The Hood River glacier. (Hood River, Or.) 1889-1933, December 09, 1898, Image 1

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    he Hood Eiver Glacier.
It's a Cold Day When We Get Left.
NO. 29.
n I
Text of PresidentyAI
.7;'': nual Address.
Mo Suggestions Made . Regarding the
'Government of Our New Territories-
Foreign Relations Generally Satis
factory Hawaiian Annexation.
To the Senate and House of Represent
tlves: Notwithstanding the added burdens
rendered necessary by the war, our people
rejoice In a very satisfactory and steadily'
Increasing degree of prosperity, evidenced,
by the largest volume of business ever
recorded. Every manufacture has been
productive, i agricultural pursuits have
yielded abundant returns, labor in the
fields of Industry Is better rewarded, rev
enue legislation passed by the present
congress has increased the treasury's re
ceipts to the amount estimated by its
authors, the finances of the government
have been successfully administered ana
Its credit advanced to the first rank; while
Its currency has been maintained at the
world's highest standard. Military serv
ice under a common flag ' and for a
righteous cause has strengthened the
national spirit and served to cement more
closely than ever the fraternal bonds be
tween every section of the country.
A review of the relations of the United
States to other powers, always appropri
ate, is this year of primary importance.
In view of the momentous issues which
have risen, demanding in one instance the
ultimate determination by arms and ln-
, volvlng far-reaching consequences which
will require the earnest attention of the
In my last annual message, very full
consideration was given to the question
of the duty of the government of the
United States toward Spain and the Cu
ban Insurrection, as being by far the
most important problem with which we
were called upon to deal. The considera
tions then advanced, and the exposition
of the views therein expressed, disclosed
my sense of the extreme gravity of the
situation. ;
Setting aBlde, as logically unfounded
or practically inadmissible, recogni
tion of the Cuban Insurgents as belliger
ents, recognition" of the independence
of iCuba, neutral Intervention to end the
war by imposing a rational compromise
between the contestants, intervention in
favor of one or the other party and the
forcible annexation of the island, I con
cluded it was honestly due to our friendly
relations with Spain that she should be
given a reasonable chance to realize her
expectations of reform to which she had
become irrevocably committed.
Within a few weeks previously she
had announced comprehensive Plana
which it was confidently asserted would
be- efficacious to remedy the evils so
deeply affecting our own country, so In
jurious to the true interests of ; the
mother country, as well as to those of
Cuba, and so repugnant to the universal
sentiment of humanity. ,
, Destruction of the Maine.
At this juncture, on the 15th of Febru
ary last, occurred the destruction of the
battle-ship Maine, while rightfully lying
In the harbor of Havana on a mission of
International courtesy and good will, a
catastrophe the suspicious nature and
horror of which stirred the nation's heart
profoundly. It is a striking evidence of
the' poise and sturdy good sense distin
guishing our national character that this
shocking blow, falling upon a generous
people already deeply touched by pre
ceding events in Cuba, did not move them
to desperate resolve to tolerate no longer
the existence of a condition ol danger ana
disorder at our doors that made possible
such a deed by whomsoever wrought.
Yet the instinct of Justice prevailed, and
the nation anxiously awaited the result
of the searching investigation at once set
on foot. The finding of the naval board
of inquiry established that the origin of
the explosion was external by a subma
rine mine, and only halted, through lack
of positive testimony, to fix the responsi
bility of its authorship. .
Congress' Appropriation of Fifty Mil.
lions for National Defense.
..... .. .
All those things carried conviction to
the most thoughtful, even before the
finding, of the naval court, that a orlsls
In our relations with Spain and toward
Cuba was at hand. 8p trong was. this
belief that it needed but a brief execu
tive suggestion to congress to receive im
mediate answer to the duty of making
Instant provision for the possible and per
haps speedily probable emergency of war,
and the remarkable, almost unique, spec
tacle was presented of a unanimous vote
of both houses on the 9th of March ap
propriating $50,000,000 "for the national de
fense and for each and every purpose con
nected therewith, to be expended at the
discretion of the president."
iThat this act of provision oame none
Wo soon was disclosed when the applica
tion of the fund was undertaken. Our
ports were practically undefended; our
navy needed large provision for Increased
ammunition and supplies, and even num
bers to cope with any sudden attack from
the navy of Spain, which comprised mod
ern vessels of the highest type of conti
nental perfection. Our army also re
quired enlargement of men and muni
tions. The details of the hurried prepa
rations for the decided contingency is told
In the reports of the secretaries of war
and of the navy, and need not be repeated
here. . , - '
It is sufficient to say that the outbreak
of war, when it did come, found our na
tion not unprepared to meet the conflict, j
nor was the apprehension of coming strife
confined to our own country. It was felt
by the continental powers, which, on April
8, through their ambassadors and envoys, j
addressed to the executive an expression !
