The Hermiston herald. (Hermiston, Or.) 19??-1984, August 05, 1937, Image 6

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    Thursday, August 5, 1937
F arm
th in k s
.a b o u t:
National Topics Interpreted
by William Bruckart
Western Hostelries.
T o pics
They have mighty fine hotels
N ational Praaa B uilding
W axhlnston, D. C.
In this town. I’ve stayed at
several of them and friends of Scheme May Be Worked Out
Washington.—There are many oc­ If they do not take this precaution, mine have been put out of some
During Summer.
casions on record where several im- they stand a chance always of find­
portant i s s u e s ing their bins empty and are faced of the others.
B y J. E . D avis, E xten sion F o re s te r, U n i­
E ver-N orm al have engaged the with the necessity of closing their
G ran ary”
attention of con­ mills. It is this feature that causes
gress and fre­
quently one of these issues has
aroused such bitterness and devel­
oped such a controversy that it
overshadowed all others. That has
been the case in recent weeks dur­
ing which President Roosevelt’s
plan to add six justices of his own
choosing to the Supreme court of
the United States completely sub­
ordinated everything else.
But the crushing defeat received
by the President through refusal of
’the vast majority of Democrats in
congress to support his court re­
organization scheme suddenly has
directed attention to other major
questions. Outstanding among these
is Secretary Wallace’s farm bill and
the so-called wages and hours bill
which is claimed to contain com­
plete protection for the laboring
classes. It is of the farm bill that I
shall write now since it is much
more imminent as far as congres­
sional action is concerned than is
the case with the wages and hours
The basis of Secretary Wallace’s
program is what he calls the “ever-
normal granary.” There are other
provisions included in the bill but
the idea of a maintained supply of
‘f arm products is the heart of the
Now, it seems that if the words
"ever-normal granary" mean any­
thing, they must be accepted as
meaning a continuity of supply at a
level which government agents ar­
bitrarily determine as the proper
rate of accumulation or sale of such
The house of representatives has
been muddling along with the ques­
tion for several months. It has
been under much pressure from
Secretary Wallace and his asso­
ciates and from some of the farm
leaders whom the secretary has
convinced of the value of his
scheme. The farm leaders as a
whole are far from unanimous on
the proposition despite the fact that
Secretary Wallace and the tremen­
dous propaganda machine within
the Department of Agriculture has
been exceedingly active in an effort
to “sell” the plan to the country as
a whole and thereby bring addi­
tional pressure on congress.
I shall not attempt to give all of
the details of the Wallace proposal
here. It is too complicated for ex­
planation in the limited space avail­
able. Indeed, I have found quite a
number of members of the house of
representatives who are unable to
give a complete explanation of how
the plan would work—and they ad­
mit it. It is a piece of legislation
that must be complicated in order
to accomplish things its proponents
claim for it and my observation of
government agencies leads me to
the conclusion it is so complicated
that the chances of it succeeding are
almost nil.
• • •
In the first Instance, as I have
said, the ever-normal granary idea
comprehends a constant level or
supplies. At first blush, it would
seem that storage of wheat or corn
or cotton or other farm products in
a big crop year to be sold in years
when crops are small should work
out to keep prices at a satisfactory
level. That is the theory. On the
other hand, in times past this same
sort of scheme has worked out to
depress prices instead of maintain­
ing them and the farmers have
been the losers.
Included in this legislation are
provisions for benefit payments to
farmers under certain conditions
when the price level falls below
parity. This injects into the prob­
lem again the influence' of the gen­
eral price level of all commodities
in the United States whether from
the farm or from the factory and
it also forces upon the United States
additional influence wielded by the
level of prices in foreign countries
where the law of supply and de­
mand continues to operate without
impossible amendment at govern­
ment's dictation.
