ful practice. Further than this, when the results of properly incorporating this crop residua in the soil begin to show in future crops, there will be u strong additional incentive to save all the straw and to burn none o f it. There is not a wide margin o f p ro f it in the production o f grain ami var ious other straw-forming plunts and because o f this, farmers having that type of crop must be particularly careful to waste nothing in connection with it, and must adopt every means at hand to cheapen the cost of pro duction by getting larger yields fo r less work. One o f the best ways o f accomplishing this result is by re turning all crop residues to the lields in oredr to enrich them and to keep them mellow. Some people think the straw can not be utilized on the farm. However, there are two methods by which it may be satisfactorily used. f irst, on stock farms or on farms having a considerable number o f work animals, a large part o f the straw may be utilized fo r feed and for bed ding. This is the ideal method o f sav ing straw and returning it to the soil. It serves a useful purpose in the maintenance and comfort o f the ani mals, it absorbs liquid manure and assists in its preservation, and the straw is usually at least partially rotted before it is scattered on the Held. In the rotted or semi-rotted condition, it is more readily assimi lated, is more easily plowed under and better machinery is available for its distribution; but, there are numerous farms, having little or no live stock to feed around straw stacks in winter or to make use o f straw as bedding or feed in barns and it is on such places that the practice of burning the straw or of selling it has become estab lished. Where this condition prevails, the straw should be spread on the land fresh from the stack, in many cases, it may be hauled directly from the stack us soon as threshing is over and scattered by hand methods at from two to four tons per acre. Var ious types o f straw distributers are being offered on the market but on many small farms there is not enough straw to justify the purchase o f one o f these machines. The following points should be borne in mind with reference to the application of straw to the soil. Un applications are usually better after the first crop has been taken otf. The effect o f straw on the land is to en rich it to a considerable extent in plant food and on the heavy soils it has a very distinct mellowing effect that makes them easier to work and more productive o f crops. It also im proves their moisture holding ca pacity. Many farmers think that the ap plication o f the straw to the soil is too expensive, that it is a difficult op eration and that the results are not likely to pay. However, even wheat straw worth $2.84 per ton for plant food and probably fully as much for organic matter, is valuable enough to distribute, disk in and plow under. Other straws are considerably more valuable and of course can be very- well made use of. One very good method to avoid an excessive amount of distribution and thereby cheapen the operation to a considerable extent, is to cut the grain high and leave a high stubble. In this way, there is not so much straw to put through the threshing machine and the stubble is very uniformily distributed over the soil. The stubble and any additional material that may be added should be gone over with a good, sharp disk harrow and thorough ly worked in. I f this is plowed under in the early fall, it may be seeded to fall cereal or vetch and oats or var ious other fall-sown crops without in jury a few weeks after the rainy sea son sets in. I f the straw is to be applied to lands devoted to spring-sown crops, it is preferable to apply in the fall, disk in and plow under, then finish the preparation of the seed bed anil sow the seed in the spring. The precaution o f uniform distribu tion, thorough disking, good deep plowing and a reasonable interval while the soil is moist, between plow ing under and seeding, will give a sufficiently good incorporation of the material into the soil and sufficient time for the most rapid decomposition to take place that any further changes are not at all likely to work any in jury. In most cases, they are likely to show some beneficial results but even in case they do not appear the first year, the second and succeeding T. ikh I type o f plow lor imboildins straw in soil. der dry-farming conditions, one to two tons per acre is sufficient; under hu mid conditions, two to four tons, or in some cases, even more, may be ap plied. In all cases, the straw should lie applied as long as possible before the seeding o f the succeeding crop in order that there be every opportunity for it to decay so that decay will not be going on at too great iin extent during the rapid growing period o f the crop. The straw should be ap plied uniformity, it should be thoroughly disked into the surface soil with a sharp disk harrow and then plowed under to a good depth. This gets the straw mixed with the surface soil so that it is not found in heavy bunches that are likely to cause a burning out o f the next crop, but rather, the straw is thoroughly dis tributed where it can be most efficient in benefiting the soil and there is no excessive drying-out o f the surface soil because o f the presence o f the straw. Owing to the fact that the straw is rather hard and woody, its decay is a little slow and results from straw years are almost sure to show better yields. Some object to applications of straw because o f the weed seed con tained. In such case, it is always preferable to use the straw with live stock and thoroughly rot the manure before applying it but in case this cannot be done the thresher may, in many cases, be so adjusted that the bulk o f the weed seeds may be kept out of the stack. In case this is not possible, if the straw is shaken out somewhat while being loaded, the weed seeds will remain at the stack and this fine, chaffy residue which con tains the seeds may be thoroughly rotted before applying to the soil. In this way, all o f the beneficial results are secured without serious introduc tion o f weed pests. With four to four and one-half million dollars worth of straw and stubble in the aggregate or with an acre value for the straw of from one to two or more dollars, we cannot afford to sell it at ordinary prices and under no condition can we ufford to burn it. PROTECTING KALE FROM CABBAGE GRUB