Baker City herald. (Baker City, Or.) 1990-current, July 31, 2019, Page 11, Image 11

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    ✻☛ Ñ ☞❆✌ ✍ ✎✏✑❨ ✒ ✍❆✝✁
❲ ✁✂ ✄✁❆❨✱ ☎✆✝❨ ✞✟✱ ✠✡✟✾
ÐÕÖ×ØÙ ÚÖÕ ÙÕÛ×ÜÕ ÝÞ ÝßÕàÝØáÜ âÝØÚßÝãÕßÜ×äå âäßÐÝØ âäæçäØÙçÚßäÙÕ Ð×åå
❇✓✔✉✕✖❡✓✗✘❡✕❡✖
❖✙✚✛✜✢✣✤✥✦✧✤❛★✩✙✚✤✩
✪ r✫t✐r✫❞ ♥✬rs✫✭♥♦t ❢❧✫✫✐♥❣
✮r✫❣♦♥ st✯t✫ s✫♥✯t♦rs✭❞♦♦✰✫❞ ✲♦✳✴
❑✯t✫ ✵r♦✶♥✷s ✸✫✹st♦♥✫ ✫♥✳✐r♦♥✺
✰✫♥t✯❧ ♣♦❧✐❝✹ t❤✯t ❤✯❞ ❜✫✫♥ ✐♥
t❤✫ ✶♦r✸s ❢♦r ✰♦r✫ t❤✯♥ ✯ ❞✫❝✯❞✫✭
✯❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ t♦ ✐♥t✫r✳✐✫✶s ✯♥❞ ♣✬❜❧✐❝
r✫❝♦r❞s✴
✼❤✫♥ ❙✫♥✯t✫ Pr✫s✐❞✫♥t P✫t✫r
❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ ✯♥♥♦✬♥❝✫❞ ✐♥ ❏✬♥✫ t❤✯t
❤✐s ❝❤✯✰❜✫r ❞✐❞♥✷t ❤✯✳✫ t❤✫ ✳♦t✫s
t♦ ♣✯ss ❝✯♣✺✯♥❞✺tr✯❞✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥✭
t❤✫ ❝r✫❞✐t ❢♦r ✐ts ❢✯✐❧✬r✫ ❢✫❧❧ t♦ ✽✽ ✿✫✺
♣✬❜❧✐❝✯♥ s✫♥✯t♦rs ✯♥❞ ✯ ❜♦✐st✫r♦✬s
❈✯♣✐t♦❧ r✯❧❧✹ ❜✹ t❤✫ t✐✰❜✫r ✐♥❞✬str✹✴
✵✬t st✯t✫ ❙✫♥✴▲✯✬r✐✫ ▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥✭✯ ✲r✫s❤✯✰ ❀✫✰♦❝r✯t✭
❤✯❞ ✯❧r✫✯❞✹ q✬✐✫t❧✹ t♦❧❞ ❈♦✬rt♥✫✹
s❤✫ ✶✯s♥✷t t❤✫ ✫①♣✫❝t✫❞ ✹✫s ✳♦t✫
s✬♣♣♦rt✫rs ❤✯❞ ❝♦✬♥t✫❞ ♦♥✴❍✫r
❞✫❢✫❝t✐♦♥ ✰✫✯♥t ❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ ❝♦✬❧❞♥✷t
❢✐✫❧❞ ✫♥♦✬❣❤ ❀✫✰♦❝r✯t✐❝ ✳♦t✫s t♦
♣✯ss t❤✫ ✯✰❜✐t✐♦✬s ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥✴
❍✫r ❧✐tt❧✫✺✸♥♦✶♥ r♦❧✫ r✫✳✫✯❧s t❤✫
♣♦✶✫r ♦❢ t❤✫ ❧♦❜❜✹ ✯♥❞ t❤✫ ♥✐tt✹✺
❣r✐tt✹ ♦❢ st✯t✫ ♣♦❧✐t✐❝s t❤✯t t✬r♥s
♦♥ ♦♥✫✺♦♥✺♦♥✫ ❞✫✯❧✐♥❣s ✰♦r✫ t❤✯♥
♣✬❜❧✐❝ st✯t✫✰✫♥ts ✯♥❞ ❝♦✰✰✐tt✫✫
❤✫✯r✐♥❣s✴
❚❤✐s ✯❝❝♦✬♥t ✶✯s t❤✫ r✫s✬❧t ♦❢
✐♥t✫r✳✐✫✶s ✶✐t❤ ▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥✭
♦t❤✫r ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t♦rs ✯♥❞ ❧♦❜❜✹✐sts ✯♥❞
♣✬❜❧✐❝ r✫❝♦r❞s s✬❝❤ ✯s ✫✰✯✐❧s ✯♥❞
t✫①t ✰✫ss✯❣✫s✴
▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✐s ✯ ❁❂✺✹✫✯r✺
♦❧❞ r✫t✐r✫❞ ♥✬rs✫ ✶❤♦ ✶♦♥ ✯ ❍♦✬s✫
s✫✯t ✐♥ ❃❄❄❄✭t❤✫♥ ✰♦✳✫❞ t♦ t❤✫
❙✫♥✯t✫ ✐♥ ❃❄❄❅✴❙❤✫✷s ❧♦♥❣ ❜✫✫♥ ✯
r✫❧✐✯❜❧✫ ✳♦t✫ ❢♦r ❀✫✰♦❝r✯ts✭t❤♦✬❣❤
❧♦❜❜✹✐sts s✯✹ s❤✫ ✯❧s♦ ❤✯s ✯ r✫♣✬t✯✺
t✐♦♥ ❢♦r ❜✫✐♥❣ ✫✯s✐❧✹ s✶✯✹✫❞✴
Ò✵♦✫✐♥❣ ❝✯✰✫ t♦ ✰✫✭Ó▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ s✯✐❞✴ÒP✫♦♣❧✫ t❤✐♥✸ ■
✯✰ ✫✯s✐❧✹ s✶✯✹✫❞✴■ t❤✐♥✸ ■ ✯✰
♦❜❥✫❝t✐✳✫ ✯♥❞ ♦♣✫♥✺✰✐♥❞✫❞ ✯❜♦✬t
t❤✫ ♣r♦s ✯♥❞ ❝♦♥s ✯❜♦✬t ✐✰♣♦rt✯♥t
❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥✴Ó
❚❤✯t r✫♣✬t✯t✐♦♥ ✰✯❞✫ ❤✫r ✯
♣♦❧✐t✐❝✯❧ t✯r❣✫t ✯s t❤✫ ❝✯♣ ✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫
