care of that. The actual worth of the land improvements of Buskin Is esti- mated at $60,600. If there were any doubt as to the so cialistic sincerity of the Ruakinites, one N THE heart of a Tennessee valley, nt the town of Ruskin, the Almighty Hollar lias been pulled down from Its high plane and an al- i tar has lieen set , up to work by a community of | socialists, who are trying to prove that universal Jus- I tice may be u business success. They started in on the text that ‘‘All labor Is equal in value," and for three years have faithfully lived up to It. By that standaril a diligent president should! ritorni s i i. u. itcnsoy. of value by which all achievement Is measured. The prni'tlciil object of the com munity is Io see If the world cannot do without the system of hire, by which men are worked with no direct inter est lu the result. In Ruskin every thing belongs to everybody: tlie prolit of tlie community Is tlie profit of each man In It. mid lite honest endeavor of every member helps the other two hun- ..irty Just ns much as It does died and tllllT himself, Each man owns the wealth lie helps to make, and gets the profit of his toll. I'lie plan has been tested by three hard, struggling years, and Its founders no longer regard it ns an experiment, They have built n city without avarice and in Its future lies the solution of the bitter difficulties that spilt the world into two angry factions, known ns labor mid capital. In Ruskin the government Is liter ally by the people and for the people. It educates the children, pensions tlie aged, provides for the sick mid gives a home mid a good living to all. men and women alike, who are willing to work for the common good. The president gets the same recompense as the butch er. and neither talent nor training can alter tlie value of mi hour's lalsir. A Journalist by the mime of Way- l.'ind, who ran a labor paper In Greens burg, Ind., was the first starter of this new I’topin. After firing all the so cialists In the country with Ids articles on community property mid the equal ity of labor, he called for volunteers who should build their own city and control their own farms mid factories. He looked nt various tracts of land, mid finally sent mi ngeut to Inspect an unbroken wilderness In Tennessee. The advertised "farming land" was covered with huge trees and Impene trable underbrush. The "town” was a dark, sunless ravine, without f<xxl or water. The “populous neighborhood" wns peopled by a few forlorn. Indolent natives and a number of tierce razor- luicks In spite of this report, how ever, Waylaud purchased the property and lioonied it magnificently In Ills pa per. Koon the pioneers In tlie cause of socialism Is'gnn to set out for thia new Eden, which they knew vaguely as “Ruskin, fifty miles west of Nash ville." The first to arrive was E. R. Ixins- bury, whose ardent socialism was con siderably dampened when he found hlmeelf lu n mud cabin on a gloomy | If he has a wife, she Is also entitled THE FUTURE TELEGRAPHY. ' to earn fifty hour-checks a week, for Every Man Will Prepare His Own she is paid for working in her home. Mersice «lip. The children get tlielr living In return An Increasing amount of attention I for going to school and are allowed to Is being given nowadays to the possi bilities of rapid telegraphy. By tlie Wheatstone system, in which a pre viously punched strip of paper Is fed into the transmitter, from 100 to 150 words a minute are now easily sent over a single wire, a speed which Is three or four tinier that of the opera tor who manipulates a Morse kty. By the Rogers system, not yet In general use. It Is claimed that 200 words a minute can lie bandied and printed on sidehill, with a dense Jungle on all sides and no water within half a mile, lie might have gone back forever to capital and Inequality, but his wife followed the next day, and a few days later a socialistic shoemaker dawned on the horizon and helped dig a well. A month later that dismal valley con tained a carpenter, a machinist, a bar ber, a shoemaker, a butcher, a cooper, a farmer, a wire nail operative, a far _ mer, a blacksmith anil a man in gen eral, who was put down as a laborer. PRINCIPAL STREET IN RLsKIN. Not long after the founder of the com munity dropped In—and was wise remarkable fact in tlielr history would earn twenty hours' worth of labor enough to leave without ostentation or remove it forever. The seventy-eight checks a week out of school hours. farewells, lifter mooting their exasper- stockholders paid $500 apiece for their The coin of the realm is in tlie form ntod questions with a mild suggestion ••hares, which have now risen to a value of paper checks, which represent so that the best thing to do was to put u| if $861. The question of a dividend many hours of labor. The schoolmas ter. after teaching all the morning, re ceives a paper cheek which certifies that he lias done three hours’ labor for THE NEW TRANSMITNKK. the community and Is entitled to an ex a typewriter automatically. What is act equivalent. When outsiders come to the store, as many of the neighbors called the Delany system Is still more do, they pay for tlielr purchases in rapid. But all these achievements and cash, as they would anywhere, but projects are surpassed by a plan de there is a separate price list for the scribed by Lieut. George Owen Squler Ruskiuite, reading somewhat as fol of the Third United States artillery and assistant professor of physics at lows: One pound of tea.. . ................11..hours Dartmouth. In some experiments Three sticks of candy .................. Mi hour conducted by Lieutenant Squler, in co One cut of tobacco.. .................. 