
. and doubt.
justice with native judges from members sible ulterior questions in the broadeM
To accomplish this, the present govern except through the military lines of its of the local bar; third, to frame the in spirit of friendliness.
*The brief review of what was accom sion and warfare and of ineffectual set
plished from the close of the war until tlement to be followed by renewed re ment proposes to modify existing legis these sudden and difficult complications sular budget, both as to expenditures and
1893 makes unreasonable and groundless volt. For no enduring period since the lation by decree, leaving the Spanish which a war upon the ocean is apt to pre revenues to meet the Cuban share of the
, any distrust either of our financial abil enfranchisement of the continental pos cortes, with the aid of Cuban senators cipitate upon the vessels, both commer national budget, which latter will be voted
ity or soundness; while the situation from sessions of Spain In the Western conti and deputies, to solve the economic prob cial and naval, and upon the consular by the national cortes with the assist Representation of Our Government
in the Greater Republic.
1893 to 1897 must admonish congress of the nent has the condition of Cuba or the lems and properly distribute the existing officers of other powers, calls for the ance of Cuban senators and deputies;
Immediate necessity for so legislating as policy of Spain toward Cuba not caused debt
As to the representative of this goverrw
definition of their relations to the parties fourth, to initiate or take part in the ne
to make the return of the conditions then concern to the United States.
to the contest. Considered as a question gotiations of the national government ment to Nicaragua. Salvador and Costa
The prospect from time to time that
In the absence of a declaration, of the of expediency, I regard the accordance of for commercial treaties which may affect Rica. I have concluded that Mr. William
There are many plans proposed as a
measures that this government proposes belligerent rights still to be as unwise Cuban interests; fifth, to accept or re L. Merry, confirmed as minister of th«
remedy for the evil. Before we can find island and the political vicissitudes and to take in carrying out its proffer of good and premature as I regard it to be, at ject commercial treaties which the nation United States to the states of Nicaragua,
the true remedy we must appreciate the embarrassments of the home government offices, it suggests that Spain be left free present, indefensible as a measure of al government may have concluded with Salvador and Costa Rica, shall proceed
out the participation of the Cuban govern to San Jose, Costa Rica, and there tempo
real evil. It is not that our currency ot might lead to the transfer of Cuba to a to conduct military operations and grant right.
•very kind is not good, for every dollar continental power called forth, between political reforms, while the United States,
“Such recognition entails upon the coun ment; sixth, to frame the colonial tariff, rarily establish the headquarters of tn«
of it is good; good because the govern
for Its part, shall enforce its neutral obli try according the rights difficult and com acting In accord with the peninsular gov United States to those three states. I
ment*« pledge is out to keep it bo , and tions of the United States to permit no gations, and cut off the assistance which, plicated duties, and requires the exaction ernment in scheduling articles of mutual took this action for what I regarded as th«
that pledge will not be broken. How disturbance of Cuba’s connection with it is asserted, the insurgents receive from from the contending parties of the strict commerce between the mother country paramount interests of this country. It
ever, the guaranty of our purpose to keep Spain unless in the direction of independ this country. The supposition of an in observance of their rights and obliga and the colonies. Refore introducing or was developed, upon an investigation oy
the pledge will be best shown by advanc ence or acquisition by the United States definite prolongation of the war Is de tions.
It confers the right of search up voting upon a bill the Cuban government the secretary of state, that the government
through purchase, nor has there been any nied. It is asserted that the Western
ing toward ts fulfillment.
on the high seas by vessels of both par or the chambers will lay the project be of Nicaragua, while not unwilling to re
change of this declared policy since upon provinces are already well-nigh re
ties; it would subject the carrying of arms fore the central government and hear its ceive Mr. Merry in his diplomatic capac
Kvll of (lie Present System.
the part of this government.
claimed; that the planting of cane and and munitions of war, which now may be opinion thereon; all the correspondence ity, was unable to do so on account of th«
The evil of the present system is found
tobacco therein has been resumed, and transported freely and without interrup I in such regard being made public. Fi compact concluded June 20, 1895, whereby
In the great cost to the government of lasted for 10 years, despite the strenuous that by force of arms and new and ample tion In vessels of the United States, to nally. all conflicts of jurisdiction arising that republic and those of Salvador and
maintaining the parity of our different efforts of the successive peninsular gov reforms very early and complete pacifi detention and possible seizure; it would between the different municipal, provin Honduras, forming what is known as tn«
cial and insular assemblies, or betw’etn Greater Republic of Central America, had
forms of money; ttiat Is. keeping all of ernments to suppress it. Then, as now. cation is hoped for.