♣❧✯♥ ✯♣♣✫✯r✫❞ ❤✫✯❞✫❞ ❢♦r ❧✫❣✐s❧✯✺
t✐✳✫ ✯♣♣r♦✳✯❧✴
❀✫✰♦❝r✯ts ❤✯❞ ❜✫✫♥ ♣✬rs✬✐♥❣
t❤✫ ❝✯♣ ✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫ ♣r♦❣r✯✰ ❢♦r
✹✫✯rs✭✯❝t✐♥❣ ♦✬t ♦❢ ❝♦♥❝✫r♥ t❤✯t
✮r✫❣♦♥ ♣❧✯✹ ✯ r♦❧✫ ✐♥ r✫❞✬❝✐♥❣
❣r✫✫♥❤♦✬s✫ ✫✰✐ss✐♦♥s ✯♥❞ ❢✐♥✯♥❝✫
✫♥✳✐r♦♥✰✫♥t✯❧ ✐♥♥♦✳✯t✐♦♥✴▲✫❣✐s❧✯✺
t✐♦♥ ✫♥❝✯♣s✬❧✯t✐♥❣ t❤✫ ✐❞✫✯ ❤✯❞
❢✯✐❧✫❞ ✐♥ ♦♥✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐✳✫ s✫ss✐♦♥ ✯❢t✫r
✯♥♦t❤✫r✭❜✬t t❤✫ ❃❄✽❉ ▲✫❣✐s❧✯t✬r✫
♦❢❢✫r✫❞ ❤♦♣✫ t❤✫ ♣❧✯♥ ✶♦✬❧❞ ❢✐♥✯❧❧✹
❜✫❝♦✰✫ ❧✯✶✴✵r♦✶♥ ✶♦♥ r✫✺✫❧✫❝t✐♦♥
✐♥ ♣✯rt ❜✯s✫❞ ♦♥ ♣r♦✰✐s✐♥❣ t♦ ♣✬r✺
s✬✫ t❤✫ ♣r♦❣r✯✰ ✯♥❞ ❀✫✰♦❝r✯ts
✶♦♥ ✫♥♦✬❣❤ s✫✯ts ✐♥ t❤✫ ❍♦✬s✫ ✯♥❞
❙✫♥✯t✫ t♦ ♣✬s❤ t❤r♦✬❣❤ ♥✫✶ ❧✯✶s
♦✳✫r t❤✫ ✿✫♣✬❜❧✐❝✯♥ ✰✐♥♦r✐t✹✴
❚❤✯t ❞✐❞♥✷t ✰✫✯♥ ❍♦✬s✫ ✵✐❧❧
❃❄❃❄ ✶✯s ✫✯s✹ ❣♦✐♥❣✴✪♥ ✐♥t✫r✐✰
❝♦✰✰✐tt✫✫ s♣✫♥t ✰♦♥t❤s ✶♦r✸✐♥❣
✬♣ t❤✫ ♣r♦♣♦s✯❧✴❀✬r✐♥❣ t❤✫ s✫ss✐♦♥✭
❧✫❣✐s❧✯t♦rs ❝♦♥❞✬❝t✫❞ ❃❂ ❤✫✯r✐♥❣s
✯♥❞ ❝♦♥s✐❞✫r✫❞ ✽✽❊ ✯✰✫♥❞✰✫♥ts✴
✮♥ ❏✬♥✫ ✽❁✭t❤✫ ❍♦✬s✫ ♣✯ss✫❞ t❤✫
✰✫✯s✬r✫ ❂❊✺❃❅ ✯❢t✫r ✯ ❢❧♦♦r ❞✫❜✯t✫
t❤✯t ✫①❝✫✫❞✫❞ s✐① ❤♦✬rs✴■ts ♣✯s✺
s✯❣✫ ✐♥ t❤✫ ❙✫♥✯t✫ ✶✯s ❝♦♥s✐❞✫r✫❞
✐♥✫✳✐t✯❜❧✫ ❜✹ ✫✳✫♥ s♦✰✫ ♦❢ ✐ts ✰♦st
✳✐❣✐❧✯♥t ❢♦✫s✴
❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ ♥✫✫❞✫❞ ❥✬st ✽❊ s✫♥✯✺
t♦rs t♦ s✯✹ ✹✫s✴❍✫ ❤✯❞ ✽❋ ❀✫✰♦✺
❝r✯ts t♦ ✶♦r✸ ✶✐t❤✴
❚✶♦ ❀✫✰♦❝r✯ts ✯❧r✫✯❞✹ ♣✬❜❧✐❝❧✹
❞✫❝❧✯r✫❞ t❤✫✹ ✶♦✬❧❞ ✳♦t✫ ♥♦ ●
❙✫♥✴✵✫ts✹ ❏♦❤♥s♦♥ ♦❢ ❙❝✯♣♣♦♦s✫
✯♥❞ ✪r♥✐✫ ✿♦❜❧✯♥ ♦❢ ❈♦♦s ✵✯✹✴
❚❤✯t ❧✫❢t ❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ t❤✫ ✽❊ ❀✫✰♦✺
❝r✯ts ❤✫ ♥✫✫❞✫❞ t♦ ✰♦✳✫ ✯❤✫✯❞✭ ❜✬t
▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✐♥ ▼✯✹ st✯rt✫❞
✳♦✐❝✐♥❣ ❝♦♥❝✫r♥s✭tr✐❣❣✫r✐♥❣ ✯♥
✐♥t✫♥s✫ ❧♦❜❜✹✐♥❣ ✫❢❢♦rt ❜✹ ✐♥❞✬str✹✭
✫♥✳✐r♦♥✰✫♥t✯❧✐sts✭✯♥❞ t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r✺
♥♦r✷s st✯❢❢✴▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✶✯s
✫✰✫r❣✐♥❣ ✯s t❤✫ ❝r✐t✐❝✯❧ ✳♦t✫✴
❍✫r ❝♦♥❝✫r♥ ✶✯s ❢♦❝✬s✫❞◆❙❤✫
❞✐❞♥✷t ✶✯♥t t❤✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥ t♦ ❤✬rt
✯ ✰✯❥♦r ✫✰♣❧♦✹✫r ✐♥ ❤✫r ✬r❜✯♥
❞✐str✐❝t✭✵♦✫✐♥❣✴▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
✯❝✸♥♦✶❧✫❞❣✫❞ ✐♥ ✯♥ ✐♥t✫r✳✐✫✶ t❤✯t
s❤✫ ❞✐❞♥✷t ❤✯✳✫ ✯ ❣r✫✯t ✬♥❞✫r✺
st✯♥❞✐♥❣ ♦❢ t❤✫ ❞✫♥s✫ ♣♦❧✐❝✹✭ ❜✬t
✶✯s ❣✐✳✫♥ ♣✯✬s✫ ✶❤✫♥ ✵♦✫✐♥❣
✯♣♣r♦✯❝❤✫❞ ❤✫r ✶✐t❤ ❝♦♥❝✫r♥s✴
✵♦✫✐♥❣✷s ✲r✫s❤✯✰ ❢✯❝t♦r✹
✫✰♣❧♦✹s ✽✭❊❄❄ ✶♦r✸✫rs✴❚❤✫ ❢✯❝✐❧✐t✹
❣✫ts ✐ts ✫❧✫❝tr✐❝✐t✹ ❢r♦✰ ✯ ✶❤♦❧✫s✯❧✫
s✬♣♣❧✐✫r r✯t❤✫r t❤✯♥ ✯ ♣✬❜❧✐❝ ✬t✐❧✺
✐t✹✴ P✬❜❧✐❝ ✬t✐❧✐t✐✫s ❣♦t ❢r✫✫ ✯❧❧♦✶✺
✯♥❝✫s ✐♥ ❍✵ ❃❄❃❄✭ ✐♥ ♣✯rt ❜✫❝✯✬s✫
♦❢ ✯ st✯t✫ ✰✯♥❞✯t✫ ❢♦r❝✐♥❣ t❤✫✰