No doubt, the Wallace proposal
would boost prices at present. This
is true because we have had sev­
eral short crop years and there is
no surplus now. But with indica­
tions that the current wheat crop,
for example, is going to be excep­
tionally large, it is entirely possible
that the nation as a whole will have
a surplus of wheat thia fall. In ad­
dition, there will be wheat crops
grown in other countries as usual.
Some of our wheat must be sold
in foreign markets and compete
with wheat grown in Russia or in
South America. It is easy to see,
therefore, that the lack of a wheat
surplus in this country is exceed­
ingly temporary.
• • •
The ever-normal granary, if it
works as the theorists claim, would
store or keep off
/f Sound»
of the market that
G reat
portion of the crop
which is not need­
ed for current consumption. That
sounds fine. Great users of wheat
must buy their supplies far ahead.
long range buyers to resort to what
is called hedging. That is, they sell
on option nearly as much as they
buy on contract. They are thus able
to offset losses whether the price of
wheat goes up or whether it goes
down and the losses or the gains
are distributed throughout the in­
dustry. It is the only way by which
the industry can protect itself.
Mr. Wallace’s scheme proposes
doing away with that sort of thing,
not directly but through the effect of
the ever-normal granary. In other
words, the net result of the ever-
normal granary would be for the
government to hold these stocks and
feed them into the market as de­
mand for supplies requires. This
sounds feasible and it probably
would be except for the fact that
we have no means of controlling
production in the other wheat pro­
ducing countries, and I repeat that
I am using wheat as illustrative of
all farm products. In fact, the Wal­
lace plan provides no control of pro­
duction in this country and that
question is vital. As far as I can
see, nature is going to operate to
give us rain or give us drouth in
accordance with the judgment of
the Higher Power. No human is go­
ing to be very influential in that
To get back to the question of the
price level, it should be said that
while the Wallace plan provides
what appears to be an insurance
against fluctuation, it is more likely
to have the opposite effect. Be­
cause of the influence of world
prices, great storehouses of wheat
in the country will hang over the
market like an epidemic. No one
can tell when it will strike and since
markets are made up of individuals
who are human, a portion of the
markets is always going to be
frightened by the uncertainty of
when government wheat will be of­
fered for sale. It is a perfectly
human reaction because it involves
the pocketbooks and humans nat­
urally want to buy as cheaply as
they can and sell as high as they
• • •
One of the things that happened
in the administration of President
Hoover t h a t is
T ried O nce
sure m be remem-
an d F ailed
bered is the utter
failure of his farm
policy. That farm policy centered
nt one time in what was called the
Federal Farm board. If you will go
back a few years and recall the op­
erations of the Federal Farm board,
I think you will agree that the things
it undertook to do were exactly
comparable to, if not exactly the
same as, the scheme set up by Sec­
retary Wallace in his ever-normal
granary idea. The only difference
that I can see—and I watched the
operations of the farm board from
close at hand—is a change in the
name. It must be admitted that
the phrase ever-normal granary has
a pretty sound. But when it comes
to a question of an attractive ex­
pression, one that is soothing and
one that should convince us all
that every problem is solved, I sub­
mit those favorites which Mr. Wal­
lace used to use when Professor Tug-
well was with him in the Department
of Agriculture. Who does not re­
call the “more abundant life,” and
who has forgotten the "doctrine of
scarcity to assure plenty?”
As far as I know, neither the
house nor the senate committee on
agriculture has held hearings on
this ever-normal granary phase of
the Wallace legislation. Thus far,
the discussion has been largely on
questions involving benefits and
subsidies and means of marketing.
No attention has been given to the
ever-normal granary threat, and I
regard it as a menace.
If this discussion were devoted to
only the consumer phase of our
economic life, I think I should be
selfish enough to urge enactment of
the Wallace plan. I believe I can
see where the ever-normal granary
idea will make bread cheaper,
where it will make cotton textile
goods cheaper and when cotton is
cheaper other textiles are cheaper,
and where other food and neces­
saries of life that have their origin
on the farm will be reduced in
price by such a legislative policy.
