The Western Mortgage Lifter. IPV dlCl.lf rwHTHAM. "Next in ItniMirtnitce tu the divine profusion of water, light and nir, tlio.se tlircc great physical facts which render existence xHhiblc, may be reckoned. t lie universal ben eficence of gniM," Haid .Senator Jolui J. IngnllH. 'Alfalfa, which ciiine an an antidote for booum and drought in the Middle Wct, must be reckoned equally tut lavish in beneficence an grass. H in the cor tier ntouc upon which is being built the unfailing proHpcrity of the Wes tern fanner. With On, licver-fnil-ing four or five crops a year; I(h tonnage greater than that of any other forage plant; its wonderful fattening qualities for cattle and swine; its value an a feed for bees and )oultry; its pereuuity, covering n quarter of a century; it ability to withstand drought and hot winds because of its roots, which lore down until they And water, it is the wonder of Western agriculture. In the less productive regions of Western Kansas and Nebraska, Kastcru Colorado, Wyoming and Arizona, ltuid formerly thought to le suitable only for grazing has been given an agricultural value by reason of the large alfalfa yields. Already in many of the "short grass" counties of Western Kansas and Nebraska thousands of acres arc being raised and fed to guttle, sheep and hogs with large profit. Many who have looked ujxm irri gation as the only means of putting such lauds on a paying ltasis now say "alfalfa is the way out." The rapid increase of alfalfa cul tivation is probably unequaled by any other product of the soil. In less than half a century, and for the most part in the last decade, it has become a factor in agriculture and has been largely responsible for the upbuilding of the extensive dairy industry in the Middle West. In many localities the profits realized by turning alfalfa into beef and jxrk would read almost like the startling stories that came out of the Klon dike a few years ago. Alfalfa but ter is sliipjxxl to New York by the trninload; alfalfu-fetl chickens and turkeys fill cars that go to Hostou; the bast chops on the breakfast table of the Philadelphia!! are alfalfa-fed. At first farmers were di.spo.scd to look ujxiu alfalfa as they had learned to look ujxmi new-fangled "patent" windmills and lightning rods a thing to be avoided. The general belief was that it was a new and un tried product, but in reality it . is older than the Christian era. It was grown in (i recce as early us 450 U. C. Ciiiciuuatus, the patrician farmer, may have beau plowing fur alfalfa in his fields across the Tiber when he was allied upon to don his togu and Ixjcoine dictator. The horses of the Roman army were fed ujxhi it, and it is still cultivated in Italy. The Latin races at first had u monopoly on the cultivation of it. Hroin Italy it was introduced into Spain, then Southern l'rance. The Spaniards carried it to South Amer ica and to Mexico. It was grown in many of the 'northern countries of Kuroe and was known in New York in 1830, but it did not gain a foothold in the United States until 1854, when it was introduced from Chili to California, Since then its march eastward across the country has been steady, until it is now grown, more or less extensively, in every state and territory in the Union. Alfalfa has been the text of agri cultural revivals, It has been preached and taught at the fartners' Grange meetings and at the agri cultural colleges. Captain J. II. Churchill, of Dodge City, Kansas, was given the title of "The Alfalfa Kliig"'because of his untiring ef forts In spreading the gospel of the new forage plant. He had been a sailor oil the Atlantic Kcalward, and his cx)criciicc as a farmer had been of a few years, yet he was one of the first to discover the adaptability of alfalfa to Kansas soil and to champion its chime among farmers with years of experience. He owns a ranch of 2000 acres and an exten sive dairy, and his alfalfa-fed milch cows furnish the milk and cream used 011 a large part of the Santa I'c dining-car and eating-house sys tem. When he was icceiitly elect ed president of the Kansas State Hoard of Agriculture, in recogni tion of his services to, the farming interests of his state, Kansas had nearly 400,000 acres of alfalfa, an increase of 350,000 acrca in a dozen years. It was not until the taking of the census in 1900 that the statisticians recognized alfalfa. This census gives the total acreage as 2,094,01! and the tonnage of the product as 5,532,671. The tonnage ier acre for all the states ranged from 1.0 to 3. 