➉➊➋➌➍➎➏➐➊➑➋ ➒➑➌➓➔➋ →➣↔↕ ➙➛↕➜↔➝➞ ➟➠➡➢➤➤➥
➦➧➨➩➫➭ ➯➲➳➲➨ ➯➨➭➵ ➸➳➺➧➻➨ ➼➫➭➭➨➽ ➾➭➚➨➧➽➫➭➪ ➶➹➘➧➨➽➴➳➷➪ ➳➚➚➧➨➽➽➨➽ ➳ ➬➧➫➮➚ ➳➲ ➳ ➱✃❐❒ ➼➨➷➫➹
➧➻➳❮ ➶➳❰ ➨Ï➨➭➲➵
èéêëìíê îïðñò óôõ êö÷ðíø
÷ùöøêúû ó îïðñò ó öõ ëüýêþîðÿê
öñú ëìêñ ✲ õðñúêú öüë ✉ î
îïê ì r ë÷ öñú þëñ÷ öüë ✉ î
ðõìë r îöñî íê ❧ ð÷íöîðëñû Ó
Ñ ❙ ✁✂ ▲✄☎✆✐ ▼✝✁✁ ✞ ☛ ✁❆ ✆✞✝✁
t♦ ✰♦✳✫ ❢r♦✰ ❝♦✯❧ ♣♦✶✫r ✯♥❞ ✯❧s♦
❜✫❝✯✬s✫ t❤✫ st✯t✫ ❤✯s ♦✳✫rs✐❣❤t
♦❢ t❤✫✰✴❚❤✫ st✯t✫ ❤✯s ♥♦ ✶✯✹ t♦
s✫✫ ❤♦✶ ♣r✐✳✯t✫ s✬♣♣❧✐✫rs r✫❧✹ ♦♥
❝❧✫✯♥ ♦r ❞✐rt✹ ✫♥✫r❣✹ ♣r♦❞✬❝t✐♦♥✭
♦r t♦ ✫♥s✬r✫ ❢r✫✫ ✯❧❧♦✶✯♥❝✫s ✶♦✬❧❞
❣♦ t♦✶✯r❞ st✯❜✐❧✐③✐♥❣ ✫♥✫r❣✹ r✯t✫s
r✯t❤✫r t❤✯♥ ♣r♦❢✐t✐♥❣ s❤✯r✫❤♦❧❞✫rs✴
✵♦✫✐♥❣ ♣r♦❞✬❝✫❞ ✯♥ ✯♥✯❧✹s✐s
t❤✯t ❞✫t✫r✰✐♥✫❞ ❍✵ ❃❄❃❄ ✶♦✬❧❞
✐♥❝r✫✯s✫ t❤✫ ✲r✫s❤✯✰ ❢✯❝t♦r✹✷s
✫♥✫r❣✹ ❝♦sts ❜✹ ◗✽ ✰✐❧❧✐♦♥ ♣✫r
✹✫✯r✴✵✬t t✫①t ✰✫ss✯❣✫s ✯❝q✬✐r✫❞
❜✹ ❙✯❧✫✰ ✿✫♣♦rt✫r s❤♦✶ ✶❤✫♥
t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r♥♦r✷s st✯❢❢ ✯s✸✫❞ ❢♦r t❤✯t
✯♥✯❧✹s✐s ✐♥ ✯♥ ✯tt✫✰♣t t♦ ✯❞❞r✫ss
t❤✫ ✰✯tt✫r✭ ❝♦✰♣✯♥✹ ♦❢❢✐❝✐✯❧s
❞✫❝❧✐♥✫❞✭s✯✹✐♥❣ ✐t ✶✯s ♣r♦♣r✐✫t✯r✹
✐♥❢♦r✰✯t✐♦♥✴
❘✰✯✐❧s ❜✫t✶✫✫♥ ✵r♦✶♥✷s ❝❤✐✫❢
♦❢ st✯❢❢✭❯✐✸ ✵❧♦ss✫r✭✯♥❞ ✵♦✫✐♥❣
r✫♣r✫s✫♥t✯t✐✳✫s s❤♦✶ t❤✫ ❝♦✰♣✯♥✹
s❤✐❢t✫❞ ✐ts r✫q✬✫sts ✯s t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r✺
♥♦r✷s ♦❢❢✐❝✫ tr✐✫❞ t♦ ♣❧✯❝✯t✫ ✵♦✫✐♥❣
● ✯♥❞ ▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥✴
✿✐❝❤✼❤✐t✫✭✵♦✫✐♥❣✷s ❣♦✳✫r♥✺
✰✫♥t r✫❧✯t✐♦♥s ✰✯♥✯❣✫r✭ ✐❞✫♥t✐✺
❢✐✫❞ ✐♥ ✯ ❏✬♥✫ ✽❄ ✫✰✯✐❧ t❤✯t t❤✫
❝♦✰♣✯♥✹✷s ❝♦♥❝✫r♥ ✶✐t❤ ❍♦✬s✫ ✵✐❧❧
❃❄❃❄ ✶✯s t❤✯t ✐ts ✐♥❞✬str✐✯❧ ❝❧✯ss✐✺
❢✐❝✯t✐♦♥ ✶✯s♥✷t ✐♥❝❧✬❞✫❞ ✐♥ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧✴
✪❞❞✐♥❣ t❤✫ ❝♦❞✫ ✯ss✬r✫❞ ✵♦✫✐♥❣ ✐t
✶♦✬❧❞ ❜✫ ✐♥❝❧✬❞✫❞ ✐♥ t❤✫ ♣r♦❣r✯✰✭
t❤✫r✫❢♦r✫ r✫❝✫✐✳✐♥❣ ❜✫♥✫❢✐ts t♦
❧✫ss✫♥ t❤✫ ❜❧♦✶ ♦❢ ❝✯♣ ✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫✴
✵❧♦ss✫r ✯❣r✫✫❞ t♦ ✯❞❞ ✐t✴
❚❤✫ ♥✫①t ❞✯✹✭✵♦✫✐♥❣✷s ❧♦❜❜✹✺
✐st ✫✰✯✐❧✫❞ ✵❧♦ss✫r✭s✯✹✐♥❣ t❤✯t
✐♥❝❧✬❞✐♥❣ t❤✫ ❝♦❞✫ ✶✯s♥✷t ✫♥♦✬❣❤
t♦ ❣✫t t❤✫ ❝♦✰♣✯♥✹ ♦♥ ❜♦✯r❞✴❚❤✫
❝♦✰♣✯♥✹ ♥♦✶ ✐♥s✐st✫❞ t❤✯t ♦t❤✫r
✯✰✫♥❞✰✫♥ts ♣r♦♣♦s✫❞ ❜✹ ✐♥❞✬str✹
✯❧❧✐✫s ❜✫ ✯❞♦♣t✫❞✴
❚❤✫ ✯✰✫♥❞✰✫♥ts ✵♦✫✐♥❣ ✯s✸✫❞
❢♦r ✶♦✬❧❞ ❤✯✳✫ ❣✬tt✫❞ t❤✫ ♣r♦❣r✯✰
✯♥❞ ✶✫♥t ❢✯r ❜✫✹♦♥❞ ✵♦✫✐♥❣✷s
✐♥✐t✐✯❧ ❢♦❝✬s ♦♥ ✫♥✫r❣✹ ❝♦sts✴
❚❤✫ ❝❤✯♥❣✫ ❧✫❢t ✵❧♦ss✫r ❜✫✺
❢✬❞❞❧✫❞✴
Ò✪r✫ ✹♦✬ s✯✹✐♥❣ ♥♦✶ t❤✯t ✹♦✬
❞♦♥✷t ✶✯♥t t❤✫ ✵♦✫✐♥❣ ❯✪■❈❙
❝♦❞✫ ✯❞❞✫❞ t♦ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧ t❤r♦✬❣❤
✯✰✫♥❞✰✫♥t ✽✽❄❱❳♦✬r ❧♦❜❜✹✐st✭ ❏▲
✼✐❧s♦♥✭ s✫✫✰s t♦ ❜✫ s✯✹✐♥❣ t❤✯t✭Ó
✵❧♦ss✫r ✶r♦t✫ t♦ ✼❤✐t✫✴✼❤✐t✫ ✯♥❞
✵❧♦ss✫r ❞✫❝❧✐♥✫❞ t♦ ❝♦✰✰✫♥t✴
