The Bend bulletin. (Bend, Or.) 1903-1931, December 16, 1904, Image 2

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Text of Paper Delivered to
58th Congress.
Irrigation, Forests, Public Lands, Alaska
and Our Island Possessions Re
ceive Due Consideration.
Tho followinu Ik the text of the most
Fnpoof I'rotiik'tlt Ho Mvelt to Uio 68th
T the Senst and House of llepreecnlatlvec
The Nation continue to enjoy noteworthy
prosperity. Such prosperll) I, of couree, pri
marily Out to the high Individual average of
our eltlxenshlp. taken together with our greol
' natural rcenurrro. but n Important Motor
therein U th working of our long-continued
governmental pollrle. Th peef' have em
phatically expressed their approval of the Prin.
etplr underlying thece pollcte. and their
desire that these nelnclote bo kent lubetan
tlally unchanged, although, of coure. applied
In a pregTesaive nplrlt to meet changing con
Th enlargement of seep of th function
Of ih .National oovernmenl requited ey our
developmsnt a a nation Involve, of courec.
Increase of Mr, and IN period of pro
pretty through which th country l -alnc
Justine expenditure fur permanent Improve
ments far greater than
Caution Against ou.ld.1b "M? .J"
.. . hard time, lutlle.
l.xlntvagancc, ,, mni forte, public
building and Improved
waterways arc Investment which should be
made akw w have tho money, but abun)ant
revenue and a huge eurplu alnay Invite
extravagance, and constant car should be
taken to guard again, uancceooarr Increase of
in ordinary t xpense of government, to cost
of doing Government bualncaa ihould N tegu
latrd with Ih same rigid scrutiny a lb cost
of doing a private buetrtei.
In th vast and complicated rartbanlim of
our modern eh lilted life. the dominant not
la th note of Industrialism, and tho relation
of capital and labor.
Capital and Labor, and eoceclally of or-
ganlxrd capital and or
ganlted labor, ts each etner and to the public
at rare com second In tra.sctane only to
th Intimate Qoeetlons of family life. Our
peeolUr form of government, with Ita ebnrp
dlvMen of authority between tho Nation and
the several elate, haa ben on th who
far more advantageous to our development
than a more strongly cntralld govern
ment. tint It I undoubtedly responsible for
muh of the difficulty of meeting with ade
quate leelelatlon th new problems presented
by th total rhanc In Induelrlal condition
on the continent during th last half cen
tury. In actual practice It ha proved ex
ceedingly difficult, and In many case Im
possible, to get unanimity of wise action
among th various atatea on the ubjcla
Krem th very natur of the cat, thl le
especially true of th lawa affecting Ih
employment of capital In huge ma.
With rrard to lator. th problem I no
le Important, but It la atmpler. A lone
a th Mat retain the primary control of
tho poMco power, th rlrcumelanc must be
altogether extreme which require Interfer
ene by th federal authorities, whether In
lha way of safeguarding the right of labor
or In th way of teeing that wrong le not
dene by unruly pereona who ihleM them
eelve lhlnd the name of labor If there
I reelitanc to the Kederal court. Interfer
ence wllh the mall, or Interatat commerce.
or moleatatlon of Fnteral property, or If
the tat authorllle In aom crlili which
they are unable to fac call for help, then
th Federal Government may interrere. but
though ueh Interference may be caueed
by a condition of thing arlilng out of trou
ble connected with ome queitlon of lalior.
tho Interference Iteelf (Imply take the form
of restoring order without regard to the
queitlon which havo cauaed the breach of
orrder for to keep order I a primary duty
and In a lima of dlaordrr and violence all
other queitlon lnk Into abeyance until
order haa been restored
There I no objection to employe of th
Government forming or belonging te union,
but tho Oovemment can neither discrim
inate fer nor discriminate agalnit nonunion
man who are In Ita employment, or who
aeek te b employed under It Moreover. It
I a very grave Impropriety for Qovernmenl
employe to band themMlve together for
the purpo of extertlnc Improperly high eat
arle from the Government. Kepeelally I
thl true of tho within the claidBed rv
le. Th letter-carrier, both municipal and
rural, are a a whol an excellent body of
public acrvanta. They ahould b amply paid
Hut their aymtnt mut b obtained by ar
guing their claim
Union of
fairly and honorably
bafor th Congre.
and not by banding
together for th de
feat of tho Con-
pennin who refu to give promlte which
they cannot In conclnc give. Th Admin
istration haa already taken alep to prevent
and punlab abue of thl nature, but It will
b wIm for th Congre to upplement thl
notion by legtilatlon.