But that is not my idea of a sound
economic structure. It is just as
necessary for the consumer to pay
his fair share toward the mainte­
nance of a living agriculture as it is
for farmers to pay their fair share
to a living commerce and industry
of whatever kind It may be.
The senate Democrats have elect­
ed a new leader to succeed the late
Senator Joe Robinson, of Arkansas.
He is Senator Alban Barkley, of
Kentucky. In a previous column I
mentioned the split among the sen­
ate Democrats and suggested that it
would be difficult to replace Senator
Robinson because of the qualities he
had in holding the various factions
together in the senate. It was not a
forecast; it was a statement of fact.
• WMtaro Ntwcpapar Union.
And once I enjoyed a fire scare
v ers ity o i Illin o is .— W N U Service.
here when the alarm, at 3:30 a. m.,
Although it is too late in the year
brought to the lobby
to make windbreak plantings of
a swarm of moving
trees on farms, it is not too late
picture actors with­
to start making plans for plantings
out any makeup on
to be made next spring. Prepara­
and not much else.
tions which can be made during
This was in the era
spare time this summer for a pro­
of the silent films,
tection planting next spring include
but you wouldn’t
marking out the area, digging a
have dreamed it to
diversion ditch to drain barnyard
hear the remarks of
water around the windbreak plant­
an hysterical lady
ing, fencing the area to be planted
star when she dis­
and plowing the ground in the fall.
covered that her
“Trees are best ordered early to
chow had been for­ Irvin S. Cobb assure getting the desired varieties
gotten. The current
before supplies run out,” Davis
husband also was temporarily miss­ states in his new circular, No. 27,
ing but she was comparatively calm “Windbreaks for Illinois Farm­
about that. She probably figured a steads,” which has just been pub­
husband could be picked up almost lished by the Natural History Sur­
any time whereas darling little Ming vey in co-operation with the agricul­
Poo had a long pedigree and rep­ tural college.
resented quite a financial invest­
Detailed information on planning,
ment and anyhow was a permanent planting
and caring for a windbreak
fixture in her life.
in the circular along
Through the strike here, the trav­ with a description
of the kind of
eling public seemed to make out. trees available, their advantages
Maybe visitors followed the old and disadvantages. Copies of the
southern custom—stop with kinfolks. circular may be obtained by writing
Think, though, how great would the agricultural college at Urbana.
have been the suffering had the
“Illinois farmers are taking a re­
strike occurred during prohibition newed
interest in windbreaks,” Da­
days when transient guests might vis said.
"Demonstration plantings
have perished of thirst without
the best practices for es­
bright uniformed lads to bring them showing
and maintaining wind­
first-aid packages in the handy hip- tablishing
have been made on farms in
pocket sizes! Bellhops qualified as ( breaks
12 Illinois counties this spring. More
lifesavers those times.
are being planned for next year.
» * •
“Most ornamental nurseries grow
Humans in the Raw.
S I behold vast numbers of fel­ the types of trees satisfactory for
and some of the larger
low b e i n g s strolling the windbreaks specialize
in producing
beaches, yes, and the public thor­ I nurseries
oughfares too, while wearing as few windbreak trees.”
Information on sources and prices
clothes as possible—and it seems to
be possible to wear very few in­ of windbreak planting stock may
deed—I don’t know whether to ad­ be obtained by writing Davis at the
mire them for their courage or sym­ agricultural college.
pathize with them in their suffering
or deplore their inability to realize Eggs Require Special
that they’d be easier on the eye if
Care During Warm Days
they’d quit trying to emulate the
The warm days of summer are
raw oyster—which never has been
pretty to look upon and, generally the danger days in the high-quality
speaking, is an acquired taste any­ egg trade. Unless poultrymen main­
tain a watchful eye and exercise the
For a gentleman who ordinarily greatest of care, many factors that
bundles himself in heavy garment« easily escape attention, may result
clear up to his Adam’s apple, this in the loss of customers, says a
warm weather strip-act entails a lot | writer in the Rural New-Yorker.