✪❜♦✬t t❤✯t t✐✰✫✭▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤ P✯✐❣✫ ❙♣✫♥❝✫✭
✯♥ ✮r✫❣♦♥ ▲✫✯❣✬✫ ♦❢ ❈♦♥s✫r✳✯t✐♦♥
❩♦t✫rs ❧♦❜❜✹✐st✴
❚❤✫ s✫♥✯t♦r r✫✐t✫r✯t✫❞ ✶❤✯t s❤✫
❤✯❞ s✯✐❞ ❢♦r ✰♦♥t❤s✭t❤♦✬❣❤ s❤✫
♥✫✳✫r ✶✯♥t✫❞ t♦ ❞✐s❝✬ss t❤✫ ♣♦❧✐❝✹
✐♥ ❞✫t✯✐❧✭✯♥❞ ❞✐❞♥✷t ✬♥❞✫rst✯♥❞ ✐t✭
❙♣✫♥❝✫ s✯✐❞✴
Ò❙❤✫ ✯❧✶✯✹s s✯✐❞ s❤✫ ✶✯s ❣♦✐♥❣
t♦ ❜✫ ✯ ✹✫s✭Ó❙♣✫♥❝✫ s✯✐❞✴
■♥ t❤✫ ✳✫rs✐♦♥ t❤✯t ✶✫♥t t♦ t❤✫
❍♦✬s✫ ❢♦r ✯ ✳♦t✫✭✵♦✫✐♥❣ ❣♦t ✐ts ❝❧✯s✺
s✐❢✐❝✯t✐♦♥ ✯✰✫♥❞✰✫♥t ✯♥❞ ♥♦t❤✐♥❣
✰♦r✫✴
✵✹ t❤✫♥✭t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r♥♦r✷s ♦❢❢✐❝✫
✬♥❞✫rst♦♦❞ t❤✯t ▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
❤✯❞ ✫✰✫r❣✫❞ ✯s ✯ ♣✐✳♦t✯❧ ✳♦t✫ ✐♥
t❤✫ ❙✫♥✯t✫✴
❚❤✫ ❞✯✹ t❤✫ ✰✫✯s✬r✫ ♣✯ss✫❞ t❤✫
❍♦✬s✫✭t❤✫ ✲r✫s❤✯✰ s✫♥✯t♦r ✰✫t ✐♥
❤✫r ♦❢❢✐❝✫ ✶✐t❤ ✵❧♦ss✫r t♦ ♥✫❣♦t✐✯t✫
♦✳✫r ✶❤✯t ✐t ✶♦✬❧❞ t✯✸✫ t♦ ❣✫t ❤✫r
t♦ ✳♦t✫ ✹✫s✴❚❤✫✹ ✰✫t ✯❣✯✐♥ t❤✫ ♥✫①t
✰♦r♥✐♥❣ ✯♥❞ t❤✫♥ t❤✯t ✯❢t✫r♥♦♦♥✴
✮♣♣♦♥✫♥ts t♦ t❤✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥ ✯❧s♦
r✫❝♦❣♥✐③✫❞ t❤✯t ▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
❤✯❞ ❜✫❝♦✰✫ ✸✫✹ t♦ ✸✐❧❧✐♥❣ ❝✯♣
✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫✴✮♥ t❤✫ s✯✰✫ ✯❢t✫r♥♦♦♥
s❤✫ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤ ✵❧♦ss✫r✭▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✯❧s♦ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤ ✐♥❞✬str✹
❧♦❜❜✹✐sts ❙❤✯✬♥ ❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s✭P✯✬❧
❈♦s❣r♦✳✫ ✯♥❞ ❑✫✳✐♥ ❈✯✰♣❜✫❧❧✴❚❤✫
t✶♦ ❀✫✰♦❝r✯t✐❝ s✫♥✯t♦rs ✯❧r✫✯❞✹
❝♦✰✰✐tt✫❞ t♦ ✳♦t✐♥❣ ♥♦ ● ❏♦❤♥s♦♥
✯♥❞ ✿♦❜❧✯♥ ● s✯t ✐♥ ✯s ✶✫❧❧✴
❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s✭✯ ❜✬s✐♥✫ss ❧♦❜❜✹✐st ✶❤♦
❤✫✯❞s ✮r✫❣♦♥ ▼✯♥✬❢✯❝t✬r✐♥❣ ✯♥❞
❈♦✰✰✫r❝✫✭❧✫❞ ✐♥❞✬str✹ ♦♣♣♦s✐✺
t✐♦♥ t♦ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧ ✯♥❞ ❤✫ ❢♦❝✬s✫❞ ♦♥
▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✶❤✫♥ ❤✫ ❤✫✯r❞
s❤✫ ✶✯s ♦♥ t❤✫ ❢✫♥❝✫✴
❙❤✫ s✯✐❞ s❤✫ ❢♦✬♥❞ t❤✫ ✐♥❞✬str✹
♣r✫ss✬r✫ ♦❢❢✺♣✬tt✐♥❣✴
Ò■ ❥✬st ✶✯♥t✫❞ t♦ ❜✫ s✫♣✯r✯t✫
❢r♦✰ t❤✯t ❣r♦✬♣✭Ós❤✫ s✯✐❞ ♦❢ ❏✐❧✺
❧✐♦♥s ✯♥❞ ❤✐s ✐♥❞✬str✹ ✯ss♦❝✐✯t✫s✴
▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ♦♥❧✹ r✫❝✯❧❧✫❞ ♦♥✫
s✬❝❤ ✰✫✫t✐♥❣✭❜✬t ❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s s✯✐❞ t❤✫✹
t♦♦✸ ♣❧✯❝✫ ✶✫✫✸❧✹ ✐♥ ❏✬♥✫✴
❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s s✯✐❞ ▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
✶✯s ♦♥✫ ♦❢ ❢✐✳✫ ✰♦❞✫r✯t✫ ❀✫✰♦✺
❝r✯ts ✐♥ t❤✫ ❙✫♥✯t✫✭✯❧♦♥❣ ✶✐t❤