2. hours operation with Prof. A. C. Crehore at One pair of trousers. . .............. 37. hours Fort Monroe, a speed of 1,200 words One lemon......... ..................Vi . hour per minute was actually attained, and One pair woman ihoet best. .52M j hours tlie assertion is made that from 3,000 One pound crackers... ............. 2% hours to 6,000 words a minute may be sent One pound of coffee.. ................ 7 hours < >ne gallon coni oil..., ............. oy2 hours by tlie same system between points as One straw hat............. .............. 15 hours far apart as New York and Chicago. One great novelty about the new One p.-iir best shoes .............. 70 hours One quart peanuts.............................. I hour plan is that it utilizes an alternating One yard gingham............................ 2 hours current Instead of a constant one. One gallon gasoline.......................... 6 hours Now, if an alternating current be in The first two years of the commu terrupted, and if the interruption oc nity’s existence were all struggle and curs at just tlie stage of an alteration suffering mid discouragement, and it which is midway between a positive needed the courage and heroism of the and a negative wave, there will be no Pilgrim Fathers to keep the little baud spark, because the force which was together. Socialism lived In a Tennes flowing in one direction subsides to see wilderness is a very different thing zero before it begins to flow in the from socialism read in a book or spoken other. AVhat Messrs. Squler and Cre- from a platform, and many- a time the bore propose, then, is to interrupt members would have gladly gone back their current and restore it at just to theory and left the practice alone. such “zero points" in the oscillation as GENERAL VIEW OF Bl SKIN, Some dropped out, disheartened, but of tills. But the sparks will not disap manufactories and make themselves was brought up, but was voted down the thirty-five original members twenty pear unless the “make" and “break” into a big city as quickly ns possible. by the stockholders themselves, who still remain. The community- can now occur at precisely tlie right instant: The community, left to Itself, decid preferred to devote the surplus to the show seventy-four heads of families, and thus a simple and valuable guide ed that its one chance of a future lay general good, since tlielr object was and numbers 214 members in all. Mu Is afforded the operator in adjusting in tlie erecting of a printing establish not personal wealth. When any one sic receives as much attention as art his apparatus. When he finds that ment, so baker, barber, wire nail oper wants to join the Ruskin community and arithmetic and scroll sawing in the «parking lias ceased, lie knows that his ator and all Joined the one carpenter he must pass a written examination on schools, and the department earns its transmitter interrupts and restores tlie and put up the building. That, a little his principles. He must be able to do principal's labor checks for eighty flow at tlie zero stage, and is working clearing and a few cottages, was all any useful labor assigned to him. he hours a we< k. It already possesses five In perfect harmony witli the particular that was accomplished that summer, must believe in uniform compensation. pianos, seven organs, nine violins, five frequency of alternation employed. and tlie winter brought hunger and guitars, one bass viol, one banjo, three Now, let us suppose that tlie Morse cold mid utter desolation. cornets, two flutes, oue fife, one pic alphabet, which is composed of dots Lonslniry and eighteen others incor colo and one tuba. and dashes, Is io be tried with this sys porated tlie colony under tlie law gov The people of Ruskin are all from the tem. In that case a break lasting from erning the formation of mining and laboring classes and many of them have the beginning of a positive wave until manufacturing companies, laid out ave little education, but the greatest inter Its end might stand for tlie-dot, and a nues, cut down trees mid were very est is taken in that of the children. For break from the beginning of a positive cold, hungry and uncomfortable. After the smaller ones there is a kindergarten wave, but coni inning past its subsi a year of struggle they decided to move held out of doors in ii beautiful grove dence through tlie rise and fall