of hope that humanity and moderation
might mark the course of this govern-
ment and people, and that further nego-
tlations would lead to an attempt, which,
while securing the maintenance of peace,
would affirm all necessary guarantees for
the re-establishment of order in Cuba. j
Proposal of an Armistice. I
Still animated by the hope of a peace
ful solution and obeying the dictates of
duty, no effort was relaxed to bring about
i speedy ending- of the Cuban struggle.
I -.-e-. - " ......
ftrtivelv with the o-ovemment of ftnaln
looking to the Immediate conclusion of a
six months' armistice In Cuba with a
view to effect the recognition of her peo
ple's right to Independence. Besides this,
the instant revocation of the order of re
concentration was asked, so that the suf
ferers, returning to their homes and
aided by united American and Spanish
effort, might be put In a way to support
themselves, and by orderly resumption of
the, well-nigh destroyed productive ener
gies of the Island contribute to "the res
toration of Its tranquillity and well-being.
Authority to Intervene.
Grieved and disappointed at this barren
outcome of my sincere endeavors to reach
a practicable solution, I felt it my duty to
remit the whole question to congress. In
the message of April 11, 1898, I announced
that with this last overture in the direc
tion of immediate peace in Cuba and its
disappointing reception by Spain the ef
fort of the executive was brought o an
end. - I again reviewed the alternative
course of action which I had prepared,
concluding that the only course consonant
with International policy and compatible
with our firmly set historical traditions
was intervention as a neutral to stop the
war and check the hopeless sacrifice of
life, even though that resort involved
"hostile constraint upon both parties to
the contest, as well to enforce a truce as
to provide for eventual settlement."
On April 22 I proclaimed a blockade of
the northern coast of Cuba, including
ports on said coast between Cardenas and
Bahla Honda and the port of Cienfuegos,
on the south coast of Cuba; and on the 23d
I called for volunteers to execute the pur
pose of the resolution.
The Declaration of War.
By my message of April 25, congress was
Informed of the situation, and I recom
mended formal declaration of the exist
ence of a state of war between the United
States and Spain. Congress accordingly
voted on the same day the act approved
April 25, 1S98, declaring the existence of
such war from and Including the 21st day
of April, and re-enacted the provision of
the . resolution of April 20, directing the
president to use all the armed forces of the
nation to carry that act Into effect.
Due notification of the existence .of war
as aforesaid was given April 25 by tele
graph to all the governments with which
the United States maintained relations, in
order that their neutrality might be c
sured during the war. The various govern
ments responded with proclamations ol
neutrality, each after its own method. It
is not among the least gratifying Incidents
of the struggle that the obligations of
neutrality were Impartially discharged by
all, often under delicate and difficult cir
cumstances. The national defense fund of $30,000,000
was expended in large part by the
army and the navy, and the objectB for
which It was used are fully shown in the
reports of the several secretaries. It was
a most timely appropriation, enabling the
government to strengthen Its defenses and
to make preparations greatly needed in
case of war. This fund being inadequate
to the requirements of equipment and for
the conduct of the war, the patriotism of
congress provided the means in the war
revenue act of June 13 by authorizing a
3 per cent popular loan, not to exceed
$400,000,000, and by levying additional im
posts and taxes. Of the authorized loan,
$200,000,000 was offered and promptly taken,
the subscriptions so far exceeding the
call as to cover it many times over.
While preference was given to the small
er bids, no single allotment exceeded
$5000. This was a most encouraging and
significant result, showing the vast re
sources of the nation and the determina
tion of the people to uphold their coun
try's honor.
Brilliant Series of Victories for
. American Arms.
It la not within the province of ' this
message to narrate the history of the
extraordinary war that followed the
Spanish declaration of April. 21, but a
brief recital of its more salient features
is appropriate. The first encounter of the
war in point of date took place April
27, when a detachment of the blockading
squadron made a reconnoissance in force
at Matanzas, shelled the harbor fortifica
tions and demolished several new works
In construction.
Dewey nt Manila.