When w com to deal with great corpo
ration, tba nd for th Government to act
directly la far greater than In th raa of
labor, becau great corporation can become
Ufb only by engaging In Interatat com
merce, and Interstate
Corvorationa. commerce. I peculiar
ly th field of th
General Government. It la an absurdity to
expect to eliminate the abuse In great cor
poration by Mate action. It I difficult to
be patient with an argument that such mat
ter should be left to th slate, becaua
mere than en slat pursue in policy or
creating en easy term corporations which
ar never operated wjthin that stale at all.
but In other atatea who lawa they Ignore
Tfc National Government alone can deal ad
equately with these great corporation. Te
try te deal with tliein In an Intemperate,
destructive, or demagogic spirit would. In all
probability, mean that nothing whatever
would b aeeomplUhed. and, with absolute
certainty, that If anything war accomplished
It weuld be of a harmful nature. Th Amer
ican people need to continue to show th
very qualltlea that they have shown that
Is, moderation, good sen, th earnest de
sire to avoid doing any damage, and yet th
quiet determination to proceed, step by atep,
without halt and without hurry. In eliminat
ing or at least In mlnlrnlxlng whatever of
mlsehler or of evil la to interstate com
merce In the conduct of great corporation.
They are acting In no spirit of hostility to
wealth, either Individual or corporate. They
are not against the rich man any more than
against th poor man. On the contrary,
they are friendly alike toward rich man and
toward poor man, provided only that each
acta In a spirit of Justice and decency toward
hi fallow. Great corporation are netes
ary, and only men of great and singular
mental power can manage auch corporation
successfully, and such men must have great
rewards. Jlut these corporation should b
managed with due retard to th Interest nf
the public a a whole. Where thl can be
done under the present law It mut be done
Where tlieee laws come short, other ihould
be enacted to supplement them.
Yet we must never forget the determining
factor In every kind of work, of head or
hand, must be the man' own good sense,
courage and kindliness. More Important than
any legislation I the gradual growth of a
feeling of responsibility and forbearance
among capitalists and wageworktri alike; a
feeling of respect on the part of each man
for the right of others; a feeling of broad
community of Interest, not merely of capital
ist among themselves, and of wageworkers
.mnne themselves, but of capitalist and
wageworkir In their relations to each other,
and of both In their relntlon to their fel -
l,W, Willi Mlltl tl.HIlt tdall ,1. lllA lllll.
t tic There nre tunny tniitnln of Inilintry,
many labor lender, who realise this.
,.,'ir, ..,,, ' innf i. ,,,, ,'.' ,-",
The Department of Awrli-ulture hns mown
Into nn educational Initllutltm Ytllh n f m-
tilty nf StHH) specialist making teeenrch llilit
nil the science uf production. The IVngr
approptlates, directly nmt Indirectly. IMtxi..
ItHHl nnmuilly to carry
Agriculture, mi this work II
reach every elate
and territory In th I'nlnn and the Islands
of the sen lately com under our flag t'n
operation li had wllh the stale experiment
tntlonm and with ninny other Instllullun
nnd lndl Munis, The wnrld I carefully
searched for new varieties of grains, frulls.
grass; egelalles, tree and shrub, suit
nble to nrlous localities In our country,
nnd marked henettt to our producer ha re
sulted The artltllte of our age In line of re
search have reached the tillers of th soil
and Inspired them with ambition to know
more of the principle that govern the farces
of Nnture wllh which they have lt den I
Nearly half nf the people of this country
devote their energlee to growing things from
the noil, t'nlll a recetit del Utile lias heH
done te prepar these millions for their llf
work. In most line of human activity col-leae-tralned
men are the leader Th J
farmer had mi opportunity for special train
ing until th Congee made provision for It
tt) year ago. lrurlng thee tears pregreea
has been made and leather hav been pre- I have repealnlly called attention In the Ing our export trade therein I call the at
parcd. Over 5tM students ar In attendance' confusion which evlsts In Government forest tentloH of th Onngres In Ih deeliablllly
at our Mint Agricultural colleaes. Th Ked- I matter lcaus the work Is scattered among of mirrylHg out thee suisesllniis.
ernl Government expend ilO.tUNI.OOil annu- three Independent organisation. Th t'nlleil Alaska, like all our territorial acquisition,
ally toward thl education nnd for research ' Htnlee Is the only one of the great nations ' niM m reeoorceful beyoml Ih ewela
III Washington and In Ih several stale ami In which the forest work of the Government ' n,,M, f ihew who made the Purrhas II
territories. The !eparlment of Agriculture i j concentrated under on department. I in. become th home of many hanly In
hat given facilities for pnt-s?raduat work ' 'n rmieonance with the plainest dictates of duslllnu ami thrifty
in n-, jumss men usfini ine mei epifs
enr. preparing mem lor auvanceu tin i '" -" rrenaemeni is naif from every taunt
of work In th department and In the tal ' "' "lew Mrly In mention It I tn prove
Institutions. that II should t terminated at one As I
We sell abroad about leXsS.niU.fH10 worth of have n-pMlrllv recummendrd, all the forest
plants and their product every year "tren- work of the Government should b concen
uoua erTorl nre tielnc made to Import from I trnteil In the Department of Agriculture,
foreign countries such gain a ar suitable where the larger part of that work la already
to our varying localities, eleven ear tn!0". whr practically all of th trained
we bought three-fourth of our rice: by help,
lug the rlcearowere on the Gulf coast to
cure seed from th Orlnt suited to their
conditions, ami by giving them adequate
protection, they now supply home demand
and export to th Island of th Caribbean
Hea and to other rice. growing countries.