Preventives, Repel Ian Is and Remedies May Ail Be Required CL L IT R A L M E T 11 O 1) S 1IE1.1' Suggest Protection by l sc of Tarred raper Disks Applied on t ninlectcd Plants. Oregon kale growers in some parts o f the state are moie seriously troubled with the lavages ,>i their crops by the cabbage anil radish mt g- gots this fall than ever before, and are asking how to control tne pest. Effective control begins with cleaning up remnants of the proceeding crop and must ue followed up uy pro tective and remedial measures us need arises. "Gather and destroy all waste roots and refuse as soon as the old crop is removed," says Professor A. L. Lovett, assistant entomologist o f the Agricul tural College. “ Plow the land to a depth o f four inches or more, and destroy as far as possible all wild mustard and similar weeds about the field. "Rotate the crops so that plants o f the cruciferae fam ily of which the kale is a member, occupy the soil but a single season. The Hies are weak fliers and do not usually travel far. The use o f quick acting fertilizers and frequent surface cultivation is decid edly beneficial.” Screening the seed beds in which the young plants are started is high ly recommended. Infestation often occurs soon after the seedlings push their way through the ground, and even though the eggs then deposited do not hatch before the plants are set in the field they are likely to hatch soon afterward and at once be gin feeding on the young stems. The frames are made o f 12-inch boards with wires running across the top to keep the cover from sagging, and the tops then covered with coarse cheese cloth, 20 threads to the inch. The frame is taken down a short time be fore the plants are transplanted to permit them to harden. In some cases it has been found profitable to pull up the infested plants, remove eggs and maggots by hand picking, and reset. When the plunts are entirely free from the pests they may be protect ed by putting tarred paper disks about them. This keeps the flies that lay the cabbage maggot eggs from de positing the eggs against the stem, or near enough to it fo r the young grubs to reach it before they starve. Pro fessor Lovett says that the young larvae do not travel far, "considerable less than an inch and a half,” before reaching food. Hence if tne disks prevent the fly from laying the eggs within a radius o f an inch and a half from the stem the young grubs will die. These disks may be bought from garden supply houses and easily and quickly applied. A fte r that, the growers may feel pretty certain that the plants will be protected until too far advanced for material damage to be inflicted. Success with the disks depends on getting them on plants un invested either by egg or larvae, and having them fit snugly enough around the stems to prevent the fly from dropping eggs near them. I f it is desired, tarred paper, single fold, may be bought and the disks made from it. The paper is cheap, but there is some labor in preparing the disks. Some growers cut them into two or three inch squares— the writer prefers the three-inch size— then cut across the center from one side nearly but not quite to the op posite side, and finish by slitting the center at right angles to the first cut. The writer has found it a great help to drive a heavy spike down through the center before slitting the disk. This action turns down the paper at the center and forms a flexible flap that fits snugly against the stems. The disks may be made with a tool recommended by the U. S. Bureau o f Entomology. The blade, (fig. A .), is made o f a band o f steel bent into a half hexagon with an acute angle reaching nearly to the center. A smaller part making a star-shaped cross at the center o f the disk, (fig. b) is attached to the handle. One edge o f the paper is cut into notches, (fig. c.) and then beginning at the left the disks are cut as in the illustra tion. The disks are about 2>, inches in diameter. They should be well pressed down around the plant and kept fle e o f dirt on top. Sulphur applied in the drill row with the seed is recommended by some Hig. A —a Tarred felt card in outline, one-third szie; b tool for cutting cards, about one-sixth size-; c showing how discs are tut, dotted lines show position o f tool. ( A lter Gofl.) growers. Three pints milk of lime and one tablespoonful crude carbolic acid mixed with one gallon o f water and sprinkled with a garden sprink ler about the plants, is another pre ventive o f some value. One pint of kerosene to three gallons o f sand, mixed and applied near the plants, is a repellant. Powdered tobacco, or white hellebore with ten times quan tity of lime, placed about the plants every weeks, gives good results. A diluted emulsion o f 1 pint crude carbolic acid, 1 pound soap and 1 gal lon o f water, applied to plants when : lit in the field, is not only a good pre ventive but is useful in destroying larvae and eggs already on the plants. The soap is dissolved in the boiling water, anil the acid is added only a f ter the soap and water have been portant. The mixture is then agitated briskly until it is perfectly emulsified, taken from the fire. This is im- One part o f the mixture is used to fifty parts o f water. As much soil is drawn from the plant as can be removed without damage, anil about half a pint o f the mixture poured down along the stem. The operation must be repeated every eight or ten days while the pest continues active. TWELFTH COW TESTING ASSOCIATION FORMED Oregon Agricultural College, Cor vallis, Sept. 13.— The work o f forming cow testing associations is advancing rapidly among the progressive dairy men o f Oregon. The twelfth of these associations was formed recently by W. A. Barr, O. A. C. and Federal Dairyman, in Yamhill county. The Yamhill County association is made up of breeders of pure bred and also grade stock. A large number o f breeders are interested in the move ment and the association starts off un der promising conditions. The results of the associated movement is expect- i 1 to be the selection and use o f better dairy cows and dairy sires for breed Ing and to detect and eliminata the un rofit: ble cows from the dairy -i o ducing herd. The officers o f the new association a e F. E. Lynn, o f Perrvdale, presi dent: II. W. Jones, o f Am ity, vice 'resident; and VV. A. Forrest, o f Me Minnville secretary-treasurer. Op erations will be begun about the mid dle o f the present month.