The next engagement was destined to
mark a memorable epoch in maritime war
fare. The Pacific fleet, under Commo
dore George Dewey, had lain for some
weeks at Hong Kong. Upon the colonial
proclamation of neutrality being Issued
and the customary 24 hours' notice being
given, it repaired to Mlrs bay, near Hong
Kong, whence it proceeded to the Philip
pine islands under telegraphic orders to
capture or destroy the formidable Span
ish fleet then assembled at Manila. At
daybreak on May 1 the American force
entered Manila bay, and after a few hours'
engagement effected the total destruction
of the Spanish fleet, consisting of 10 war
ships and a transport, besides capturing
the naval station and forts at (Javlte, thus
annihilating the Spanish naval power in
the Pacific ocean and completely control
ling the bay of Manila, with the ability
to take the city at will. Not a life was
lost on our ships, the wounded number
ing only seven, while not a vessel wag
materially injured. For this gallant
achievement congress, upon my recom
mendation, fitly bestowed upon the actors
preferment and substantial reward.
No Divided Victory.
Only reluctance to cause needless loss
of life and property prevented the early
storming and capture of the city, and
therewith the absolute military occupation
of the whole group. The Insurgents,
meanwhile had resumed the active hos
tilities suspended by the uncompleted
truce of December, 1897. Their forces in
vested Manila on the northern and east
ern, side, but were constrained by Admiral
Dewey and General Merrltt from attempt
ing an assault. It was fitting that what
ever was to be done in the way of de
cisive operations in that quarter should be
accomplished by the strong arm of the
United States alone.
Obeying ,the etern precept of war, which
enjoins the overcoming of the adversary
and the extinction of his power wherever
assailable as the speedy and sure means
to win a peace, divided victory was not
permissible, for no partition of the rights
and responsibilities attending the enforce
ment of a Just and advantageous peace
could be thought of. . .
Following the adoption of a comprehen
sive scheme of general attack, powerful
foroes were assembled at various points on
our coast to invade Cuba and Porto Rico.
Meanwhile, naval demonstrations were
made at several exposed points. May 11
the cruiser Wilmington and torpedo-boat
Winslow were unsuccessful In an attempt
to silence the batteries at Cardenas, in
Matanzas,1 Ensign Worth Bagley and four
seamen falling. These grievous .fatalities ;
were strangely enough among the very j
few which occurred- during our naval
operations In this extraordinary oonfllct. I
Hobson's Heroism.
The next act In the war thrilled not
.alone the hearts of our countrymen, but
the world, by its exceptional heroism.
On the night of June 3 Lieutenant Hob
.son, aided by seven devoted volunteers,
blocked the narrow outlet from Santiago
, harbor by sinking the collier Merrlmac in
the channel under a fierce fire from the
shore batteries, escaping with their lives
as by a miracle, but falling into the
hands of the Spaniards. It Is a most grat
ifying Incident of the war that the brav
ery of this little band of heroes was cor
dially appreciated by the Spaniards, who
sent a flag of truce to notify Admiral
Sampson of their safety and to compli
ment them upon their daring act. They
were subsequently exchanged, July 7.
By June 7 the cutting of the last Cuban
cable isolated the island. Thereafter the
invasion was vigorously prosecuted. June
10, under a heavy protecting fire, a land
ing force of 600 marines from the Oregon,
Marblehead and Yankee was effected at
Guantanamo bay, where It had been de
termined to establish a cable station. This
important and essential port was taken
from the enemy after severe : fighting by
the marines, who were the first organized
force of the United States to land in Cuba.
The position so won was held, despite the
desperate attempts to dislodge our fdrces.
By June 16 additional forces were landed
and strongly intrenched.
June 22 the advance of the invading
army under Major-General Shafter landed
at Daiquiri, about 15 miles east of Santi
ago. This was accomplished under great
difficulties, but with marvelous dispatch.
On June 23 the movement against Santiago
was begun.
On the 24th the first serious engagement
took place In which the First and Tenth
cavalry and the First volunteer cavalry,
General Young's brigade of General
Wheeler's division, participated, losing
heavily. By , nightfall, however, ground
within five miles of Santiago was won.
The advantage was steadily Increased.
On July 1 a severe battle took place, our
forces gaining the outer works of Santiago,
and El Caney and San Juan were taken
after a desperate charge and the invest
ment of the city : was completed. The
navy co-operated by shelling the town
and the coast forts.
Destruction of the Armada.