✫✐❣❤t ✐♥ t❤✫ ❍♦✬s✫✭ ❤✫ ❤✯❞ ❜✫✫♥
✶♦r✸✐♥❣ ✶✐t❤ ❢♦r ✰♦♥t❤s✴❚❤✫
♥♦t✐♦♥ t❤✯t ❤✫ s✬❞❞✫♥❧✹ t✬r♥✫❞ ❤✫r
✯❣✯✐♥st ❝✯♣ ✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫ ✐s ✶r♦♥❣✭❤✫
s✯✐❞✴
Ò✮❢ ❝♦✬rs✫ ✐t✷s Ô❙❤✯✬♥ ❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s
✬s✫s ✰✐s✐♥❢♦r✰✯t✐♦♥ t♦ ❣✫t ♦♥✫
s✫♥✯t♦r✭✷ ✯♥❞ t❤✯t✷s s✐✰♣❧✹ ♥♦t tr✬✫✭Ó
❤✫ s✯✐❞✴Ò✼✫ ❤✯❞ t✯r❣✫t✫❞ ❤✫r ❢r♦✰
t❤✫ ❜✫❣✐♥♥✐♥❣✴■ ✶♦✬❧❞♥✷t s✯✹ t❤✫r✫
✶✯s ✯ s❤✐♥✐♥❣ ❧✐❣❤t ✰♦✰✫♥t✴Ó
▼♦♥♥✫s✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤
✵r♦✶♥✷s st✯❢❢ ✯❣✯✐♥ ♦✳✫r t❤✫ ♥✫①t
t✶♦ ❞✯✹s ❜✬t ❤✫r ❝♦♥❝✫r♥s ✯❜♦✬t
✵♦✫✐♥❣ r✫✰✯✐♥✫❞✴ ✵♦✫✐♥❣ st✯✹✫❞
✐♥ ❝❧♦s✫ t♦✬❝❤✭ ✶✐t❤ ✐ts ❣♦✳✫r♥✺
✰✫♥t r✫❧✯t✐♦♥s ✰✯♥✯❣✫r ❝❤✫❝✸✐♥❣
✐♥ ✶✐t❤ ▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ❜✹
♣❤♦♥✫ ♦♥ ❏✬♥✫ ✽❉ ✯♥❞ ❏✬♥✫ ❃❄✴
❙❤✫ s✯✐❞ s❤✫ ♥✫✳✫r t♦❧❞ ✵♦✫✐♥❣
❞✐r✫❝t❧✹ ❤♦✶ s❤✫ ✶♦✬❧❞ ✳♦t✫✴
❀✬r✐♥❣ t❤✐s ♣✫r✐♦❞✭ ▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✯❧s♦ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤ ✫♥✳✐r♦♥✺
✰✫♥t✯❧ ❣r♦✬♣s✭ ❙✫♥✯t✫ ▼✯❥♦r✐t✹
▲✫✯❞✫r ✲✐♥♥✹ ✵✬r❞✐❝✸✭ ❀✺P♦rt✺
❧✯♥❞✭ ✯♥❞ ❈♦✬rt♥✫✹✴ ❙❤✫ s✯✐❞ s✐♥❝✫
s❤✫ ✶✯s ♥✫❣♦t✐✯t✐♥❣ ✶✐t❤ ✵❧♦ss✫r✭
s❤✫ ♥✫✳✫r t♦❧❞ ✵✬r❞✐❝✸ ✯♥❞
❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ t❤✯t s❤✫ ✶✯s ✯ ❤✯r❞ ♥♦
✯♥❞ t❤✫✹ ♥✫✳✫r ♣r✫ss✬r✫❞ ❤✫r t♦
s✬♣♣♦rt t❤✫ ♣♦❧✐❝✹✴
❙❤✫ ✯❧s♦ ✰✫t ✶✐t❤ ✿✫♣✴ ❑✯r✐♥
P♦✶✫r✭ ❀✺▼✐❧✶✯✬✸✐✫✭ ✶❤♦ ❝❤✯✰✺
♣✐♦♥✫❞ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧ ❢♦r ❍♦✬s✫ ❀✫✰♦✺
❝r✯ts✴ ■♥ t❤✯t ✰✫✫t✐♥❣✭ ❍♦✬s✫
❙♣✫✯✸✫r ❚✐♥✯ ❑♦t✫✸ ♣✯rt✐❝✐♣✯t✫❞
✳✐✯ ♣❤♦♥✫✭ ❜✬t ♥♦♥✫ ✶✫r✫ ✯❜❧✫ t♦
♣✫rs✬✯❞✫ ❤✫r t♦ ❝♦✰✰✐t t♦ s✬♣✺
♣♦rt✐♥❣ t❤✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥✴
Ò■ ✸✐♥❞ ♦❢ st✬❝✸ ✐♥ ✰✹ ❤✫✫❧s
✯♥❞ s✯✐❞ Ôt❤✐s ✐s ♥♦t ❢✯✐r✭✷Ó ▼♦♥♥✫s
✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ s✯✐❞✴
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ❬♥✯❧❧✹ ✶✫♥t
❢♦r ✯ ♣r✐✳✯t✫ t✯❧✸ ✶✐t❤ ❈♦✬rt♥✫✹✴
❚❤✫r✫✭ s❤✫ s✯✐❞✭ s❤✫ t♦❧❞ t❤✫ ❙✫♥✺
✯t✫ ♣r✫s✐❞✫♥t t❤✯t s❤✫ ✶♦✬❧❞ ✳♦t✫
✯❣✯✐♥st ❍♦✬s✫ ✵✐❧❧ ❃❄❃❄✴
❈♦✬rt♥✫✹ ❤✯❞ ❧♦st ❤✐s ❝r✬❝✐✯❧
✽❊t❤ ✳♦t✫✭ ❜✬t ❢✫✶ ✸♥✫✶ ✐t✴
❚✬✫s❞✯✹✭ ❏✬♥✫ ❃❭✭ ✶✯s ✯ ✸✫✹
❞✯✹ ✐♥ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧✷s ❢✯t✫✴ ✵✹ t❤✫♥✭ ✽✽
✿✫♣✬❜❧✐❝✯♥ s✫♥✯t♦rs ❤✯❞ ❧✫❢t t❤✫
st✯t✫✭ ❜❧♦❝✸✐♥❣ ❙✫♥✯t✫ ✯❝t✐♦♥ ✐♥
✶❤✯t t❤✫✹ ❤♦♣✫❞ ✶✯s ✯ ♣♦❧✐t✐❝✯❧
r♦✯❞❜❧♦❝✸ t♦ st♦♣ t❤✫ ❧✫❣✐s❧✯t✐♦♥✴
❚❤✯t ✰♦r♥✐♥❣✭ ✯t ❉◆❅❂ ✯✴✰✴✭
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ ✫✰✯✐❧✫❞ ✯♥
✯❞✳♦❝✯t✫ ❢♦r ✿✫♥✫✶ ✮r✫❣♦♥✭ ✯♥
✯❞✳♦❝✯❝✹ ❣r♦✬♣ ❧♦❜❜✹✐♥❣ ❢♦r t❤✫