Egg quality deteriorates rapidly
of preliminary torture. At first our
gallant exhibitionist resembles a at temperatures over 70 degrees.
forked stalk of celery bleached out Hot days, high temperatures in the
in the cellar. Soon he is one large poultry house, broody birds remain­
red blot on the landscape, with fat ing on the nests, are often the cause
water blisters spangling his brow of a lack of freshness in the product.
until he looks as if he were wearing Eggs should be gathered three or
a chaplet of Malaga grapes. In four times daily in clean, well-cush­
the next stage he peels like the wall­ ioned containers. Leaky, cracked
paper on an Ohio valley parlor after or soft-shelled eggs should be placed
in separate containers when collect­
flood time.
• • •
ing to prevent soiling of the eggs
and possible contamination from
Destructive Hired Help.
COMEBODY found a stained glass odors of oil, or other pungent ma­
*•7 window in an English church terial.
As soon as the eggs have been
dating back to 685 A. D., but still
intact. And from the ruins of a gathered, they should be placed in
Roman villa, they’ve dug out a mar­ a cool, dry room, free from odors
ble figure of Apollo—the one the and where the temperature is not
mineral water was named after—in over 50 degrees.
Eggs should be graded to size,
a perfect state although 2,006 years
candled, packed in clean, attractive
These discoveries are especially containers, and marketed at least
interesting to this family as tending twice a week. In shipping, they
to show that hired help isn’t what it should be protected from the sun
must have been in the ancient time. and wind.
We once had a maid of the real
old Viking stock who, with the best
Bitter Butter
intentions on earth, broke every­
Bitter butter may be due to bitter
thing she laid finger on. Moreover, milk or to the salt used, says J. R.
she could stand flatfooted in the Dice, head of the North Dakota
middle of a large room and cause Agricultural College dairy depart­
treasured articles of virtu, such as ment. Milk from cows in poor physi­
souvenirs of the St. Louis World’s cal condition, or from cows that
fair and the china urn I won for have reached an advanced stage
superior spelling back in 1904 at the in the milking period, may produce
Elks’ carnival, to leap to the floor bitter butter, butter that has a poor
and be smashed to atoms. She texture, or the cream may refuse
didn’t have to touch them or even to churn out entirely. If sample tests
go near them. I think she did it by of the individual cows fail to in­
animal magnetism or capillary at­ dicate the responsibility for the bit­
traction or something of that nature. ter flavor, examine the salt being
The first time we saw the Winged used. Chemically impure salt, es­
Victory, Mrs. Cobb and I decided it pecially salt containing relatively
must have been an ancestor of large amounts of magnesium salts
Helsa who tried to dust it—with the or calcium chloride, or both, may
disastrous results familiar to all lov­ give the butter a bitter flavor.
ers of classic statuary.
• • •
Lambs Need Corn
The Reaping Season.
It does not pay to cut down on
ERTAIN crops may not have
done so well, due to weather corn and legume hay in favor of
conditions, or, as some die-hard oats and non-leguminous roughage
Republicans would probably con­ when fattening lambs. This feed-lot
tend, because of New Deal control. truism, well understood by exper­
But, on the other hand, hasn't it ienced live stock men, was demon­
been a splendid ripening season for strated again this past year in
sit-downs, walk-outs, shut-ups, lock­ Four-H Club western lamb feeding
projects at Spencer and Waterloo,
outs and picket lines?
It makes me think of the little Iowa. Reducing the corn ration and
story the late Myra Kelly used to legume hay ration actually doubled
tell of the time when she was a pub­ the cost of producing a hundred
lic school teacher on New York's pounds of gain in many of the lots.
East Side. She was questioning her
class of primary-grade pupils,
Segregate Roosters
touching on the callings of their re­
to protect the interior
spective parents. She came to one quality of eggs,
roosters should be
tiny sad-eyed little girl, shabby and removed from the
breeding pen as
thin and shy.
as the hatching season is over.