give rise to countless vexatious questions;
the latter and the insular executive pow surrendered to the representative diet
them at par with gold. We surely cannot the government of the United States tes
The immediate amelioration of existing it would relieve the present government of
and which, from their nature, may thereof their right to receive and send
1»« longer heedless of the burden this im
conditions under the new administration responsibility for acts done by the insur
pose« upon the people, given under fairly to put an end to bloodshed in Cuba. The of Cuban affairs is predicted, and there gents, and would invest Spain with the not be referable to the central govern diplomatic agents. The diet was not will
prosperous conditions, while the past four overtures made by General Grant w’ere withal the disturbance and all occasion right to exercise the supervision recog ment for decision, shall be submitted to ing to accept him lyecause he was not ac
years have demonstrated that It Is not refused, and the war dragged on, entail for any change of attitude on the part of nized by our treaty of 1795 over our com the courts.
credited to that body. I could not a>
only an expensive charge upon the gov- ing great loss of life and treasure, and the United States.
Result AVI 11 Soon Be Known.
merce on the high seas, a very large
credit him to that body because the appro
«rnment, but a dangerous menace to the increased injury to American interests,
priation law of congress did not permit.
besides throwing enhanced burdens of
tional duties and responsibilities of the Atlantic and the Gulf states and between tered upon a course from which recession Mr. Baker, the present minister at Man
It Is manifest that we must devise some
United States as Spain understands them, all of them and the states on the Pacific, with honor is impossible, can hardly be agua, has been directed to present hi«
plan to protect the government against peace was brought about by the truce is presented with an apparent disposition passes through the waters which wash questioned; that in the few weeks it has letters of recall.
of Zanjon, obtained by negotiations be
bond Issues for repeated redemptions. Wo
to charge us with failure in this regard. the shores of Cuba. The exercise of this existed it has made earnest of the sin
Mr. Godfrey Hunter has likewise he?«
must either curtail the opportunity for I tween the Spanish commander, Martinez i This charge is without any basis in fact. supervision could scarce fail to lead, if cerity of Its professions is undeniable. I accredited to the governments of Gaut«-
de Campos, and the insurgent leaders.
•peculation, made easy by the multiplied
It could not have been made if Spain had not to abuses, certainly to collisions, per shall not impugn its sincerity, nor should mala and Honduras, the same as his pred
r«demptions of our demand obligations, or f Civilised Code of AA nr Disregarded. b<M'n cognizant of the constant effort this ilous to the peaceful relations of the two impatience be suffered to embarrass it ecessor. Guatemala is not a member of
The present insurrection broke out in government has made, at the cost of mil states. There can be little doubt as to in the task it has undertaken. It is hon the Greater Republic of Central America,
increase the gold reserve for their re
demption. We have $900,000,000 of currency February, 1895. It Is not my purpose, at lions and by the employment of the ad what result such supervision would be estly due to Spain and to our friendly but Honduras is. “
- - this latter gov-
which the government, by solemn enact this time, to recall its remarkable increase ministrative machinery at the national fore long draw this nation.
It would relations with Spain that she should be ernment decline to receive him. he ha«
ment, has undertaken to keep at par with or to characterize its tenacious resistance command, to perform its full duty accord be unworthy of the United States to in given a reasonable chance to realize her been instructed to report this tact to hit
gold. Nobody is obliged to redeem in against the enormous forces massed ing to the law’ of nations. That it has augurate the possibility of such result by expectations and to prove the asserted ef government and await its further instruc-
geld but the government. The banks are against It by Spain. The revolt and the successfully prevented the departure of a a measure of questionable right or ex ficiency of the new’ order of things to tions,
which she stands irrevocably committed.
not required to redeem in gold. The gov efforts to subdue it carried destruction to single military expedition or armed vessel pediency, or by any indiscretion.”
Tlie NlenrnjrnR Canal.
She has recalled the commander whose
ernment is obliged to keep equal with every quarter of the Island, developing from our shores in violation of our laws
>ot it Time for Recognition.
A subject of large importance to our
brutal orders inflamed the American m nd
gold all its outstanding currency and coin
would seem to be a sufficient answer.