❜✐❧❧✭ ✯s s❤✫ ❤✯❞ ✰♦st ✶✫✫✸s✴
Ò■ ❤♦♣✫ t♦ s✬♣♣♦rt t❤✐s ❜✐❧❧ ✐❢ ✐t
❝♦✰✫s t♦ t❤✫ ❪♦♦r✭Ó s❤✫ ✶r♦t✫✴
❙✫✳✫♥t✫✫♥ ✰✐♥✬t✫s ❧✯t✫r✭ ❈♦✬rt✺
♥✫✹ ✶✯❧✸✫❞ ✐♥t♦ t❤✫ ❙✫♥✯t✫ ✯♥❞
s✬r♣r✐s✫❞ ❤✐s ❝♦❧❧✫✯❣✬✫s ❜✹ ✯♥✺
♥♦✬♥❝✐♥❣ t❤✫ ✳♦t✫s ✶✫r✫♥✷t t❤✫r✫✴
❍✫ ❞✐❞♥✷t ✫①♣❧✯✐♥✴
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥✷s ✯❝t✐♦♥s
st✐rr✫❞ ✯❝❝✬s✯t✐♦♥s t❤✯t s❤✫ ✶✯s
❜♦✬❣❤t ❜✹ ✵♦✫✐♥❣✭ ❜✬t ❝✯✰♣✯✐❣♥
r✫❝♦r❞s s❤♦✶✫❞ t❤✫ ❝♦✰♣✯♥✹ ❤✯❞
❜✫✫♥ ✯ r✫❧✯t✐✳✫❧✹ ✰✐♥♦r ❞♦♥♦r✴
❚❤✫r✫ ✶✯s t✯❧✸ ♦❢ ❝❤✯❧❧✫♥❣✐♥❣
❤✫r ✐♥ t❤✫ ❃❄❃❄ ✫❧✫❝t✐♦♥ ● ❜✬t
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ s✯✐❞ s❤✫
❞♦✫s♥✷t ♣❧✯♥ t♦ s✫✫✸ r✫✺✫❧✫❝t✐♦♥✴
❙♦✰✫ ✐♥ ❤✫r ♣✯rt✹ ✯❝❝✬s✫❞
❤✫r ♦❢ t✫❧❧✐♥❣ ✯❧❧ s✐❞✫s ✶❤✯t t❤✫✹
✶✯♥t✫❞ t♦ ❤✫✯r✴
Ò❚❤✯t✷s ✶❤✯t t❤✫✹ s✯✹✭ ❜✬t ■ ✶✯s
♦♣✫♥✭Ó s❤✫ s✯✐❞✴Ò■ ✶✯s ✳✫r✹ ♦♣✫♥
✯❜♦✬t ✶❤✯t ■ ♥✫✫❞✫❞✴ ■ ❣✫t ❜❧✯✰✫❞
❢♦r ✯ ❧♦t ♦❢ st✬❢❢ ❜✬t t❤✯t ❞♦✫s♥✷t
❜♦t❤✫r ✰✫✴Ó
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ s✯✐❞ s❤✫
r✫♣✫✯t✫❞❧✹ ✰✯❞✫ ❤✫r ❝♦♥❝✫r♥s
✸♥♦✶♥ t♦ ❙✫♥✴ ▼✐❝❤✯✫❧ ❀✫✰❜r♦✶✭
❀✺P♦rt❧✯♥❞✭ ✯ ❝❤✐✫❢ ✯r❝❤✐t✫❝t ♦❢
t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧✴ ❀✫✰❜r♦✶ r✫❝✯❧❧✫❞ ♦♥✫
❢♦r✰✯❧ ✰✫✫t✐♥❣ t❤✯t ❧✯st✫❞ ✯❜♦✬t
✽❄ ✰✐♥✬t✫s✭ ❜✬t ✯ ❤✯♥❞❢✬❧ ♦❢
❝♦♥✳✫rs✯t✐♦♥s ❝♦♥❞✬❝t✫❞ ♦♥ t❤✫
❙✫♥✯t✫ ❪♦♦r ♦r ✐♥ ❤✯❧❧✶✯✹s✴ ❙❤✫
♥✫✳✫r ❞✐r✫❝t❧✹ t♦❧❞ ❤✐✰ ❤♦✶ s❤✫
✶♦✬❧❞ ✳♦t✫✭ ❥✬st t❤✯t s❤✫ ✶♦✬❧❞♥✷t
s✬♣♣♦rt ✯♥ ✬♥❢✯✐r ❜✐❧❧✴
❀✫✰❜r♦✶ ✯♥❞ ❙♣✫♥❝✫ ❜✫❧✐✫✳✫
✵♦✫✐♥❣ ✶✯s ❜✫✐♥❣ ❧✫ss t❤✯♥ ❢♦rt❤✺
❝♦✰✐♥❣ ✐♥ t❤✫ ♣r♦❝✫ss✭ ✯♥❞ ✶✯s
✶♦r✸✐♥❣ t♦ ✰✯✸✫ t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧ s♦❢t✫r ♦♥
✐♥❞✬str✹ ♦✳✫r✯❧❧✭ ♥♦t ❥✬st ❜✫tt✫r
❢♦r ✐ts✫❧❢✴
Ò■❢ ✵♦✫✐♥❣ ✬s✫❞ r✫♥✫✶✯❜❧✫ ✫♥✺
✫r❣✹✭ t❤✫✹ ✶♦✬❧❞♥✷t ❜✫ ✯❢❢✫❝t✫❞ ❜✹
t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧ ✯t ✯❧❧✭Ó ❀✫✰❜r♦✶ s✯✐❞✴
✵♦✫✐♥❣✷s ✰✫❞✐✯ ❞✐r✫❝t♦r✭ P✯✬❧
✵✫r❣✰✯♥✭ ❞✫❝❧✐♥✫❞ t♦ ❜✫ ✐♥t✫r✺
✳✐✫✶✫❞ ✯♥❞ ❞✐❞♥✷t r✫s♣♦♥❞ t♦ ✯ ❧✐st
♦❢ ✶r✐tt✫♥ q✬✫st✐♦♥s✴
❙♣✫♥❝✫ s✯✐❞ s❤✫ ❜✫❧✐✫✳✫s ✵♦✫✐♥❣
✬s✫❞ ▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ t♦ t✯♥✸
t❤✫ ❜✐❧❧✴
Ò■ t❤✐♥✸ t❤✫ ✐♥❞✬str✹ ❢♦❧✸s
❢♦✬♥❞ ❤✫r ✫✯s✹ t♦ ♣✐❝✸ ♦❢❢✭ ✸♥♦✶✺
✐♥❣ s❤✫ ❤✯❞♥✷t r✫✯❧❧✹ ❞✐✳✫❞ ✐♥✭Ó
❙♣✫♥❝✫ s✯✐❞✴Ò■ t❤✐♥✸ t❤✫r✫ ✐s ✯
r✫✯s♦♥ s❤✫ ✶✯s t✯r❣✫t✫❞✴Ó
✮♥ ❏✬♥✫ ❃❉✭ ▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
s✫♥t ✯♥ ✫✰✯✐❧ ✫①♣❧✯✐♥✐♥❣ ❤✫r
❞✐ss✫♥t t♦ ✰✫❞✐✯ ✯♥❞ ❝♦♥st✐t✬✫♥ts✴
■t ✶✯s ✯ ✰♦r✫ ❞✫t✯✐❧✫❞ ✯tt✯❝✸ ♦❢
❍✵ ❃❄❃❄ t❤✯♥ ▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥
❤✯❞ ✫✳✫r ❣✐✳✫♥✭ ❧✫✯❞✐♥❣ s♦✰✫ t♦
❜✫❧✐✫✳✫ ❏✐❧❧✐♦♥s ✶r♦t✫ ✐t✴