“ Rosie,” she asked, "at what does soon
If the male remains with the hens,
your father work?'*
eggs will be fertile, and if a
“ Mein poppa he don’t never work. the
fertile egg is held at a temperature
Teacher,” said Rosie.
ranging above 08 degrees Fahren­
“ Doesn’t he do anything at all?** heit, the germ will develop. A fer­
“Oh, yessum.”
tile egg will deteriorate much more
“Well, what does he do?”
rapidly than an infertile egg. An
“He strikes.”
, Infertile egg seldom rots, but a
fertile egg will decompose rapidly.
• —WNU Sarvlc«.
Weighing a Shipment of Elephant Tusks on a London Wharf.
From Every Corner of the Earth
Come Ships That Ply This River J
from which to distill fuel alcohol.
It weighs goods, reports on their
HAMES traffic makes Lon­ quality and condition; it opens bales
don the world’s foremost and boxes for customs inspection,
furnishes samples for buyers, and
river port. Since Roman gal­
looks after repacking and loading
ley days—when Britons traded for
those who ship from London to
grain, slaves, and dogskin for other ports.
European salt and horse collars
On the north bank of the Thames,’
—commerce has flowed be­ scattered for miles downstream
tween London and the continen­ from the Tower, stand these great
tal countries along the Schelde, PLA docks: London, St. Katharine,
and West India, Millwall, Vic­
the Rhine and the Elbe. After East
toria and Albert, King George V,
Drake nerved England to smash and the Tilbury.
the Spanish Armada, London
On the south bank, near London’s
ships gained in time the lion’s heart, are ancient Surrey Commer­
cial docks, with a lumberyard that
share of ocean-borne trade.
Names immortal in discovery and covers 150 acres!
Besides the railways and truck
conquest are linked with this water
front. From here Frobisher went lines that tie these docks to the out­
seeking the Northwest passage, and lying kingdom, some 9,000 Thames
Hawkins to Puerto Rico and Vera barges handle goods to and from
Cruz; from here Lancaster made ships’ sides.
Each dock has its own character.
his voyages to the East, before the
downfall of Portugal and the rise St. Katharine docks are built on the
of the British East India' company. site of the old Church of St. Kath­
Raleigh sailed from here to explore arine by the Tower, founded by
the Orinoco, to popularize tobacco Queen Matilda in 1148. What hetero­
and, tradition says, to start the Irish geneous goods they store: w o o l ,
skins, wines, spices, sugar, rubber,
planting potatoes.
It was London’s daring money balata, tallow, ivory, barks, gums,
which sent Sebastian Cabot to found drugs, coffee, iodine, hemp, quick­
the Russia company, opening trade silver, canned fruits and fish, coir
with that land. London merchants yarn, coconuts, and brandy I
and skippers promoted the Turkey,
Navy at One Dock.
African, Virginia and Hudson’s Bay
West India and Millwall docks lie
in a river peninsula known as the
London emigrants helped colonize Isle of Dogs. Here the passer-by
in the Americas, in Australia, New may smell 12,000 puncheons of rum,
Zealand, China, India, Africa and a million tons of sugar, and ship­
the rich islands of the sea.
loads of dates.
English Spread From Here.
Victoria and Albert and King
From this water front went the George V docks form one h u g e
English language. In Drake’s day structure, the world’s largest sheet
only a few millions spoke it. Now of enclosed dock water. Often 40 or
it is a world tongue. Of all letters, 50 ships—equal to a good-sized navy
telegrams, books and papers print­ —tie up here at one time.
Tilbury is the first dock one sees
ed now, it is estimated that 70 per
cent are in English. London alone when sailing up the Thames. Its
uses enough newsprint every day long landing stage forms a home­
to cover a ranch of 9,350 acres— land gateway for people from Au­
or nearly 15 square miles of paper. stralia, New Zealand, India, China
"The smell from that big paper and other eastern countries w h o
mill at Bayswater is one of the land or embark here. Fast trains
marks I steer by on foggy nights,” of the London, Midland and Scottish
a Thames pilot will tell you.
railway touch the dock’s edge and
Exploration of London’s crowded whisk passengers away to all parts
docks reveals not only what amaz­ of the kingdom.