of the to a more passable location. of beech trees. In addition to the reg After some exploring a beautiful, fer ular school there is a class in fine arts, tile valley was found. Five hundred where drawing, painting, sculpture and acres of magnificent soil are now de pptterymaklng are studied under Pro voted to oichard and vineyard, corn, fessor Isaac Broome, a well-known wheat mid oats and to the homes of the sculptor, who was oue of New York's colonists. commissioners to tlie Paris Exposition. Ono thousand acres of beautiful for he must be able to coherently define so Professor Broome has long been a the est land represents the stock farm. A cialism, communism and competition. oretical socialist, and has played a The machine by which messages are three story building contains tlie co A ballot is taken on his answers. If in prominent part in the community, sent with an alternating current, is operative dining-room and the theater, his favor he pays down $5(10 and takes though lie comes from a much higher very simple. A narrow wheel with a and In the library there are more than possession of his cottage as a regular walk of life than most of the members. flat, narrow periphery Is kept in rota l.otio books, chiefly or. socialism mid member of the colony. He is guaran He takes a leading part in the sympo tion at a rate which is rapid and Is economics. Tlie whole place radiates teed work for every well day and pay siums, as the weekly meetings for so equal to an integer number of cycles. cheerfulness mid energy. It would be for every sick one. He has neither cialistic discussion are called. Let us Imagine, now, that the wire hard to tii.d In the working classes of taxes nor rent to pay. nor doctor’s bills. The chief claim of the ltuskinites is carrying the message is cut in two, and that as common people they nave skill the adjacent ends are provided with fully managed a great social and busi flexible metallic tips, or "brushes." ness undertaking, and so far have and that these two brushes rest, side made no serious mistakes. In one year by side, on the periphery of tlie wheel. they have increased the value of their Obviously tlie current will flow from holding by $32,055, and contentment one brush into the metal of the wheel, and harmony pervade all they do. If and thence into the other brush, so they could accomplish so much surely long as the wheel remains clean. If. able, trained organizers could do much however, a little patch of paper or more, and from that they argue that In other insulating material be attached time the State, the country, the whole to the periphery at a certain point, ev world would be run on a communistic ery time it comes around it will break basis. No personal capital, labor tlie tlie contact between one brush and tlie standard of value: from these they de wheel, and thus open the circuit. As duce a world without covetousness, soon as the patch is past tlie connec tion will be restored. which is almost a world without sin. This, however, was not the exact plan really pursued. In practice a A New “Ad" Scheme. Advertising tnreatens to break out long, narrow strip of paper was kept in a new place. Many barber shops in motion by the wheel, just as a belt In this city have recently received from Is by a pulley. This strip lias been a corporation, officered with men of dis previously perforated with holes of dif tinguished surnames, a circular pro ferent lengths, long or short, and care posing an ingenious enterprise. The fully spaced. One brush rested on top company writes to obtain the privilege of it. and the other pressed upward of posting advertisements on the walls against it from below, the two being and ceilings of barber shops at such removed a short distance from the points as shall come within the range wheel, and situated one directly above qf vision of persons that submit them the other. So long as the brushes were selves to the bands of the barber and separated by the paper strip no cur his assistants. It Is the hope of the rent would flow, but when a hole per company that the barbers will yield up mitted one to reach through and touch their wall space In return for so many the other the current would lie restor shares of stock per chair in the com ed. The Interruption and restorations pany. and the glittering hoi>e is held out of the current always occurred at the that when the business is once well zero stage, between positive and nega established the stock at a par value of tive waves, so that no sparking result $10 will pay dividends of 50 per cent, ed after the brushes were once adjust annually. It is announced that the busi ed. The wheel P was geared to the ness Is already establishes in 3.(MX) bar dynamo so as to make one revolution ber shops lu Philadelphia.