4, the lowest being in Rhode Is land, where but two acres were raised, and the greatest being in Washington, where 35,166 acres were grown. The general average was 2.5 per acre. The census gave Colorado first place with 455.337 acres, California second with 598,898 acres, Utah third with 368,339 acres, Kansas fourth with 367,378 acres, Idaho fifth with 160,029 acres, Nebraska sixth with 115,141 acrcti, Nevada seventh with 96,725 acres, Wyo ming eight with 74,688 acres, Mon tana ninth with 68,959 acres, and Arizona tenth with 62,585 acres. Since the compiling of the census the acreage has Ikcij greatly in creased, and in 1903 it is safe to say that Kansas will have 400,000 acres. In Nebraska the acreage has been increased annually by 10,000 to 12,000 acres, and in Colo rado the demand for hay as a win ter feed for cattle and sheep has been an incentive for the sowing of thousands of acres each year. As a feed for the dairy cow it has no Mijwrior. Dairymen in the West say that in the future the alfalfa- fed cow will set the price for butter for the entire country. 'The qual ity of butter produced from it is su perior. Herds of cattle cannot be turned into the fields to graze, as there is danger of what the farmers call "bloat," and cattle, after eat ing the green, rank growth too freely, have died in a few hours. It can be safely fed from the stack. "11 A aftnf n aa jl ilnivn aa da 1 m m & 1 lie nwvN mm uuiiy iiiuii imvi. talked foryearsofthe much-sought-after "balanced ration." Alfalfa solves the problem, for stock will cat just enough of it along with grain. Analyses of bran and alfal fa have shown that they have a composition nearly the Mime. Horses pastured on the fields in the spring and summer and fed the liny in the winter keep in the best of condition. Hogs thrive in the fields, and experiments have shown a ton of the huy to make 868 pounds of pork. I.ambs can be fattened for the market in less time and with greater profit on alfalfa than on any other feed. It is an excellent feed for beef cattle and adds weight quickly and cheaply, At Kearney, the center of thu in dustry in Nebraska, Mr, II. D. Watson, one of the recognized au thorities on thu subject owns an alfalfa farm of 2500 acre where the plant grows as rank as weeds, The roadsides are lined with it. Mr. Watson took ground which had been planted to corn for years and years until it was "worn out." IIe sowed it to alfalfa. J Ho provexl to the farmers that the value of "the rotation of crops was not a thedry but a fact, I'rom land that had be come worthless forcorn he harvest ed three tons of alfalfa the second year. He had faith in alfalfa, and he saved the farmers in the vicin ity of Kearney, who had lost heart because their wornout land would not yield corn. A Western boom hod brokcit and left its effect. A half-dozen years ago a farmer who was ready to give up took Mr. Wat son's advice. He sowed twenty two and one-half acres to alfalfa. In 1902 he sold 1000 bushels of seed for $1000 and the hay for $350. At Kearney the people cull alfalfa "the greatest income-producer, mortgngc-lifter and debt-paying crop grown." William Scully, of Washington, D. C, who owns 200,000 acres of farm land in Missouri, Kansas, Ne braska and Illinois, requires in his leases that the tenants on his farms raise a fair acreage of alfalfa. He believes in the crop and feels cer tain that by raising it his tenants will not only improve his lauds but that his rents-will be forthcoming. Frank Rockefeller, the Cleveland millionaire, has 500 a'cres of alfalfa on his ranch in Kiowa county, Kan sas. Alfalfa, or luccru, is oqc of the plants belonging to the order of I,c guiniuo.sa.'. liotauically it is known as Medicago saliva. The same or der includes peas, pcans, clover and vetch. It has been demonstrated that in association with bacterial organisms, alfalfa has the power of utilizing the nitrogen of the air, a most important element in plant food, easily exhausted from the soil and difficult to replace. Itrequfrcs three years for the plant to reach its prime, and twenty-five years, with three to five cuttings annually, have left the fields in excellent condition, although the decline may be ex isted in ten years. Alfalfa sends its' roots to where there is no drought. An. eight-year-old plant, in a stiff "hard-pan" subsoil, has been followed for a depth of ten feet without the end of the tap root being found. Many instances have been recorded of the roots penetrating thirty-eight feet and sixty-six feet. A mining tun nel was excavated in Nevada one hundred and twenty-nine feet be low an alfalfa field, and the roots of the plants were found in the roof of the opening. The searching roots not only obtain food far below the shallow feeding plants, but when the large boring roots decay they leave their own fertilizing ingred ients and openings for nir and wa ter to penetrate. Alfalfa thrives best in