In the city, PLA has still more
ing piles of food a great city can
normally eat, but also what odd warehouses. At its Butler street
items, from live bats to rhino horns, building are 70 rooms full of oriental
are mixed in the life stream of carpets—enough to cover a farm of
120 acres!
world commerce.
Imponderable, in variety and
People buy most carpets in June,
magnitude, are these fruits of man’s for wedding presents, you are told.
barter. Here, too, his work ranges There are electric ovens, too, for
from rat catching and opium sam­ conditioning raw silk, a mountain
pling to dredging the Thames and of Havana cigars and leaf tobacco
handling annual cargo enough to fill enough to last one man, say, 500,-
a road with loaded trucks from the 000 years!
Yukon to Patagonia.
Here is a furtive horde of lean
To say that every day some 500 black cats, to help out the official
craft, big and little, pass through human rat catchers. Musty wine
the Thames mouth tells only half vaults use 28 miles of underground
the story. More significant is what track on which to roll barrels that
happens on the docks.
hold the 12,000,000 gallons of wine
brought to London each year.
Commission Ends Confusion.
This is the world’s ivory and tooth
Even London people themselves
don’t dream what incredible activity market. It takes 18,000,000 artificial
is here. Few ever see it. Confusion teeth from the United States every
on this crowded river, in days gone, year—and some 2,000 elephant tusks
grew so intense that waiting boats from Africa and Asia.
Not many tusks are from newly
often lay unloaded for weeks; goods
were piled in disorder on r i v e r slain elephants. Most of them come
banks, and pilfering was enormous. from mudholes, left by animals long
One river bandit stole almost a from mudholes, left by animals.
Tea for Londoners.
whole shipload of sugar! To com­
bat this chaos the West India mer­
Wool was England’s chief export
chants built their own fortlike docks. in the Middle ages. Today it is one
With more trade came more of London’s main imports. It takes
docks, and more toll-rate wars and the fleeces from about fifty million
other confusion. This ended in 1909 sheep to meet London’s annual de­
when the Port of London authority, mands!
■ Royal commission, took full con­
Tea trade has centered here for
trol under act of parliament.
300 years. In Mincing Lane yeu can
It paid 23,000,000 pounds for pri­ see brokers bidding on lots which
vately owned London docks, spent have been expertly sampled by
millions more to make the lower PLA’s own teatasters.
Thames the world’s longest deep­
When they “bulk” tea, or mix it,
water channel and to enlarge and on some warehouse floors you may
re-equip cargo - handling facilities. see it heaped up in mounds higher
It has dredged mud enough cut of then men’s heads.
the Thames to build a Chinese Wall,
Think of all the "liquid history”
and has constructed the world’s that has been packed into this an­
most extensive dock system. One cient water front since Roman gal­
of its cranes, the "London Mam­ leys traded here; since Danes and
moth,” lifts 150 tons!
Vikings came to plunder; since the
Finally, with characteristic Brit­ great companies of merchant ad­
ish financial genius, it sold its deb­ venturers launched their tiny ships
entures on the stock exchange, and for daring trade and colonizing far
now its operations usually pay all over then little-known seas.
costs and interest and leave a profit
Think of the 60,000 ships a year
which is used for more improve­ that now form smoke lanes from
London to every nook of the world
Giant Decks and Yard.
where goods can be bought or sold
The PLA ia not in trade. It is and you begin to see why this 70-
merely custodian of merchandise mile stretch of “London River” is,
that may range from wild animals incomparably, the world’s busiest
for the too to a shipload of molasses water front.
Prepared by National Geographic Society,
Washington, D. C.— WNU Service.