Wheat and other craln kav been Import
ed from light-rainfall rounlrle to our land
In tho West and, rViuthweit that have not
grown crop because nf light precipitation,
resulting in an extensive addition tu our
cropping area and our home-making terrl
tnry that can not be Irlgated. Ten million
bushel of flrel-rlaM macaroni wheal were
grown from these experimental Importation
last year Fruit suitable to our soils and
climate are being Import.! from all th
countries of th Old World th flg from
Turkey, the almond from Mp In. the date
from Algeria, the mange) from India We
are helping our fruitgrowers to get their
crop Into tturopean markets by studying
methods of preservation through refrigera
tion, packing and handling, which have hn
quite s)ceeful V ar helping our hop
growers by Important varieties that ripen
earlier ami later than the kind they have
been raletnc, thereby lengthening th har
vesting season Th cotton crop of th
country I threatened with root rot. Ih boll
worm, and th boll weevil Our pathologists
will OshI Immune varieties that will reetei
the root ),, and th boll worm can b
dealt with, but Ih boll weevil Is a serious
menace tn th cotton crop It I a Central
American Insect that ha become acclimated
In Teles and ha don great damag A
scientist of th Department of Agriculture
haa found th weevil at home In Guatemala
being kept in check by an ant, which ha
been brought to our cotton Held for ob
servation. It Is hoped that It mT serve a
good purpose
Th Insect friends and nmle nf the farm
er are getting attention Th ensmy of the
Wan Joe seal was found near the Greet
Wall of China, and I now clinlng up all
our orchards Th flg-fertlllilnc Insect Im
ported from Turkey has helped to establish
an Industry In California that amounts tl
from SO ta 100 ton of dried ag annually
and I extending aver the Pacific Coast A
parasitic Ay from Heuth Africa I keeping
In subjection the black scale, the worst pe
of the orange and lemon Industry In Cali
fornia. During th 5H year that have elapsed
since the passag of th reclamation act
rapid progress ha been made In th sur
veys and examinations of th opportunities
for reclamation In th I states and thre
territories of the arid West. Construction
ha already been b
Irrlgallon. gun on th largest and
most Important of Ih
Irrigation work, ami plans ar being com
pletes for work which will utilise the funds
now available. Tn operations ar being
carried oa by th Heclamitlon Hrvlc. a
corps of ng1aer selected through competl
tlv clv-rvlc examination. Thl corps
Include experienced consulting and con
structing engineers a well a various ex
perts In mechanical and (egal matter, and
I composed largely of men who have spent
most of their live In practical affair con
lee ted with Irrigation The larger problems
have been solved, and It now- remains to
execute with eare. economy, anil thorough
ness the work which has been laid out. All
ImiMirtant details are being carefully con
sidered by board of consulting engineer,
selected for their thorough knowledge ami
practical eiperlene. Bach project taken
up on the ground by competent men and
viewed from the atandpolnt of th creation
of prosperous home, ami of promptly refund
ing to the Treasury the cost of construction
Th reclamation act ha been found ta b
remarkably complete and effective, and so
broad In It provisions that a wide rang of
undertaking ha been possible umlsr It At
th mma time, economy I guaranteed by
in ract mat lumis must ultimately be re
turned to b used over again.
It I th cardinal principle of the forest-
reserve policy of thl Administration that
lb rrva nr for
I uresis, us. Whatever Inter
fere wllh th us of
their resources Is to be avoided by every
Pt)l mean. liut I bee resource mutt
be uses! In eueh a way a to mak them
The forest policy f Ih Government is
Just now a subject of vivid public Interest
throughout the Weet and to the psapl of
the I'nlteil Htt In general The for re
serves thmelva are of extreme valu to
Ih prnt km wall as to th fulur welfare
of all th Western public-land slat. They
powerfully a Sect the us and disposal of
th public land. They ar of spatial Im
portance becau they preserve th water
supply and th supply of limber for domestic
purpose ami no promote settlement undet
lb reclamalloej act Indeed, they are .
ssnllal to th welfare of every on ef the
great Internet of the Wt
forest reserve ar created for two prin
cipal purpose. Th first Is to preserve th
wutsr supply Thl I thlr most Important
use. The principal user of th water thus
preserved are Irrigation rancher and set
tlers, elite and town to whom their mu
nicipal water suppllaa are of th vary first
Importance, users ami furnishers uf water
power, and th user of water for domestl,
manufacturing, mining, and other purpose.
All the are directly dependent upon the
forest reserves.
Th second reason for which forest re
serves ar created la to preserve the tlmbir
supply for various classes of wood users.
Among th mora ImiMirtant of these ar Mi
ller under th reclamation act and oilier
act, for whom a cheap and accessible sup
ply of timber for domestic uses Is absolutely
necessary; mlnr nnd prospectors, who or
In erlou danger of losing their timber sup
ply by lira or through export by lumber com
panies when timber land adjacent tn their
mine pa Into private ownership, lumber
men, transportation companies, builder, and
commercial Interests In general.
Although th wisdom of creating forest re
serves I nearly everywhere heartily recog
nized, yet In a few localities there have been
r-.lundrtandlng and complaint. Th fol
lowing tatemsnt I therefor desirable!