On the day following this brilliant
achievement of our land forces, July 3,
occurred the decisive naval combat of the
war. The Spanish fleet, attempting to
leave the harbor, was met by the Ameri
can squadron under command of Commo
dore Sampson. In less than three hours
all the Spanish ships were destroyed.
Two torpedo-boats were sunk and the Ma
ria Teresa, Almlrante Oquendo, Vizcaya
and Cristobal Colon were driven ashore.
The Spanish admiral and over 1300 men
were taken prisoners. . While the enemy's
loss of life was deplorably large, some
200 perishing, on our side but one man
was killed and one man seriously wounded.
Although our ships were repeatedly struck,
not one was seriously injured. The men
also conspicuously distinguished them
selves, from the commanders to the gun
ners and the unnamed heroes in the
boiler-rooms, each and all contributing
toward the achievement of this astound
ing victory, for which neither ancient nor
modern history affords a parallel in the
completeness of the event and the marvel
ous disproportion of casualties. It would
be invidious to single out any for special
honor. Deserved promotion has rewarded
the mere conspicuous actors the nation's
profoundest gratitude is due to all of those
brave men who by their skill and devo
tion in- a few short hours crushed the sea
power of Spain and wrought a triumph
whose decisiveness and far-reaching ef
fects can scarcely be measured. Nor can
we be unmindful of the achievements of
our builders, mechanics and artisans for
their skill in the construction of our war
ships. i ' , ;
With the catastrophe of' Santiago,
Spain's effort upon the ocean virtually
ceased. A spasmodic effort toward the
end of June to send her Mediterranean
fleet, under 'Admiral Camara, to relieve
Manila was abandoned, the expedition be
ing recalled after It had passed through
the Suez canal. . . : .
Surrender of Santiago. ,
The capitulation of Santiago followed..
The city was closely besieged by land,
while the entrance of our ships into the
harbor cut off all relief on that side. After
a truce' to allow of the removal of the
noncombatants, protracted negotiations
continued from July 3 until July 15, when,
under menace of immediate assault, the
preliminaries of surrender were agreed
upon. On the 17th General Shafter occu
pied the city. The capitulation embraced
the entire eastern end of Cuba. The num
ber of Spanish soldiers surrendered was
22,000, all of whom were subsequently con
veyed to Spain at the charge of the
United States. The story of this success
ful campaign Is told in the report of the
secretary of war which will be laid be
fore you.'. . .j - .' . .. ;.: ,
Invasion of Porto Rico. ...
" With the fall of Santiago, the occupa
tion of Porto Rico became the next strat
egic necessity. General Miles had pre
viously been assigned to organize an ex
pedition lorh that purpose. Fortunately,
he was already at Santiago, where he had
arrived on the 11th of July with reinforce
ments for General Shaffer's army. With
these troops, consisting of 3415 Infantry
and artillery, two companies of engineers
and one company of the signal corps. Gen
eral Miles left Guantanamo July 21, hav
ing nine transports convoyed by the fleet
under Captain Hlgglnson, with the Mas
sachusetts (flagship), Dixie, Gloucester,
Columbia, and Yale, the two latter carry
ing troops. The expedition landed at
Guanlca, July 25, which port was Entered
with little opposition. Here the fleet was
joined by the Annapolis and Wasp, while
the Puritan and Amphitrlte went to San
Juan and Joined the New Orleans, which
was engaged in blockading that port. The
major-general commanding was subse
quently, reinforced by General Schwann's
brigade of the Third army corps, by Gen
eral Wilson with a part of his division,
and also by General Brooke, with a part
of his corps, numbering In all 16,973 officers
and men. On July 27 he eittered Ponce,
one of the most important points in the
island, from which he thereafter directed
operations for the capture of the Island.
As a potent Influence toward peace, the
outcome of the Porto Rican expedition
Is due to those who participated in it.
Last Battle of the War. ,
The last scene of the war was enacted
at Manila, its starting place. On August
15. after a brief assault upon the works
by the land forces, in which the squadron
assisted, the capital surrendered uncondi
tionally. - The casualties were compara
tively few. By this conquest of the Phil
ippine Islands, virtually accomplished
when the Spanish capacity for resistance
was destroyed by Admiral Dewey's vic
tory of the first of May, the result of the
war was formally sealed. To General
Merrltt, his officers and men, for their un
complaining and devoted services, for their
gallantry In action, the nation is sincerely
grateful. Tneir long voyage was made ,
with singular success, and the soldierly !
conduct of the men, of whom many were
without previous experience In the mill- '
tary service, deserves unmeasured praise.
Total Casualties.