Turning to the practical aspects of a
obligation«, while its receipts are not re- i of Spain for Its suppression. The civilized But on this aspect of the Spanish note it recognition of belligerency and reviewing and shocked the civilized world. She has country and increasing appreciation on the
modified the horrible order of concentra part of the people is the completion of th«
quired to be paid in gold. They are paid code of war has been disregarded, no is not necessary to speak further now. its inconveniences and possible danger,
in every kind of money but gold, and the less so by the Spaniards than by the Firm in the conviction of a wholly per further pertinent considerations appear, tion and has undertaken the care of the great highway of trade between the At
lantic and Pacific known as the Nicara
•nly means by which the government can, Cubans. The existing conditions cannot formed obligation, due response to this In the code of nations, there is no sucn helpless, and permits those who desire to
with certainty, get gold is by borrowing. but fill this government and the Ameri charge has been made in diplomatic is thing as a nuked recognition of belliger- resume the cultivation of their fields to gua canal. Its value to American com
It can get it in no other way when it most can people with the gravest apprehen sues. Throughout all these horrors and ency unaccompanied by the assumption do so and assures them of the protection merce ig universally admitted. The com-
mission appo.nted under date of July 24
weeds it. The government without any sion. There is no desire on the part of dangers"Ao our own peace, this govern of national neutrality. Such recognition of the Spanish government in their lawful
fixed gold revenue is pledged to maintain our people to profit by the misfortunes ment has never In any way abrogated its without neutrality will not confer upon occupations. She has just released the last “to continue the surveys and exam
heretofore sen inations authorized by the act approved
gold redemption, which it has steadily and
sovereign prerogative of reserving to it either party to a domestic conflict a status Competitor prisoners.
faithfully done, and which, under the au see the Cubans prosperous and contented, self the determination of its policy and not therefore actually possessed, or af tenced to death, and who have been the March 2, 1885, in regard to the proper
route, feasibility and cost of construc
enjoying that measure of self-control
thority now given, it will continue to do.
course, according to its own high sense of fect the relation of either party to other subject of repeated diplomatic corre
The law which requires the government, which is the inalienable right of man, right and in consonance with the dearest states. The act of recognition usually spondence during both this and the pre tion of the Nicaragua canal, with a view
Not a single of making complete plans for the entlrs
after having redeemed Its notes, to pay protected in their right to reap the bene interests and convictions of our own peo takes the form of a solemn proclamation ceding administration.
them out again as current funds demands fit of the exhaustive« treasures of their ple. should th© prolongation of the strife of neutrality which recites the de facto American citizen is now under arrest or in work of construction of such canal,” Is
this gov now employed in the undertaking. In th«
a constant replenishment of the gold re-
condition of belligerency as its motive. It ernment has any knowledge.
The offer made by my predecessor. In so demand.
future I shall take occasion to transmit
•erve. This la especially so In times of
The near future will demonstrate wheth to congress the report of this commission,
buslneae panic and when the revenues are April. 1896. tendering the friendly offices only:
of this government, failed, and media
making at the same time such further
Insufficient to meet the expenses of the
“Recognition of the insurgents as bellig ternational obligation of a neutral in the er the indispensable condition of a right
tion on our part was not accepted, In
government. At such times the govern brief, the answer read: There is no ef- erents; recognition of the independence of presence of a public state of war. It eous peace, just alike to the Cubans and suggestions as may then seem adyisableu
ment has no other way to supply its def fectual way to pacify Cuba, unless tt be- Cuba; neutral intervention to end the war warns all citizens and others within the
THE BIMETALLIC COMMI99IOM.
icit and maintain redemption but through gins wdth the actual submission of the by imposing a rational compromise be jurisdiction of the claimant that they vio interests, so intimately involved in the
welfare of Cuba, is to be attained. If not.
the increase of Its bonded debt, as during rebels to the mother country. Then only tween the contestants, and intervention late those rigorous obligations at their
of the Mlnnlon of the Special
the exigency of further and other action
th« I administration of my predecessor. can Spain act in the promised direction in favor of one or the other patty.”
own peril and cannot expect 'to be shield by the United States will remain to be
when i $262,316,400 of 4Mi per cent bonds of her own motion and after her own
Mot a Question of Annexation.
ed from the consequence. The right of taken. When that time comes, that ac
Under the provisions of the act of con
were issued and sold and the proceed« plans.
I speak not of forcible annexation, for
tion will be determined In the line of in gress approved March 3, 1S97. for the pro
used to pay the expenses of the govern-
that cannot be thought of. That, by our and cargoes and contraband of war un disputable right and duty. It will be motion of an international agreement re
Concentration Is Extermination.
ment !n excess of the revenues and sustain
code of morality, would be criminal ag der admiralty law must under interna faced without misgiving or hesitancy, tn specting bimetalism. I appointed,
The cruel policy of concentration was gression. Recognition of the belligerency tional law be admitted as a legitimate
the gold reserve. While It is true that
the light of the obligation this government
th« greater part of the proceeds of these initiated February 16, 1896. The produc of the Cuban insurgents has often been consequence of a proclamation of belliger owes to itself, to the people who have con April 14. 1897. Hon. Edward O. Wolcott,
bonds were used to supply deficient reve- tive districts controlled by the Spanish canvassed as a possible if not inevitable ency. While according equal belligerent fided to it the protection of their Interests
Illinois, and Hon. Charles J. Payne,
eiuMi, a considerable portion was required armies were depopulated and the agri step, both in regard to the previous 10 rights, defined by public law’, to each par and honor, and to humanity.