The forest-reserve policy can be successful
only when It hae the full support of the peo
ple of the West, It cannot safely and should
not In any case, be Imposed upon them
agalnit their will. Hut neither can we ac
cept th view of thai whose only Interest
Jln th foresl I temncrnry. who nr anxious
I t.t lj.ll wltnt lltAV tin, a .,l . . It. ,1 .IM.t ll.ltl.
to tenu what they hive e..wit nnd then
. ,,.,' .....i ...j ,(',i,' ,.'i, r.-.t, i, i.i, niv.i
innve away, leaving iliiolatlmt In hind them
fin Ihn riilitinrv It Is Bipriwhrn hii.1 mIumvs
the Interest or th pmnaneiit settler and ' larv nf the Treasury on III Hilt uf t
th permanent buln man. the man with a ' 'l. "Ml ! accuitipitiiylng leller nf th
taw In the cumin which Hiuet be van- I "ectetnty nf Mini, ret-nmnieiiilllig nil pprii
lilerml, nnd which must decide. prlnKon for n cnmrnleeluii In study Hie In-
Th making of forest reserve vrlthlH rail- ' ilustrlnl nnd t'omiuerclnl cniidlllnhs III Ihn
road nnd vvagnn-rond land grant limits will I t'lilneee Hniidre mid tu remrt aa In Ilia iip
lietenfler, ns for Hi past thre year, b mi ' pnrtunllle fur ami the ubslai-lrs tu the en
innnnileil a In prvvent Ih leeue, under Ih I largemeiil nf markets In China fur Ih tew
art of June I, 1M7, nf line fur exrhHHg nr I prialuel and limnilfilclures uf th I'nllnl
lieu xleetlnii iiisually called scrlpi In all , its Arllnn n nut Inkeii lliereim itur
ense where forest reserve within area lug Ih last mmIhii I rordlally urge that
covered by land urant appear In b een- th reiMHtiHieililatlnH receive at your hands
Hal tn the prtwiperlly nf settlers, miners, or th rnnsldernllnn which II Impurtane and
ethers, the Government land wllhln Mch I timeline merit"
prHeil fnrest reserve will, ns in the recent I In hi annual meeeaa of l(Ml lie again
wil, b wlthdrnwn from sale nr entry iHd-' calleil attention tn this rerninmeiidnllttii,
Ing the completion of such negotiations with iiitlng II, and elated furlheri
the owner of the Nnd grants a will prevent "I now lenev, llils vecimimendallnn, as th
th creation of mi. called evrlp , Iminirtanr of Ih stibjecl ha steadily ginwn
It wn formerly the custom tn make forest
reserve without nrst gelling ilerlHlle and
detailed Information a to Ih character of
land and tlmlier wllhln their boundaries Thl
method nf action often resulted In badly
chosen Imundarle and consequent injustice
tn settler and other Therefor thl Ad.
ministration adopted ih preeent mthrt of
nrst wiiiutrawing th land from itlsposal.
followed by careful culmination on Ih
gmunu ami in preparation or detnlreil map aotn prmlnnt trad renter of that em
end descriptions, befm any fort reserve ulie. under llnvernment ronirol and man
I I creeled
, - - I'-i-nniH'n ,mi common sense 1 n
reiT 01 m itovernment ar employe.1.
Where rhlettr Is Waehlnstnn Ihsrs I- rm
prehenelve first-hand knowledge of th prob
lems of the reserves ncqulreil on the ground,
where all problems relating to growth from
the soil are already gathered and where all
the science auxiliary tn fureetry ar at hand
for prompt ami etTertlv m operation These
reasons ar decisive in themselves, bin It
ahould be added that th area! oraanllatloas
I of rltliens who Interests are arTected by Ih
""'! reservee. Urn as the .National Live-
stork Association, th Nation I Wools-rowers'
,ssciaiion. in American Mining t'ongree.
the National Irritation Cnnsrees, and Ih
National Hoard of Trade, have uniformly,
emphatically, ami most of them repeatedly,
expressed themselve In feior of placing
all Government for! work In th Depart
ment ef Agriculture because of the peculiar
adaptation ef that Department far It It
Is true, atsa, that the foresl services of
nearly all the great nations of th world ar
under th respective steperijnenls f agricul
ture, white In but I"-j nt th smaller na
tion and In en colony are they under the
department of the Interior Thl I th
result of long ami varied esfeerlenc and It
B& e.allu u.l.k ,1. .
-.:.'.'."'. "V" '"" '"i""eis it goosi in our own cae.
The creation nf a fnri service In Ihe le.
iwiisusi or 1..1..11.,. -in ...,. ...
lieiuirtssl rullM
Important rult
First A better handling ef all forwst week,
because It will k under a single head, anil
becauee th vast and Indispensable etperl
ence of the DessaMment tn ell matters per
taining to th foresl reeerves. to fureetry In
. . .. . ...,.
rensral. and to other forms of pcMucllon
fUm he soil, will b. e.llr nnd rapidly ae-
. . ......
w.tJi .i?.. "".