; The total casualties in killed and wound
ed in the army during the -war was as fol
lows: , . 1 ; ' ' .
Officers killed, '23; enllsttd men killed,
257; total, 280; officers wounded, 113; en
listed men wounded, 1464; total, 1577.
Of the navy, killed, 17; wounded, 67;
died as result of wounds, 1; invalided from
service, 6; total, 91. . -.
Spain's Overtures for a Cessation of
- ; Hostilities. ;
The annihilation of Admiral Cervera's
fleet, followed by the -capitulation of San
tiago, having brought to the Spanish gov
ernment a realizing sense of the hopeless
ness of continuing a struggle now becom
ing wholly unequal. It made overtures of
peace through the French ambassaddr,
who, with the assent of his government,
had acted as the friendly representative
of Spain's interests during the war., -On
the 26th of July, M. Cambon presented a
communication, signed by the Duke of
Almodovar, the Spanish minister of state.
Inviting the United States to state the
terms upon which it would be willing to
make peace. July 30, by a communication
addressed to the Duke of Almodovar, and
handed by M. Cambon, the terms of this
government were announced substantially
In the protocol, afterwards signed. On
August 10, the Spanish reply dated August
7 was handed by M. Cambon to the sec
retary of state. It accepted uncondi
tionally1 the terms imposed as to Cuba,
Porto Rico, and an Island of the Ladrone
group, but appeared to seek to introduce
inadmissible reservations in regard to our
demand as to the Philippines.
Conceiving that discussion on this point
could neither be "practicable nor profitable,
I directed that, In order to avoid mis
understanding, the matter should be
forthwith closed by proposing the em
bodiment In a formal protocol of the
terms in which the negotiations for peace
were undertaken. The vague and inex
plicit suggestions of the Spanish note
could not be accepted, the only reply be
ing to present as a virtual ultimatum; a
draft of the protocol, embodying the pre
cise terms tendered to Spain in our note
of July 30, . which added stipulations of
details as to the appointment of com
missioners to arrange for the evacuation
of the Spanish. Antilles. On August 12,
M. Cambon announced hia receipt ot full
powers to sign the protocol as submitted.
Terms of the Protocol. x
Accordingly, on the afternoon of August
12, M. Cambon as the plenipotentiary of
Spain and the secretary of state, as the
plenipotentiary , of the United States,
signed the protocol providing:
"Article 1. Spain will relinquish all
claim-of sovereignty over and title to
' "Article 2. Spain will cede to the United
States the Island of Porto Rico and other
islands now under Spanish sovereignty in
the West Indies, and also an island in
the Ladrones to be selected by the United
States. - '
' "Article . The United States will occu
py and hold the city, bay and harbor of
Manila, pending the conclusion of a treaty
of peace, which shall determine the con
trol, disposition and government of the
Philippines." .
The fourth article provided for the. ap
pointment of joint commissions on the
part of the United States and Spain to
meet in Havana and Ban Juan, respective
ly, for the purpose of arranging and car
rying out the details of the stipulated
evacuation of Cuba, Porto Rico and other
Spanish islands in the West Indies.
, The fifth article . provided for the ap
pointment of not more than five commis
sioners on each side to meet at Paris not
later than October 1, and to proceed to
the negotiation ' and conclusion 'of a
treaty of peace, subject to ratification ac
cording to, the respective constitutional
forms of the two countries. '
The sixth and last article provides that
upon the signing of the protocol, hostili
ties between the two countries shall be
suspended, and that notice to that effect
should be given as soon as possible by
each government to Jhe commanders of
Its naval forces.
Immediately upon the conclusion of the
protocol, I Issued the proclamation of Au
gust 12, suspending hostilities on the part,
of . the United States. The necessary orr
ders to that end were at once given by tel
egraph. The blockade of the ports of Cu
ba and of San Juan de Porto Rico was in
like manner raised. , On August 18, the
muster-out of 100,000 volunteers, or as near
that number as was found to be practica
ble, was ordered. On December 1, 101,655 of
ficers and men had been mustered out and
discharged from the service; 9002 more will
be mustered out by the 10th of the month;
also a corresponding number of generals
and general staff officers have been hon
orably discharged from the service.
The military commissions to superintend
the evacuation of Cuba, Porto Rico and
the adjacent islands were forthwith ap
pointed: For : Cuba Major-General James F.
Wade, Rear-Admiral William T. Sampson,
Major-General Matthew C. Butler.
For Porto Rico Major-General John C.