of Massachusetts, as special envoys to
cultural Inhabitants were herded in and years’ struggle and during the present ty in our ports, disfavor would be impos
to maintain the gold reserve.
represent the United States. They haro
AA 111 Intervene When Meceasary.
about the garrison towns, their lands laid war. I am not unmindful that the two sible to both, which, while nominally
Replrnlahlng the Gold Reaerve.
dillrent in their effort to «ecure th«
waste and their dwellings destroyed This
Sure of the right, keeping free from all concurrence and co-operation of Euro
With our revenues equal to our expenses, policy th« late cabinet of Spain justified houses of congress, in the spring of 1896. equal, would weigh heavily In behalf of
there would be no deficit requiring the is as a necessary measure of war and as a expressed the opinion, by concurrent reso
pean countries in the international set
suance of bond«. But If the gold reserve means of cutting off supplies from tha lution, that a condition of public war ex claiming the ports of Cuba, her maritime right and patriotic considerations, moved tlement of the question, but up to thia
have not been able to secure an
falls below 8106,000.009, how will It be rw- insurgents.
th« military Investment of th« island, government will continue its watchful agreement contemplated by their mission.
plenlahed except by ««Hing mor« bonds?
It has utterly failed as a war measure. tion of a state of belligerency in Cuba, but up to
The gratifying action of our great «la
is ther« any «ther way practicable under Tt was not civilised warfare, It **• ex- and during the extra session th« senat«
voted a joint resolution ef like Import, j torial waters, and a condition of things American citisens and will abate none of ter republic of France In joining this
existing law? Th« ««rloue question then termination.
country in the attempt to brtng about tho
ie. Shall we continu« th« policy that has
Against this abus« of th« rights of war
Wen pursued In the past—that la, when the I have felt constrained, on repeated oc vote in th« house. In the pre«enc« of hop« to create a parallel; while aid from agencies a peace which shall be honorable agreement between th« principal com
within our domain would b« even more and enduring If It shall hereafter be a mercial nations of Europe, whereby a
wwld reserve reach«« th« point of danger, casions. t« «nt«r th« firm and earnest pro the«« significant expression« of the senti
duty Imposed by our obligations to our fixed and relative valu« between gold and
ieeu« nor« bond« ano supply th« needed test of this government. Ther« was much ment of th« legislative branch, tt behoove« impossible than now. with the additional
selves. to civilisation and humanity te
shall w« provide other means of publl« condemnation of th« treatment th« executive soberly to consider the con obligation of International neutrality interven« with force, ft shall b« without silver shall be secured, fumlshe« assur**
under which eo important a i which we would perforce assume.
a no« that we are not alone among tho
to prevent th««« recurring drain« upon th« of American citisens by alleged lll«gal ar- ditions
ntuurt must need« rest for juatiacaUoQ. i
The enforcement of this enlarged aad fault on our part, and only because the larger nations ef tho world in r«afialn<
gold reserve? If no further legislation
is had and the policy of selling bonds is
to be continued, then congress should g.ve
the secretary of the treasury authority to
sell bonds at long or short periods, bearing
a less rate of interest than is now author
ized by law. I earnestly recommend, as
soon as the receipts of the government
are quite suificlent to pay all the expenses
of the government, that when any of the
United States notes are presented for re
demption in gold and areredeeemed in gold,
such notes shall be kept and only paid out
in exchange for gold. This is an obvious
duty. If the holderof the United Statesnote
prefersgold from thegovernment, he should
not rective back from the government
a United States note without paying gold
in exchange for it. The ri ason for th*« is
made ail the more apparent when the gov
ernment issues an interest-bearing debt
to provide gold for the redemption of
United States notes—a nonintervst-bearing
! debt. Surely it should not pay them out
( again except on demand and for gold. Jf
i they are put out in any other way they
I may return again to be followed by an-
■ other bond issue to redeem them—another
: interest-bearing debt to redeem a non-
In my view, it is of the utmost lmport-
I ance that the government should be re
lieved from the business of providing for
, all the gold required for exchange or ex-
I port. This responsibility is alone borne
! by the government without any of the
usual and necessary banking powers to
j help itself. The banks do not feel the I
strain of the gold redemption.
■ whole strain rests upon the government,
I and the size of the gold reserve in the
treasury has come to be. with or with i
out reason, the signal of danger or of se
curity. This ought to be stopped.
If we are to have an era of prosperity '
in the country with sufficient receipts for
the expenses of the government, we may 1
feel no immediate embarrassment from
our present currency; but the danger still |
exists, and will be ever present, menacing |
us as long as the existing system con i
tinues. And. besides, it is in times of
adequate revenues and business tran
quillity that the government should pre
pare for the worst. We cannot avoid,
without serious consequences, the W’ise
consideration and prompt solution of this