the sandy loams'of the creek and river valleys iri a warm climate with only a moderate rainfall, but it is grown successfully on the up lands and prairies. It grows in al titudes from 8000 feet down to sen level, but is affected by cold, wet winters. A plant eighteen years old, with three hundred and thirty four stems growing from one root, with a height of fifty-two inclicr. above the ground, is the product of a Kansas field. During 1901, an ail. extremely dry year, five cuttings were made on an eleven-acre field in Montgomery county, of the same state. The five cuttings aggregat ed fourteen feet two inches in height and the average yield- was .seven and three-fourths tons per acre. The cuttings yielded as follows: First, May 11, two and one-half tons; second, June 34, two tons; third, July 21, one ton; fourth, August 27, one and one-half tons; fifth, October 19, three-fourths of a toil. Cutting helps alfalfa'thesamu as plucking the blossoms increases the flowering of sweet pea vines, An experiment made by the Ne braska experimental station at Lin coln, to show the comparative yields oT-fbrftge plants and taute grasses, proved that the yield of one cutting of alfalfa was from four to six times k.JJ. greater than the others. The ex jicriincnt gave the yields per acre as follows: June clover, 2365 pounds; Mammoth clover, 2375 pounds; Al sikc clover, 2065 pounds; ulfalfa (first cutting), 4080 pounds; blue grass, 2875 pounds; orchard grass, 2390 pounds; timothy grass, 2800 pounds; fed top grass, 3350 pounds; meadow fescue, 1875 pounds; tall meadow oat grass, 3000 pounds; timothy, orchard grass and blue grass together, 1015 pounds. This gave alfalfa first place by 1080 pounds over its nearest competitor, the oat grass, but this was only the first cutting for the alfalfa field, and two more cuttings followed, while the other fields were not cut the second time. With the three cut tings, and a fourth crop estimated al 1806 ound.s, the alfalfa field yielded 12,720 pounds, or six and one-half tons per acre. The next best record was a ton and a half. liccs make the best of honey from the nectar of the purple alfalfa bios' soms. With the cultivation of the crop on the prairie farms came the apiaries. Mcc hives arc now to be found where a few years ago bees were unthought of. Some place the qualities of the blossoms as a feed for bees above the buckwheat, and red and white clover blossoms. In a country where the crop is ex Shaniko Warehouse Company SHANIKO, Fireproof building, 90x600 feet, fully equipped for forwarding MERCHANDISE Wool, Pelfs, DliALKKB IN Lumber, Wood, Coal, Flour;. Hay and Grain. sT Special attention given to "wool; first-class baling and grading 'facilities. All Modern Improvements for Handling Stofck LATEST PATTERN OF STOCKYARDS. r-ROr-KIKTOltHl A. H. LI PPM AN & CO. IIKAt-KHI Furniture and Undertaking Stoves, Wall Paper. Building Materials, Etc. MAIL .ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO, PRINEVILLE, OR, SUBSCRIBE WEEKLY AND- THE BEND BOTH PAPERS $2.00 p YEAR. tensively grown bees have, been known to have a continual feed from May 10 to' October 16. The flow is normally from June to Oc tolwr. Alfalfa is also considered an excellent feed for poultry. The leaves arc valuable to color the yolk of eggs in winter. In California alfalfa has been cul tivated extensively for many more years than in the Middle States, Many wonderful storiea are told of profits made in that state from the fields under irrigation. One is of a fieJd of twenty-five acres which yielded over $2000 worth of hay in one year. On the Pacific coast the first crop is often harvested in April and the last in November. In the San Joaquin valley the feeding' of 350 cows on 500 acres has been claimed. California, Utah and Col orado are the only states where the crops are grown extensively under irrigation. In Colorado the winter feeding of sheep on alfalfa hay has become a gigantic industry. Sat urday Evening Post. Desert Land. Hlnl proof. NOTICE FOR PUBLICATION. V H. Land Off, The Dalit. Oregon. April rj, 1901. Notice U hereby clren that William N. Cobti. of HUterf, Oreeoa, ha filed notice of Intention to make prooioii hl desert-land claim No to, fur theNKWaecji.tpu.r n e, W M, betore J J H mlth, County Clerk, at ITlnerllle, Oregon, on Friday, the nth day of June, loaj. He n itnea the following witnesses to prove the eouipi ete Irrtratlon and reclamation of aaid land Henry Cartln, K II Sparka, John Taylor and t M Thomaa, all of Hlslers, Oregon. mJl MICKAKI, T. NOLAN, Register OREGON. j GrainEtc t i'HKS'CH ft CO.. IlANKims, The Dalits MOOKK BROS. W. LORD, The Dalles. 11. K. LAUOUMN, The Dalles, IX FOR Ttf OREGQNIAN BULLETIN. t ; vl f U V ' I If !."