Brooke, Rear-Admiral Winfleld Scott
Schley, Brigadier-General W. Gordon.
They soon afterwards met the Spanish
commissioners at Havana and San Juan,
respectively. The Porto Rico Joint commis
sion speedily accomplished its task, and
by October 18 the evacuation ol tne island
was completed. The United States flag
was raised over the Island at noon that
day. The administration of its affairs has
been provisionally Intrusted to a military
governor until congress shall otherwise
provide. The Cuban Joint high commis
sion has not yet terminated its labors. Ow
ing to the difficulties in the way of remov
ing the large number of Spanish troops
still in Cuba,, the evacuation cannot, be
completed before the 1st of January next. ,
The. Peace Commission.
; Pursuant to the fifth article of the pro-,
tocol, I appointed William R. Day, lately
secretary of state; Cushman K. Davis,
William P. Frye and George Gray, senatora
of the United States, and Whitelaw Reld,
to be peace commissioners on the part of
the United States. Proceeding in due
season to Paris, they there met, on the
1st of October, five commissioners sim
ilarly appointed on the part of Spain. Tho
negotiations have made hopeful progress,
so that I trust soon to be able to lay a
definite treaty of peace before the senate,
with a review of the steps leading to its
signature. I , -
Aside From Spain We Have Had No
Serious Differences , With Other ..,
Nations. 4 -
With the exception of the rupture with
Spain, the Intercourse of the United States
with the great family of nations has been
marked with cordiality, and the close of
the eventful year finds most of the Issues
that necessarily arise in the complex rela- ;
tlons of sovereign states adjusted or pre
senting no serious obstacles to adjust
ment and honorable solution by amicable
A long-unsettled dispute as to the ex-
tended boundary between the Argentina
republlo and Chile, stretching along the
Andean crests, from the southern bor
der of the Ataeama desert to the Magel
lan straits, nearly a third of the length
of the South American continent, as.
sumed an acute stage In the early part
or the year and afforded this government
occasion to express the hope that the re
sort to arbitration, already contemplated
by existing conventions between the par
ties, might prevail, despite the grave diffi
culties arising in Its application. I ani
happy to say that arrangements to this
end have been perfected, the questions of
iact upon wmon tne respective commis
sioners were unable to agree being in
course of reference to her Britannic ma
jesty for. determination. A residual dif
ference, touching the northern boundary
line across the Ataeama desert, for which
existing treaties provided no adequate ad
justment, bids fair to be settled in 'like
manner by a Joint commission, upon whioh
the United States minister at Buenoa
Ayres has been invited to serve as um
pire in the last resort. '
International Cable Agreement.
I have found occasion to approach ' the
Argentine government with a view to re
moving differences of rate charges im
posed upon the cables of an American
corporation in the transmission 'between
Buenos Ayres and the cities of Uruguay
and Brazil of through messages passing
from and to the United States. Although
the matter is complicated by exclusive
concessions by Uruguay and Brazil to
foreign companies, there Is a strong hope
that a good understanding will be reached
and that the important channels of com
mercial communication between " the
United States and the Atlantic cities of
boutn America may be freed from an al
most prohibitory discrimination.
ForelKn Exhibition.
Despite the brief time allotted for prep
aration, the exhibits of this country at
the universal exposition at Brussels in
1897 enjoyed the singular distinction of
larger proportion of awards, having re
gard to the number and classes of articles
entered, than those of other countries. The
worth of such a result In making known
our national capacity to supply the world's
markets is obvious.
The Nicaragua Canal.
The Nicaragua canal commission, ' under
Rear-Admiral John G. Walker, appointed
July 24, 1897, under the authority of a
provision in tne sundry civil act of June 4,
of that year, has nearly oompleted Its
labors, and the results of Its exhaustive
Inquiry Into the proper route, the feasibil
ity and the cost of construction of an in-
teroceanic canal by the Nicaragua route.
will be laid before you. In the perform
ance of its work the commission reoelved
all. possible courtesy and asalstance from
the governments of Nicaragua and Costa
Rica, which thus testified thAlr flnnrpnift-
tlon of the Importance of giving a speedy
and practical outcome of the project that
nas lor eo many years engrossed the at
tention of the respective countries.