i. SiLeST., . ii".' "!.' - .J'.Jh.m""
",,.,,rJ,,,L ?! .. " Vh' "T:
to the peopl. of Ih Weet than ha. been Ik
case hitherto
Third Within a compantllvely short lime
th reeerves will become self-supporting This
le Important, because continually ami rapid-I-
Increasing appropriation will be nee
eery far th proper ear of thl exceedingly
Important Interest t th Nation, ami they
can and should b erTset by return from lb
National forests tinder similar circum
stances the forest possessions of other great
nations form an Important source of revenue
to their governments,
Hvery administrative officer concerned I
convinced of the necessity for the proposed
consolidation nf forest work In th Depart
ment f Agriculture, and t myself have urged
It mere than one In former message Again
I commend It to th early and favorable con
sideration of the Congree. Th Interests of
th Nation at larg and of th Weet In par
ticular hav suffered greatly becaue of th
I call lb attention ef tn Car sgala
la Ik report and reooeasaedllax of lb
mission en th Public
Public letnds, Mads, forwarded by
m to th second ses
sion of th preeent rengreee Th Commission
has prosecuted Its Investigations actively dur
ing th past season, ami a second report I
now In an advanced stage ef preparation
The progress of Ike Indians toward eltllls
Hon. though not rspM. U perhap all that
enuld b hoped for. In view of the elrrum
stances. Within th past year many tribe
have shewn. In a degree greater than ever
before, an appreciation
Indians. ef the nes-eeelty of
work. ThU changed at
tltud I In part du la the policy recently
pursued of reducing Ike amount of subsist
bm la Ihe Indians, and thus forcing them.
through akeer neeeee-lty. te work for a liven
hood. The policy, though severe. Is a useful
one, but It Is to be exercised only with judg
ment and with a full uad-rtlsndlag of the
condition which exist in sarti community for
which It ! Intended On or near Ihe Indue
reservations! I here Is usually very lllll d
maad fer labor, and If the Indian at t
earn their living and when work cannot b
furnbdwd from outexd (which la always prof
srakle) then It must b furnished by th Gov
ernnvsnt Practical Instruction of Jhta kind
would In a few eaia rult In the forming
of habit of regular Industry, which wnuM
render Ihe Indian a producer and would effect
great reduction In lb oaet of w main
tenance. In th Poetorhc DBnrtmnt Ihe servlc
has Increneet in emclency, and conditions
a to rvnue and expndltur continu eat
lefnclory. The Inrreae nf rvnue during
th year waa tt.3ok.IHI la, or ) per rent,
th total receipts amounting to lllt.1J. The expenditures wr llAt.Jea. .
Ilu7l). an lnrs)s of about ft pr rent ovr
th previous year, being thus ,?. IH 3
In exoee nf th current revenue Includes!
In the eipeadllur wa a total appropri
ation of II3.UM.H.TTU far Ihe continuation
and extension of Ihe rural free-delivery
service, which was an Increase of fl.trUZ.
37.94 0r the amount expended for
this purpo In th
Postal Mcrvlce. preceding flee I year
Ijtrg a thl xpndl
tur ha been Ih beneficent result attained
In extending Hie free distribution of malls
to the resident nf rural districts have
Justified the wisdom of Hie outlay Htatls
tic brought down to October I, IbUI, show
thai on that dale Ihsre were ST. I at rural
route established, serving approximately
U'.uou.MO of people In rural districts re
mole from puslolMces, and that there were
pending at that lime 3Sa petitions for Ihe
establishment of new rural routes. I'nquea
llonubly some part of the general Increase In
receipt la due lo the Increased postal fn
cllltls which the rural service haa afforded
The revenue have nlso been aided greatly
by amendment In the classification nf mall
matter, and Hie curtailment nf abuses of
the second-class mailing privilege The aver
age Increase In the volume of mall matter
for Hi period beginning with 11)02 and end
ing June, lUUS tihut portion for 1103 being
estimated), I 10 17 per rent, a compared
with SS -ill per cent for Hie period Immedi
ately preceding, and 1.1 VI tar the four-year
period Immediately preceding that.
The growing Importance of Hi Orient a a
field for American export drew from my
predecessor, President McKlntey, nn urgent
request for lis special
Oriental Markets, consideration by the
Congress. In hi mes
sage of 1898 he stated:
"In thli relation, a showing the peculiar
volume and value of our trade with China
and Ih peculiarly favorable condition!