▼♦♥♥✫s ✪♥❞✫rs♦♥ s✯✐❞ t❤✯t
✶✯s♥✷t tr✬✫✴
❙❤✫ s✯✐❞ s❤✫ ❞✐❞ ❤✯✳✫ ❤✫❧♣
❞r✯❢t✐♥❣ t❤✫ ✫①♣❧✯♥✯t✐♦♥ ● ❢r♦✰
❏✫♥♥✐❢✫r ❀r✫s❧✫r✭✯ ❧♦❜❜✹✐st ❢♦r
s✫✳✫r✯❧ ♦r❣✯♥✐③✯t✐♦♥s t❤✯t ✶♦✬❧❞ ❜✫
✐✰♣✯❝t✫❞ ❜✹ ❝✯♣ ✯♥❞ tr✯❞✫✴
❫❴❵❦♠❵ ✈✇❵②❴❵④ ⑤✈⑥⑥✈⑥♠
⑦✈⑧⑨⑩♠❵ ❶♠⑧④♠⑧❷♠⑨ ❸❴❵ ❶④♠✈⑩✇⑧⑥
⑥❹⑧❶ ❸❵❴❦ ⑩❹⑥⑥✈⑥♠
P✮✿❚▲✪❯❀ ❺✪P❻ ● ✪ ❢♦r✰✫r ✯✐r♣♦rt
❜✯❣❣✯❣✫ ❤✯♥❞❧✫r ❤✯s ❜✫✫♥ s✫♥t✫♥❝✫❞ t♦
s✐① ✰♦♥t❤s ✐♥ ❢✫❞✫r✯❧ ♣r✐s♦♥ ❢♦r st✫✯❧✐♥❣
❣✬♥s ✯♥❞ ✯✰✰✬♥✐t✐♦♥ ❢r♦✰ ♣✯ss✫♥❣✫rs✷
❧✬❣❣✯❣✫✴
❚❤✫ ✮r✫❣♦♥✐✯♥❼✮r✫❣♦♥ ▲✐✳✫ r✫♣♦rt✫❞
▼♦♥❞✯✹ t❤✯t ❃❁✺✹✫✯r✺♦❧❞ ❀✫s❤✯✶♥ ✪♥t♦✺
♥✐♦ ❑✫❧❧✹ ✶✯s s✫♥t✫♥❝✫❞ ▼♦♥❞✯✹ ✐♥ ❽✴❙✴
❀✐str✐❝t ❈♦✬rt✴
❑✫❧❧✹ t♦❧❞ ✯ ❥✬❞❣✫ ❤✫ st♦❧✫ ❣✬♥s ❢r♦✰
❬✳✫ ♣✫♦♣❧✫ ✶❤♦ ❝❤✫❝✸✫❞ ❜✯❣s ✯t P♦rt❧✯♥❞
■♥t✫r♥✯t✐♦♥✯❧ ✪✐r♣♦rt ✐♥ ✪✬❣✬st ✯♥❞ ❙✫♣✺
t✫✰❜✫r ❃❄✽❋✴
✪✬t❤♦r✐t✐✫s s✯✹ ❑✫❧❧✹ r✫✰♦✳✫❞ ❬r✫✯r✰s
❤✫ ✸♥✫✶ ✶✫r✫ ♣r✫s✫♥t ❞✬✫ t♦ r✫❞ ❧✬❣❣✯❣✫
t✯❣s ✯♥❞ s✶✐t❝❤✫❞ t✯❣s✭ s✫♥❞✐♥❣ ❧✬❣❣✯❣✫ t♦
❞✐❢❢✫r✫♥t ❞✫st✐♥✯t✐♦♥s✴
❑✫❧❧✹✷s ✯tt♦r♥✫✹ s✯✹s ❤✫ ✶✯s ✯rr✫st✫❞
❜✫❢♦r✫ ❤✫ ❝♦✬❧❞ s✫❧❧ t❤✫ ❣✬♥s✴
❾✐✳✫ ❣✬♥s ✶✫r✫ r✫❝♦✳✫r✫❞ ❜✬t ♦♥✫
✶✫✯♣♦♥ r✫✰✯✐♥✫❞ ✰✐ss✐♥❣ ✯❢t✫r ❑✫❧❧✹
❣✯✳✫ ✐t t♦ ✯ ❢r✐✫♥❞ ✶❤♦ ✶✯s ✯ ❝♦♥✳✐❝t✫❞
❢✫❧♦♥ ✯♥❞ ❣✯♥❣ ✰✫✰❜✫r✴
Pr♦s✫❝✬t♦rs s✯✹ ✳✐❝t✐✰s ✐♥❝❧✬❞✫❞ ✯
♣♦❧✐❝✫ ♦❢❬❝✫r ✯♥❞ ✯ ❣✬♥ ❞✫✯❧✫r✴
❫✇❵♠❿⑥⑦④♠❵ ⑦❹❵④ ⑤➀ ❵❴⑩⑩✇⑧⑥
⑨♠⑤❵✇❶ ➁⑦✇⑩♠ ❿⑥⑦④✇⑧⑥ ➂✇⑩♠ ➃❴❶④
➄➅ ❿❵♠ ✇⑧ ➆❴❹④⑦♠❵⑧ ➇❵♠⑥❴⑧
❈✪❯❳✮❯❩■▲▲❘ ❺✪P❻ ● ✪ ❬r✫❬❣❤t✫r
❜✯tt❧✐♥❣ ✯ ❧✯r❣✫ ❜❧✯③✫ ✐♥ s♦✬t❤✶✫st✫r♥
✮r✫❣♦♥ ✶✯s ✐♥❥✬r✫❞ ✶❤✫♥ ❤✫ ✶✯s str✬❝✸
❜✹ r♦❧❧✐♥❣ ❞✫❜r✐s✴
✪✬t❤♦r✐t✐✫s s✯✹ t❤✫ ❬r✫❬❣❤t✫r ✶✯s
tr✯♥s♣♦rt✫❞ ✫✯r❧✹ ▼♦♥❞✯✹ t♦ ✯ ✰✫❞✐❝✯❧
❝✫♥t✫r✭ ✶❤✫r✫ ❤✫ ✶✯s tr✫✯t✫❞ ✯♥❞ r✫❧✫✯s✫❞✴
❚❤✫ ❬r✫❬❣❤t✫r ✶✯s ♦♥✫ ♦❢ ✯❜♦✬t ✽✭❄❄❄
♣✫♦♣❧✫ ❜✯tt❧✐♥❣ t❤✫ ✽✽✭❊❄❄✺✯❝r✫ ▼✐❧✫ P♦st
❉❁ ❬r✫ t❤✯t ❜r♦✸✫ ♦✬t ✼✫❞♥✫s❞✯✹ ♥✫✯r
❈✯♥✹♦♥✳✐❧❧✫✭ ✯♣♣✯r✫♥t❧✹ ❢r♦✰ ✯♥ ✐❧❧✫❣✯❧
❝✯✰♣❬r✫✴
✮❢❬❝✐✯❧s s✯✐❞ t❤✫ ❬r✫ ✶✯s ❣r♦✶✐♥❣
s❧♦✶❧✹ t♦✶✯r❞ t❤✫ s♦✬t❤✭ ♣✯r✯❧❧✫❧✐♥❣
■♥t✫rst✯t✫ ❭✴
❚❤✫ ❬r✫ ✶✯s ✯t ✽❄ ♣✫r❝✫♥t ❝♦♥t✯✐♥✰✫♥t✴
❈r✫✶s ❤♦♣✫❞ t♦ ✰✯✸✫ ♣r♦❣r✫ss ✯s ❝❧♦✬❞s
✯♥❞ ❝♦♦❧✐♥❣ t✫✰♣✫r✯t✬r✫s ✶✫r✫ ❢♦r✫❝✯st
❢♦r t❤✫ ✯r✫✯✴
❚❤✫ ❾✫❞✫r✯❧ ❘✰✫r❣✫♥❝✹ ▼✯♥✯❣✫✰✫♥t
✪❣✫♥❝✹ ❤✯s ✯❧s♦ ✯✬t❤♦r✐③✫❞ t❤✫ ✬s✫ ♦❢ ❢✫❞✺
✫r✯❧ ❢✬♥❞s t♦ ❤✫❧♣ ✶✐t❤ ❬r✫❬❣❤t✐♥❣ ❝♦sts✴
✪♥ ✮r✫❣♦♥ ❀✫♣✯rt✰✫♥t ♦❢ ❘♥✳✐r♦♥✺
✰✫♥t✯❧ ➈✬✯❧✐t✹ ✯✐r ✯❞✳✐s♦r✹ ✐ss✬✫❞ ❞✬✫ t♦
s✰♦✸✫ ✶✯s ✫①t✫♥❞✫❞ ▼♦♥❞✯✹ ❢♦r ❏✯❝✸s♦♥✭
❏♦s✫♣❤✐♥✫ ✯♥❞ ❑❧✯✰✯t❤ ❝♦✬♥t✐✫s✭ ✯♥❞ ♥♦✶
✐♥❝❧✬❞✫s s♦✬t❤✫r♥ ❀♦✬❣❧✯s ❈♦✬♥t✹✴
❇✓ ❇✟ ✘ ✠ ✓ ❚✡☛ ✖ ♥☞☛♥
❲ ✤❛❛✤ ❲ ✤❛❛✤ ❯ ✢✦✜✢ ✌ ★✩❛❛✚✧✦✢
❚❤✫ ✰✯♥ ✯❝❝✬s✫❞ ♦❢ ✸✐❧❧✐♥❣ ✯ ✼✯❧❧✯ ✼✯❧❧✯
✰✯♥ ♦♥ ❏✬❧✹ ❋ ✐s ✐♥ t❤✫ ✵✯✸✫r ❈♦✬♥t✹ ❏✯✐❧✭
❜✬t ❤✫ ❧✐✸✫❧✹ ✶✐❧❧ ❜✫ ✫①tr✯❞✐t✫❞ t♦ ✼✯s❤✐♥❣✺
t♦♥ ✶✐t❤✐♥ t✶♦ ✰♦♥t❤s✴