As the scope of recent Inquiry embraced
the whole subject with the aim of making
plans and surveys for a canal by the most
convenient route, it necessarily included
a review of the results of previous sur
veys and plans, and In particular those
adopted by the Maritime Canal Company
under its existing concessions from Nica
ragua and Costa Rica, so that to this ex
tent these grants necessarily held en es
sential part in the deliberations and con
clusions of the canal commission as they
have held and must needs hold in the dis
cussion of the matter By congress. Un
der these circumstances, and in view of
overtures made to the governments of
Nicaragua and Costa Rica by other par
ties for a new canal concession predicated
on the assumed approaching lapse of the
contracts of the Maritime Canal Company
with those states, I have not hesitated to
express my convictions that considerations
of expediency and international policy, as
between the several governments inter
ested in the : construction and control of
an interoceanlo canal by this route re
quire the maintenance of the status quo
until the canal commission shall have re
ported and the United States congress
shall have had the opportunity to pass
finally upon the whole matter during the
present session without prejudice by rea
son of any change in the existing condi
tions. Nevertheless, it appears that the gov
ernment of Nicaragua, as one of Its last
sovereign acts before merging its pow
ers in those of the newly formed United
States of Central America, has granted an
optional concession to another association
to become effective on the expiration of
the present grant. It does not appear
that surveys have been made or what
route Is proposed. under this concession,
so that an examination of the feasibility
of its plans Is necessarily not embraced
In the report of the canal commission.
All these circumstances suggest the ur
gency of some definite action by congress
at this session if the labors of the past
are to be utilized and the linking of the
Atlantic and pacific oceans by a practical
waterway Is to be , realized. That the
construction of such a maritime highway
is now more than ever Indispensable to
that Intimate and ready Intercommuni
cation between our eastern and western
seaboards demanded by the annexation
of the Hawaiian islands and the prospec
tive expansion of our influence And com
merce to the Pacific, and that our national
policy now more imperatively than ever
calls for Its control by this government,
are propositions which I doubt not con
gress will duly appreciate and wisely act
upon. i . ...
Trade ,' Relations With : France and
. Germany.
The commercial arrangements made
with France on May 28, 1898, under the
provisions of section 8, of the tariff act
of 1897, went into effect on June 1 follow
ing,' It has relieved a portion of our ex
port trade from serious embarrassment.
Further negotiations are now pending
under section 4 of the same act, with a
view to the increase of trade between
the two countries to their mutual ad
vantage. Negotiations with other govern
ments, in part Interrupted by the war
with Spain, are in progress under both
sections of the tariff act, I hope to be
able to announce some of the results of
these negotiations during the present ses
sion of congress. . ,
Existinar Lows In Force Pending Ac
tion by Congress. - -
- Pending the consideration by the senate
of the treaty signed June 16, 1897, by the
plenipotentiaries of the United States and 1
of the republic of Hawaii, providing for !
the annexation of the island, a Joint reso-
lution to accomplish the same purpose by j
accepting the offered cession and lncor- '
porating the ceded territory into the
Union was adopted by congress and ap
proved July 7, 1898. I thereupon directed
the United States, steamer Philadelphia
to convey Rear-Admiral Miller to Hono
lulu and entrusted to his hands this im
portant legislative act to be delivered to
the president of the republic of Hawaii,
with whom the admiral and the United
Stales minister were authorized to make
appropriate arrangements for transfer
ring the sovereignty of the islands to the
United States. This was simply but im
pressively accomplished on August 12 last,
by the delivery of a certified- copy of
the resolution to President Dole, who
thereupon yielded up to the representa
tive of the government of the United
States the sovereignty and public prop
erty of the Hawaiian islands. Pursuant
to the terms of the Joint -resolution and
in exercise, of authority thereby con
ferred upon me, I directed that the civil,
judicial and military powers heretofore
exercised by the offioers : of the govern
ment of the republic of Hawaii should
continue to be exercised by those officers
until congress should provide a, govern
ment for the incorporated territory, sub
ject to my power to remove such officers
and to fill vacancies. - The present offi
cers and troops of the republlo thereup
on took tha oath of allegiance to tho
United States, thus providing for the un
interrupted continuance of all the admin-,
lstratlve and municipal functions of the
annexed territory until congress shall oth
erwise enact.
Following the further provision of the
Joint resolution, I appointed the Honor
ables Shelby M. Cullom, of Illinois; John
T. Morgan, of Alabama; Robert R. HItt,
of Illinois; Sanford B. Dole, of Hawaii,
and Walter F. Grier, of Hawaii, as com
missioners to confer and recommend to
congress such legislation concerning the
Hawaiian Islands as they should deem
necessary or proper..'.
Recommendations of the Commission.