tvirttirtl tours uf Irad", I refer In the
,.-....-.. .--..-. ... .. , . ..... .-
cmiiiunii nii"i niniieeseii in ne rpeaarr m
tile llntlsn (if llcliresellthtlV r llV Hie HelT
' since it was nrst ui miiteti tu you, ami mi
lime should b loet In studying fur uurselve
the resource of this gieal Held fur American
trade and enterprise
The Impnrlanc of eeeurlng proper In
formation and data wllh n view In th
enlargement of our trad with Aeta le UHdl
i mlnlVhetl tlur Consular representatives IH
. chin have strongly urgml a place for per
manant display of AmerlraH roilurlB In
! agemenl, as an effective means t advene-
' Alaskn, American P I I I I s III
owns in a permanent
character hav been built The exlsnl of It
wealth In minerals, timber, fisheries, and
agriculture, whll great, I probably Hot
lomprehentted yet In any Just measure by
our pasipl. We do know, howver, that from
a very emal beginning Us products have
grown until they are a steady and material
contribution to Ih wealth of the Nation
Owing to the Immensity nf Alaska and Its
location In th far north. It Is n ctlitlcult
mailer tn provide many thing easnill to
It growth and to th happiness and ram
fort of It people by private enterprise aloete
It should, therefore, receive reasonable aid
from th Government Th Government ha
already done excellent work for Alaska
In laving cable and bulldlng'telegtaph line
Thl work ha been dun In th most ecu
mimical and etn.-letil way by th Mlmsl
Corp of Ih Army
In some reeisecie 11 has outgrown Its pres
ent laws, while In others those laws has
hH found la be Inadequate In order to
obtain Information upon which I could rely
I caused an orwcMI nf the Department nf
Justice, in whose Judgment I have con
Hdsnee, I visit Alaska during the past Hum
mer fer Ih puryms nf ascertaining how
government Is administered there ami what
leglelallon is ailualiy needed at preeent A
statement of the condition found tn eilet,
together with some recommendation ami the
reason therefor. In which I strongly con
cur, will b found In the annual report of
' lO Hl..l... -'' -T IH,.I
th Altornoy-tienerai in some instances I
I feel that the legtelallon suggeeied Is
Imperatively needed that I am moved briefly
, . ,,i,.jm n,, Aiturnet'. i..
. '" eenpnases in Aiiornei -nenersi s pt-
' l". ........
inner in real or A. a n new stands
many purely administrative powers and
duties. Including by far Ih im
portent, devolve upon Ihe IHairlrl Judgee or
upon lb Clerk of the (Metric! Court acting
under ine aireiii.n or in
,,,,. ,, ,h.,M ,h.
.h,,t4 ,M(r.l,r f,M
nder ihe direction of the Judges, while the
ee pnwwrs and du
I ,wm .,,- ps. M,r iw,,, h, .,n,f,g sf
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loewe Thankgl.lsig day srl.msilsM. siel
i """ H-ilremen and nni.rte. pub
I ellev. It essential In good
,, lh. Von. rf ,. p,.,,,,, JlHt,
and clerks of ihelr courts of th admlnls
Iratlve ar etecullie function that I hey new
exercise and rest I hew upon the Governor
This would not b an Innovation, It would
simply conform lh government ef Alaska
la fundamental prtnetiuos, making the Gssv
rnorehfp a real Instead af n merely namlnal
ortlce. and leaving Ihe Judge fr I glv
Ihelr enure attention la Ihelr Judicial dull
and at lh ssh. time removing hm from
a great deal of lh eirif that now em
barre Ihe Judicial nlTere In Alaska
Alaska should have a Delegate In the Con
grees Where poeelhle. Ihe Congree should
aid In Ihe construction af needed wagan
roads. Additional llghlhau shaubl be pro
vided In mt Judgment. It Is especially lm
portent lo aid In eueh manner as seems Juei
and In lh construction of a trunk
line nf railway to connect the Gulf of Alaska
with th Yukon lllver through American ter
ritory ThU would b most bnnrll lo the
development ef th resource of ihe territory
and lo lh comfort and welfare of Its people
Halmoa hatrherl should b established In
many different el reams, so as lo secure Ihe
preservation of this valuable food geh Mai
m-n fisheries and canneries should be pro
hlhlled on certain of lh rivers where Ihe
mas of those Indians dwell who live almoel
xrluelvely an Ash
Th needs ef the people are-
The abelllUn of Ihe present fee system
whereby Ihe native Is degraded. Imposed
upon, and taught Ihe Injustice af law
The establishment of hospitals at central
points, so thai eonlaglou disease that are
brought lo them continually by Incoming
whiles may be btcallieil ami not allowed lo
become epidemic, to spread death ami desti
tution over great areas
The development ef Ihe educational system
In Ihe form of practical training In such
Industries aa will assure the Indian self
support under the changed eondlllons In
which they will hav la live
The duties of th office ef th Governor
should be eilended la Include th supervi
sion ef Indian affairs, with nerary assist
ant In dlffsrenl districts He should be
provided with th man ami the tower to
protect and advise the native people, to fur -nleh
medical treatment In lime ef epidem
ic, ami lo extend material relief In periods
of famine and extreme destitution
The Alaskan halls should be given Ihe
right lo acuulr. hold, and dispose of trau.
erly upon lh same condition as alien other
Inhabitants, and Ihe privilege of cltieenshlp
should be given to
Hawaii and Port., '", ""J ." '
in,.,, lo meet certain dell-
'" ' Mile requirement In
Hawaii, Congreee
should giv ih Governor jow.r l remove
it tn orrinai appoinie.1 under blm The
harbor of Honolulu should b dredged The
Marina Hospital nwrvlc should b empow
ered to study leproy n th Islands ask
special consideration for Ihe report ami re.
ommeMdatloaa of the Governor of Porto lllro
In treating of our foreign policy and af Ihe
aiiiiupe inai nils great nation should as
sume In the world at large. It Is
necessary la consider Ihe Army nnd the
Nuvy, ami (lie Congress, through which Hi
thought uf Hi Nation
surrign runry. nrma Its xpreeoi,
should kt. blu.