❈♦❧❜✹ ❏✴❍✫❞✰✯♥✭❃❂✭ ✐s ❝❤✯r❣✫❞ ✶✐t❤
❬rst✺❞✫❣r✫✫ ✰✬r❞✫r ✯♥❞ ✳✫❤✐❝❧✫ t❤✫❢t ✐♥
✼✯❧❧✯ ✼✯❧❧✯✭ ❜✬t ✶✯s ✯rr✫st✫❞ ✐♥ ✵✯✸✫r ❈✐t✹
♦♥ ❝❤✯r❣✫s ♦❢ ✬♥✯✬t❤♦r✐③✫❞ ✬s✫ ♦❢ ✯ ✰♦t♦r
✳✫❤✐❝❧✫✭✯tt✫✰♣t✐♥❣ t♦ ✫❧✬❞✫✭ r✫❝✸❧✫ss ❞r✐✳✐♥❣✭
❝r✐✰✐♥✯❧ tr✫s♣✯ss✐♥❣✭ ❝r✐✰✐♥✯❧ ✰✐s❝❤✐✫❢ ✯♥❞
♣r♦♣✫rt✹ ❤✐t✺✯♥❞✺r✬♥✴
✪❧t❤♦✬❣❤ t❤✫ ❥✬r✐s❞✐❝t✐♦♥ ✶❤♦ ❤✯s ❍✫❞✺
✰✯♥✭ ✵✯✸✫r ❈♦✬♥t✹✭ ✰✯✹ ♣r♦❝✫✫❞ ✶✐t❤ ❝♦✬rt
❤✫✯r✐♥❣s ❬rst✭✼✯❧❧✯ ✼✯❧❧✯ ❈♦✬♥t✹ Pr♦s✺
✫❝✬t✐♥❣ ✪tt♦r♥✫✹ ❏✐✰ ❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞ ❤✫ s✫♥t ✯
✶✯rr✯♥t ❢♦r ❍✫❞✰✯♥✷s ✯rr✫st t♦ ✼✯s❤✐♥❣t♦♥
✲♦✳✴ ❏✯✹ ■♥s❧✫✫✴
Ò▼✹ ✬♥❞✫rst✯♥❞✐♥❣ ✐s ❤✫✷s r✫❢✬s✫❞ ✫①tr✯✺
❞✐t✐♦♥✭ s♦ ✶✫ s✫♥t ✯ ✶✯rr✯♥t t♦ t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r♥♦r✷s
♦❢❬❝✫✭Ó❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞ ♦❢ ❍✫❞✰✯♥✴
■❢ ■♥s❧✫✫ ❣r✯♥ts t❤✫ ✶✯rr✯♥t✭ ✐t ✶✐❧❧ ❣♦ t♦
✮r✫❣♦♥ ✲♦✳✴❑✯t✫ ✵r♦✶♥✭ ✶❤♦ ✯❧s♦ ✶✐❧❧ ✐ss✬✫
✯ ✶✯rr✯♥t✭ ❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞✴❚❤✫♥✭ ✯ ❤✫✯r✐♥❣ ✶✐❧❧
t✯✸✫ ♣❧✯❝✫ ✐♥ ✵✯✸✫r ❈♦✬♥t✹ t♦ ❞✫t✫r✰✐♥✫
✶❤✫t❤✫r t❤✫ ✶✯rr✯♥ts ✯r✫Ò♦❢❬❝✐✯❧✭Ó ✶✐t❤
t❤✫ ♣r♦♣✫r s✫✯❧✭✯♥❞ ❍✫❞✰✯♥ ✐s t❤✫ ♣✫rs♦♥
✯❣✯✐♥st ✶❤♦✰ t❤✫✹✷r✫ ✐ss✬✫❞✴ ❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞ t❤✫
♣r♦♣✫r ♣✯♣✫r✶♦r✸ ✰✬st ❜✫ ✐♥ ♦r❞✫r✭ ✶✐t❤
❍✫❞✰✯♥✷s ❬♥❣✫r♣r✐♥ts ✯♥❞ ♦t❤✫r ✐t✫✰s✭t♦
✫♥s✬r✫ ❤✫ ✐s t❤✫ s✯✰✫ ♣✫rs♦♥ ♦♥ t❤✫ ✶✯r✺
r✯♥ts✴❯✯❣❧✫ ✰✫♥t✐♦♥✫❞ ✐t ✶✯s ❤✯r❞✫r ✐♥ t❤✫
Ò♦❧❞ ❞✯✹s✭Ó✫s♣✫❝✐✯❧❧✹ ✐❢ t❤✫ ♣✫rs♦♥ ✶✯sÒ❏♦❤♥
❙✰✐t❤✴Ó
✵✬t ✯❢t✫r t❤✫ ❣♦✳✫r♥♦rs✷ ✯♣♣r♦✳✯❧✭t❤✫r✫✷s
♥♦t ✰✬❝❤ ❤✫ ❝✯♥ ❞♦✴
Ò❚❤✫ ♦♥❧✹ ✐ss✬✫ ✯t t❤✯t ♣♦✐♥t ✐s ❤✫ ❝♦✬❧❞
❬❧✫ ✯♥ ✯♣♣✫✯❧✭Ó❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞✴
■❢ ♥♦ ✯♣♣✫✯❧ ✐s s♦✬❣❤t✭ ❯✯❣❧✫ s✯✐❞✭ ❍✫❞✺
✰✯♥ ❧✐✸✫❧✹ ✶♦✬❧❞ ❜✫ ✫①tr✯❞✐t✫❞ ✶✐t❤✐♥ ❊❄
❞✯✹s✭ ❜✬t ❤✫ ✶✯s ✬♥s✬r✫ ✶❤✫r✫ ❍✫❞✰✯♥
st♦♦❞ ✐♥ ✵✯✸✫r ❈♦✬♥t✹✷s ♣r♦❝✫✫❞✐♥❣s✴
❍♦✶✫✳✫r✭t❤✫ ❘✯st ✮r✫❣♦♥✐✯♥ r✫♣♦rt✫❞✭
Ò✐❢ t❤✫ ✫①tr✯❞✐t✐♦♥ ♣r♦❝✫ss ✐s st✐❧❧ ♣✫♥❞✐♥❣
✶❤✫♥ ❍✫❞✰✯♥ ✐s s❝❤✫❞✬❧✫❞ t♦ ❣♦ t♦ tr✐✯❧ ✐♥
✵✯✸✫r ❈✐t✹✭ ✐t✷s ♣♦ss✐❜❧✫ t❤✫ tr✐✯❧ t❤✫r✫ ❝♦✬❧❞
❤✯♣♣✫♥ ❜✫❢♦r✫ ❍✫❞✰✯♥ r✫t✬r♥s t♦ ✼✯s❤✐♥❣✺
t♦♥✭ ❺✵✯✸✫r ❈♦✬♥t✹ ❀✐str✐❝t ✪tt♦r♥✫✹ ▼✯tt❻
❙❤✐rt❝❧✐❢❢ s✯✐❞✴Ó
✪ ❤✫✯r✐♥❣ t♦ s✫t ✯ tr✐✯❧ ❞✯t✫ ✐s s❝❤✫❞✬❧✫❞
❢♦r t❤✐s ✶✫✫✸✭✯❝❝♦r❞✐♥❣ t♦ t❤✫ ❘✯st ✮r✫❣♦✺
♥✐✯♥✭ ✯s ❍✫❞✰✯♥ ❤✯s♥✷t ✶✯✐✳✫❞ ❤✐s r✐❣❤t t♦
✯ s♣✫✫❞✹ tr✐✯❧✴
❍✫❞✰✯♥ ✯❞✰✐tt✫❞ t♦ ♣♦❧✐❝✫ ❤✫ str✬❝✸
❑✹❧✫ ❏✴ ▼✯rt③✭ ❂❭✭ ✶✐t❤ ✯♥ ✯① ✰✬❧t✐♣❧✫ t✐✰✫s
❜✫❢♦r✫ st✫✯❧✐♥❣ ❤✐s ❝✯r ✯♥❞ ❪✫✫✐♥❣ t♦ ✮r✫❣♦♥✭
✶❤✫r✫ ❤✫ ✶✯s ✯rr✫st✫❞ ♥✫✯r ✵✯✸✫r ❈✐t✹
✯❢t✫r tr✹✐♥❣ t♦ ✫❧✬❞✫ ♣♦❧✐❝✫ t❤✫ s✯✰✫ ❞✯✹✴