The commissioners having fulfilled the
mission confided to them, their report
will be laid before you at an early day.
It Is believed that their recommenda
tions will have the earnest consideration
due to the magnitude of the responsibility
resting upon you to give such shape to
the relationship of those mid-Pacific lands
to our home union as will benefit both In
the highest degree, realizing the sspira--tlons
of the community that has cast its
lot with us ardi elected to share our po
litical heritage, while, at the Bame time.
Justifying the foresight of those who for
three-quarters of a-century have looked
to the assimilation of Hawaii as a natural
SJ)d Inevitable consummation In harmony
with our needs and In fulfillment of our
cherished traditions. ,
New Maritime Policy.
The annexation of "Hawaii and the
changed relations of the United States to
Cuba, Porto Rico and the Philippines re
sulting from the war, compel the promnt
adoption of a maritime policy by frequent
steamship communication encouraged by
the United states, under the American flag,
with the newly acquired Islands. Spain
furnished to Its colonies, at an annual coat
of about $2,000,000, steamship lines com
munlcating with a portion of the world's
markets as well as with trade centers of
the home -government. The United States
Will not undertake td do less. It is our
duty to furnish the people of Hawaii with
facilities, under national control, for theli
export and import trade. It will be con
ceded that the present situation calls for
legislation which shall be prompt, dur
able and liberal. ' .
Standing: Force of 100,000 Men Needed
Under Present Conditions.
Under the act of congress approved
April 26, 1898, authorizing the president in
his discretion. Upon a declaration of war
by congress or a declaration by congress
that war exists, I directed the Increase
of the regular army to the maximum of
62,000, authorized in said act. ,
- There are now in the regular army 67,
862 officers and men. In said act it was
provided: "That at the end of any war in
which the United) States may become in
volved, the army shall be reduced to a
peace basis by transfer in the same
arm of the-service or absorption, by pro
motion or honorable discharge, under
such regulations as the secretary may es-
(tablish. of .pnrtprTi"-rnrv noryymnrA ou
ters and the honorable discharge or trans,
fer ol supernumerary emisieu men, and
nothing contained in this act shall -be
construed as authorizing the permanent
increase of the command of enlisted force
of the regular army beyond that now pro
vided by the law In force prior to the
passage of this act except as to the In
crease of 25 majors provided for In section
1 hereof." .,: , .- ,;' . '
The importance of legislation for the.
permanent increase of the army is there
fore manifest, and the recommendation
of the secretarj- of war for that purpose
has my unqualified approval. There can
be no question that at this time and prob
ably for some time in the future 100,000
men' will be none too many to 'meet the
necessities of the situation. At all events,
whether that number- shall be required
permanently or not, the power should be
given to the president to enlist that force
if in his discretion It should be neces
sary, and the further discretion- Bhould
be given him to recruit within the above
limit from the inhabitants of the Islands
with the government of which we are
charged. ,.- .: - ,,-
Volunteers to Be Sent Home.
' It is my purpose to muster out the en
tire volunteer army as soon as congress
shall provide for the Increase of the regu- 1
lar establishment. This will be only an
act of justice, and will be much appre
ciated by the brave men who left their
homes and employments to help the coun.
try in Its emergency.
) ' Capital Centennial.
In the year 1900 will oocur the centen
nial anniversary . of the founding of the
city of Washington . for the permanent
capital of the government of the United
States by authority of an act of con
gress approved July 16, 1790. In May,
1800, the archives and general offices of the
federal government were removed to this
place. On the 17th of November, 1800, the
national congress met here for the first
time and assumed exclusive control of
the federal district and city. This inter
esting event assumes all the more signify
oance when we recall the circumstance!
attending the choosing of the site, tht
naming of the capital in honor of the
father of his country, and the interest
taken by him In the adoption of plans foi
its future development on a magnificent 1
scale. ,.
These orginal plans have been wrought
out with a constant progress and a sig
nal success, even beyond anything theli
framers had foreseen. : :,:.
Labor Lam.' -The
alien contract law Is shown by ex
perience to need some amendment; a
measure providing better protection foi
seamen is proposed; the rightful applica.
tlon of the eight-hour law for the benefit :
of labor and of the principle of arbltra.
tlon are suggested for consideration, and
I commend these subjects to the careful :
consideration of congress. , . . ...
Departmental Reports.
-I The several departmental reports will
be laid before you. They give In great
detail the conduct of the affairs of tha
government during the past year, and dis
cuss many questions upon which con
gress may be called upon to act.