Idly In mind Hi fundamental fact that It Is
i,innwiiia m treat our loreign policy, wheth
er this policy takes snap In the effort tu
sorur Justice for other or Justlr for our
elves, save ai conditioned upon Hi alllluil
w are willing to lake Inward our Army, and
especially toward our Navy It s not merely
unwise, It Is contemptible, for a Nation, as
for an Individual, lo us High-sounding Ungual-
to proclaim lis purposes, or to lake
position which ar ridiculous If unsupported
by potential force, and then tn refuse to
provide Hill force If Ihsre Is no Intention
of providing and of keeping Hi foicn nec
essary lo buck up a strong altitude, then It
I far belter not in assume surh an anltiiilc
Tho steady aim of this Nullun, aa of nil
nllghunect nations, should b in strive to
bring ever nearer Hie day when there shull
prevail throughout I hi. world the pear uf
Justice There are kind of peace which are
highly undesirable, which are In Hie long
run a destructive ai any war Tyrants and
oppressor have many limes mail a wilder
ness and called It peace. Many time peo
ple who were slothful or timid or sl'orl
Ighted, who hod been enervated by case or
by luxury, or misled by false teachings, have
hrunk In unmanly fashion from doing duly
that wi item and that needed self-eacrlnce
and have sought to hide fram'.hsie nu,o
minds thtlr shortcomings, nir (nobi mo-
' which exist for their expansion
( llllfltlltl tOlIf llf trnit,'. 1 THtt
Pence uf lyraiiliuil terror. Hie Peace nf
-. r .... -- .
ven riw", inn peace, m injusn
Hies should be shunned ns we shun Unright
eous war.
We nre In every way endeavntlng In help
mi, wllh conllal good will, every movement
which will lend In
Arbitration Trrollr, bring in Into ninr
friendly relation wllh
Hi tet uf mankind In pursuance uf llile,
policy I shall shortly lay before Ilia Hen
ale treaties of arhllrntlnii wllh all power
which aie willing In outer Into Hies treaties
wlllr Us, It Is mil mseia at (Ills psrlinl
uf Hi world' dsveliipmenl In agree l ar
lilltal all mallets, but (her nre many
mutter nf possible difference between us
and other nations willed can le thus arbl
littted Furthermore, al III request of Ihe
Inlei parliamentary Union, an eminent ldy
rimoseil nf practical
heennd Hague elalesweri from all
.. . countries. I h a V ,
( unfrrriicc. ,,,, , i,wrs In
Join wllh Hits llaveiri
ment In n second Hague conference, al which
It la hoped that the woik already so happily
begun al Th llagu may b carried om
step further toward complelloei Thl car
ries nut the dull evpreeeed by lh first
llagu Cunferenr llealf
Th strong arm of lh Government In en
fur. Ing respect fur He Just rights In Inter
national mailers Is lh Muy of th I'nlted
males I most earnestly recommend thai
there h ho hall III Ihe
'lh Navy, work of upbuilding Hi
American Navy There
Is no more patriotic duty before us a a
people lhan to keep lh Navy adequate In
Ihe needs of thl lounlry'e poejtl.m W have
umtsrlNhst l build lh Isthmian Canal W
hav undertaken to seoure for ourselte our
Just share In Ihe trad of the iirlenl Wa
..aie mi-lei taken in peotsot our rlllsens from
Improper treatment In foreign lands Wa
continue steedlly In Insist on Ihe appll.allon
of th Monro liuririn In lh Western
llemlephere I'Hlees our altitude In these
and all similar matter I to b a mer
hoaelful eham we ion not alfi.rd lo aban
don our naval programme thir tolc Is hiw
polsnt for pence, and I so potent because wa
ar not afraid of war Hut our protestation
upon behalf of peace would hell her re.eiv
nr deeerve Ihe ellghteei alleatlon If we
were Impotent to mane l hem good
Within lh last three year th I'nlle-t
Mtate has set nn esampl In disarmament
wher disarmament wa proper y y
law our Army Is fltsd at a maximum of
IBH.HW) ami a mini
The Army, mum of au trial men,
When Ihsre was Its -eurreclloH
In the Philippines we kepi lh
Army at lh mailmum peace rem In lh
Philippines, and now our Army has bn
reduces lo ihe minimum al which II le mis
etbl la keep II wllh dus regard In Its em
clency Th gun now mounted require Ja,
raw men. If Ihe cosst fortldf allotis at o b
adequately manned lleiatlvely I the Na
tion, II Is not now so larg as lh lc
fore of New Tetk mt Chicago relatively In
Ihe poteuUllon of either city We newt mr
eUtrer. Ihere are not enough lo peforni
Ihe regular Army work ll I very Important
that Ihe oMcers of ihe A.rny should be ee
customed lo handle Ihelr men in maaeee,
as II Is alee Imperlenl Iksl lh National
Guard ef lh sovsral Male should be ar
ruetomed la actual neld maneuvering, ee
peclallr In eonoerlloo with Ihe legiilale for
this raon w ar to b rongraiwiated upn
Ih eutr ef lh Hotel saauvrr Man
umi Put fell, maneuvers In whl.h a larg
er number of roiubsrs and NeHujial Guard
look part lhan wa vr befose eemtre.t
loasther in lime of poor No other
Nation has. rslallsely lo lis p.puiail.n,