—New York to every 184 half-cycles. The perforat ed tape is Indicated nt T. The current Sun. wires are shown at W W, but the brushes are hidden by the adjustable Why Not Grow Herts? NAW MILL AN I» CLIFF. Germany has l.IXMJ.OOOacres of land support S. An actual speed of 1.200 in sugar beets, and France has 1,700, words a minute wns secured in this any country sixty other families who nor school bills, nor washiug. Ills chil 000. Ten or twelve tons of beets can way, and three or four times that rate are as well off as these, who fare so dren are given schooling, music, lan lie grown to the acre mid will yield a Is said to be entirely feasible. It Is thought that a telegraph com One million acre« of well, have as many comforts and can guages and industrial training for ton of sugar. give as much time to reading ami mu nothing. He Is entitled to draw checks sugar beets give a crop worth $30.000,- pany of the future will fulfill a some sic. There is a newspaper, whose week for fifty hours’ work each week. If ho tX(O. One million acres In corn at pres what different function from the pres ly circulation comes to more than 80.- does more it is not paid for. and so Is a ent prices give a crop worth $6.230,000. ent ones. The company will own its 000, and so brings up the salary of the gratuitous present to the community. Why not grow sugar beets?—Leaven own wires and rights of way as now, but the tendency of the offices proper ltuskln Postmaster to a figure unusual There Is no taskmaster to watch him. worth Times, will be to transmit and receive letters In so small a town. There is a mort but he Is not expected to shirk. Three gage of $•1,000 on the farm, but 503 who attempted It were promptly sus Some people save money by not pay already prepared, rather than to un- s-»rt*ke the preparation of the letters acres of fertile land can easily take pended from the community Ing tlielr bills. as well. When the system comes Into general use, IlUolutsHt unices will have tneir own perforators, and It will be come necessary for the operator to learn the telegraph alphabet as a part of his preparation as a stenographer and typewriter. The three-key pel» forating machine is comparatively in expensive, but undoubtedly a machine could be devised at an early date, as an attachment to tlie present typewriter, for the purpose of perforating letters at the same time that they are lieing/ written by tlie typewriter In the usual way. These perforated strips of paper will be carried to the telegraph office, as letters are now delivered at the post office, and the telegraph operator will slip the strip on the machine, and off will go the message. BROTHER OF THE NOVELIST. W. H. I>. Hairord the New British Minister to Caracas. W. II. I). Haggard, the new British minister resident at Caracas lu Vene zuela, Is a brother of the famous nov elist, Rider Haggard. He Is the first diplomatic agent to be sent to the South American country in many years. The relations of the two nations have not been such as to permit the presence of a British minister in Caracas. Now that these relations have made way for a more cordial feeling the Intercourse has been resumed. Mr. Haggard is one of the oldest men in the service. He lias been in the consular department for full thirty years and has filled many minor offices. Since 1894 he has been W. H. D. HAGGARI». British consul general at Tunis. His mission to Caracas is in the way of pro motion. Mr. Haggard will be succeeded at Tunis by Sir Henry’ Johnston. A TURKISH COUNTRESS. Once an American Girl, Ehe Is Now the Wife of a Pasha. The Countess Djemil. the beautiful v wife of Gen. Hassan Djemil I’asha, ■ one of the most distinguished of the Turkish commanders that took part lu the recent triumphant campaign against the Greeks, is an American woman, and a few years ago was a so ciety belle of San Francisco. She was formerly Miss Eva Taaffee, a grand daughter of the late AV. T. Taaffee, who was prominent in business circles in early days. Miss Taaffee went to Paris five years ago. entered the con- seravtory there, and attained quite a reputation as a singer. Gen. Hassan Pasha is n Belgian by birth and enter ed the military service of the Sultan twenty’ years ago. He adopted the Mohammedan faith with tlie privilege COUXTRESS n.TEMIT.. of taking but one wife. Tlie Count and Countess Djemil reside in one- of tlie handsomest mansions in Con stantinople. presented to tlie Count by the Sultan as a token of regard for his military services. For Dead and Mourner. City life tends to make the funeral» of its people less and less elalxtrate. Business keeps friends from attending the last ceremonies, till each year finds fewer and fewer of the deceased's companions accompanying tlie body to Its last resting-place. This state of NEW FVXKRAb CAR. affairs has led to the Introduction in New Y’ork of a combination vehicle for funerals. In which the coffin la placed at the top. with seats under neath for friends who wish to go to the graveyard. There is a special par titioned apartment for the relatives of the dead. Density of l»eep Water. So dense is the water In the deepest parts of the ocean that an Ironclad, if It were to sink, would never reach the bottom. Cupid steals a base every time lover» look at the moon.