such a diminutive Army a ur aad while
ihe Army le ea email we ere not l 1 ei
i used if fail lo keep it al a viy high
grade af proMtlenry II must b m.-seanny
prarilod. Ihe standard fur ihe enlisted men
sh.wtd b kepi vary high, while al ihe earn
urn lh service shook b mads as all.,
live a poselbl. and lb standard for Ihe
onVee should be kept 'even higher whb h,
as retards ihe upper ranks, ran best be ti'-ne
by Introducing sows system uf eetecli.n ami
.ejection Into Ihe ptosnelloo We should k
ablo, in ih event af sum sudden emerg
ency, la rati Into lie aokt on fl riot
Army oia, which should We. s a whale, al
least th setoal ef any body af iroap of Ilka
number belonging to any other nation
In lh I'MllPMH Island Ihere has been
during the past year a onlluoati"U of lh
steady progress which has obtained ever
staie tear Hoops deSnltely got lh Upsr
ham! ef lh Insurgents The Phlllirpen peo
ple, or, lo speah Hsoi
Ttie Philippines, areoralaly. lb many
lelba. and even rsrss,
sundered from an another Wore or less
ehar .y. who go lo mak up Ih people of
Ih Phlltptwa Islands, contain many ele
meats af good, and some element whlih w
hav a right In ht eland for ptogte At
peosenl they ar utterly lacapabl of eilel
Ing In Indspendaneo at all or of bundles'
up a civilisation of ihslr eon t nrmly be
llev Iksl we eon help ihem I rise hlghsr
and higher In lh seals uf , lililsal-.u and of
capacity for slf-govrnmnr. and I most
earnestly hap thai In lh end they will be
able to stand. If not entirely alone, yet In
some such relation lo the I ailed Mtate aa
Cuba now stand. Thl end I net yet In
sight, and It may b lndllnllsy iest nd
If our peopl ar foolish enough I turn Ihe
attention af Ihe Klllplno away from Ihe
problems ef sehlevlng moral and material
prosperity, of working fer a stable, ordsrly,
ami Just government, ami Inward foolish ami
dangerous Intrigues far a cowpl.ts Inde
psosdene fer whlsh Ihey nre a e lulally
tin th other hand, our people must keep
steadily before Ihelr ml wis th fail lhal the
JuetlBcalloti fur our (lay In lh Philippine
must ultimately reel eklegy Uhn th good
ve are able lo da In lh Islands I do not
overlook Ihe fart lhal In Ihe development ef
our Interests In the Perlhe trrean ami aleng
Its luasls, lbs Pklllpplaes have played ami
will play an Important part, and lhal our
Intereets have been eorved In more lhan on
way by lh ppee..n of lh Island Hut
our chief reason for continuing lo hold ihsm
must be lhal we ought in good felih la try In
da our shnr uf lb world work, and Ihl
particular piece of work ha been Imposed
upon us by th result of lh war wllh rlpeln,
Th problem presented lo ue In th Philip
pine Island I akin to. but not exactly like,
Ihe problem presented lu lh other great
Ivlllied (lower whli h hav possessions In
lh Orient There ar point of rmblnce
In our work lo Ihe work which I being dun
by ih ilrlilsh In India and Hgypl. by Hi
live, by railing Itisiu lor nf pear,
rrencn in Algiers, ny ine i.utcn m Java, by
th Husalans In Turkeetan, by lha Japanese
In Pormoen, but More dletlmlly than any of
these power we are endeavoring tn develop
Ihe natlvea themselve ea lhal Ihey shall
ink an ever Increasing ehar In Ihelr ewn
government, and a far as Is prudent w are
already admitting their ta a
governmental equality wllh our own.
Meanwhile our own people should remem
ber thai Ihere I nerd for Hi highest Hands
aril of conduct among (he American! sent
lo Hi Philippine Islands, not only among ihe
Puh I lo servants but among th private In
dividuals who go tu Ihem It because I
feel thli so deeply Dial la Hie administra
tion uf these Island I have positively re
fused in permit any dlscrlmltialoii whatso
ever fur political reasons, and have Insisted
Dial In choosing lha publle ssrvanl consid
eration should be paid solely in Hi worth
of Ihe men chosen and to ihe need nf lha
Islands There Is no higher body of men In
our public service than w have In Hie
Philippine Islands under (lovsrnor Wright
and hli associates. Mo far lis possible these
men should b given a frr hand, nnd Ihelr
suggestions should receive Hie dearly backs
lug hath af Hie Itxecullve and of Id Con
Kress. There I need of a vigilant and ills
Interested support of our public servants In
th Plililpptn by good clllicns here In the
I'nlted males,
(very measure taken concerning lh Island
should be laken primarily wild a view In
Ihelr advantuge. We ihould certainly give
them lower tariff rat oil their exports tn
Hie Hulled Hlateil If this Is nut dune It will
be a wrung lo extend our idlpplng law In
Idem, I earnsitly dope for Hie Immediate
enactment Into law of Id legislation now
pending to encourage American capital lu
aeek Investment In Hi llnd In railroads,
In factories, In plantations, and In lumbsr
Ing and mining.
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