Estacada progress. (Estacada, Or.) 1908-1916, September 16, 1915, Image 10

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    ful practice. Further than this, when
the results of properly incorporating
this crop residua in the soil begin to
show in future crops, there will be
u strong additional incentive to save
all the straw and to burn none o f it.
There is not a wide margin o f p ro f­
it in the production o f grain ami var­
ious other straw-forming plunts and
because o f this, farmers having that
type of crop must be particularly
careful to waste nothing in connection
with it, and must adopt every means
at hand to cheapen the cost of pro­
duction by getting larger yields fo r
less work. One o f the best ways o f
accomplishing this result is by re­
turning all crop residues to the lields
in oredr to enrich them and to keep
them mellow.
Some people think the straw can­
not be utilized on the farm. However,
there are two methods by which it
may be satisfactorily used.
f irst, on stock farms or on farms
having a considerable number o f work
animals, a large part o f the straw
may be utilized fo r feed and for bed­
ding. This is the ideal method o f sav­
ing straw and returning it to the soil.
It serves a useful purpose in the
maintenance and comfort o f the ani­
mals, it absorbs liquid manure and
assists in its preservation, and the
straw is usually at least partially
rotted before it is scattered on the
In the rotted or semi-rotted
condition, it is more readily assimi­
lated, is more easily plowed under and
better machinery is available for its
distribution; but, there are numerous
farms, having little or no live stock
to feed around straw stacks in winter
or to make use o f straw as bedding or
feed in barns and it is on such places
that the practice of burning the straw
or of selling it has become estab­
lished. Where this condition prevails,
the straw should be spread on the land
fresh from the stack, in many cases,
it may be hauled directly from the
stack us soon as threshing is over
and scattered by hand methods at
from two to four tons per acre. Var­
ious types o f straw distributers are
being offered on the market but on
many small farms there is not enough
straw to justify the purchase o f one
o f these machines.
The following
should be
borne in mind with reference to the
application of straw to the soil. Un­
applications are usually better after
the first crop has been taken otf. The
effect o f straw on the land is to en­
rich it to a considerable extent in
plant food and on the heavy soils it
has a very distinct mellowing effect
that makes them easier to work and
more productive o f crops. It also im­
proves their moisture
holding ca­
Many farmers think that the ap­
plication o f the straw to the soil is
too expensive, that it is a difficult op­
eration and that the results are not
likely to pay. However, even wheat
straw worth $2.84 per ton for plant
food and probably fully as much for
organic matter, is valuable enough to
distribute, disk in and plow under.
Other straws are considerably more
valuable and of course can be very-
well made use of.
One very good method to avoid an
excessive amount of distribution and
thereby cheapen the operation to a
considerable extent, is to cut the grain
high and leave a high stubble. In this
way, there is not so much straw to
put through the threshing machine
and the stubble is very uniformily
distributed over the soil. The stubble
and any additional material that may
be added should be gone over with a
good, sharp disk harrow and thorough­
ly worked in. I f this is plowed under
in the early fall, it may be seeded to
fall cereal or vetch and oats or var­
ious other fall-sown crops without in­
jury a few weeks after the rainy sea­
son sets in.
I f the straw is to be applied to lands
devoted to spring-sown crops, it is
preferable to apply in the fall, disk
in and plow under, then finish the
preparation of the seed bed anil sow
the seed in the spring.
The precaution o f uniform distribu­
tion, thorough disking,
good deep
plowing and a reasonable
while the soil is moist, between plow­
ing under and seeding, will give a
sufficiently good incorporation of the
material into the soil and sufficient
time for the most rapid decomposition
to take place that any further changes
are not at all likely to work any in­
jury. In most cases, they are likely
to show some beneficial results but
even in case they do not appear the
first year, the second and succeeding
T. ikh I type o f plow lor imboildins straw in soil.
der dry-farming conditions, one to two
tons per acre is sufficient; under hu­
mid conditions, two to four tons, or
in some cases, even more, may be ap­
plied. In all cases, the straw should
lie applied as long as possible before
the seeding o f the succeeding crop in
order that there be every opportunity
for it to decay so that decay will not
be going on at too great iin extent
during the rapid growing period o f
the crop. The straw should be ap­
plied uniformity,
should be
thoroughly disked into the surface soil
with a sharp disk harrow and then
plowed under to a good depth. This
gets the straw mixed with the surface
soil so that it is not found in heavy
bunches that are likely to cause a
burning out o f the next crop, but
rather, the straw is thoroughly dis­
tributed where it can be most efficient
in benefiting the soil and there is no
excessive drying-out o f the surface
soil because o f the presence o f the
Owing to the fact that the straw is
rather hard and woody, its decay is
a little slow and results from straw
years are almost sure to show better
Some object to applications of
straw because o f the weed seed con­
In such case, it is always
preferable to use the straw with live
stock and thoroughly rot the manure
before applying it but in case this
cannot be done the thresher may, in
many cases, be so adjusted that the
bulk o f the weed seeds may be kept
out of the stack. In case this is not
possible, if the straw is shaken out
somewhat while being
loaded, the
weed seeds will remain at the stack
and this fine, chaffy residue which con­
tains the seeds may be thoroughly
rotted before applying to the soil. In
this way, all o f the beneficial results
are secured without serious introduc­
tion o f weed pests. With four to four
and one-half million dollars worth of
straw and stubble in the aggregate
or with an acre value for the straw of
from one to two or more dollars, we
cannot afford to sell it at ordinary
prices and under no condition can we
ufford to burn it.
Preventives, Repel Ian Is and
Remedies May Ail Be
M E T 11 O 1) S
Suggest Protection by l sc of Tarred
raper Disks Applied on t ninlectcd
Oregon kale growers in some parts
o f the state
are moie
troubled with the lavages ,>i their
crops by the cabbage anil radish mt g-
gots this fall than ever before, and
are asking how to control tne pest.
Effective control begins with cleaning
up remnants of the proceeding crop
and must ue followed up uy pro­
tective and remedial measures us
need arises.
"Gather and destroy all waste roots
and refuse as soon as the old crop is
removed," says Professor A. L. Lovett,
assistant entomologist o f the Agricul­
tural College. “ Plow the land to a
depth o f four inches or more, and
destroy as far as possible all wild
mustard and similar weeds about the
"Rotate the crops so that plants
o f the cruciferae fam ily of which the
kale is a member, occupy the soil but
a single season. The Hies are weak
fliers and do not usually travel far.
The use o f quick acting fertilizers and
frequent surface cultivation is decid­
edly beneficial.”
Screening the seed beds in which
the young plants are started is high­
ly recommended.
Infestation often
occurs soon after the seedlings push
their way through the ground, and
even though the eggs then deposited
do not hatch before the plants are
set in the field they are likely to
hatch soon afterward and at once be­
gin feeding on the young stems. The
frames are made o f 12-inch boards
with wires running across the top to
keep the cover from sagging, and the
tops then covered with coarse cheese
cloth, 20 threads to the inch. The
frame is taken down a short time be­
fore the plants are transplanted to
permit them to harden.
In some cases it has been found
profitable to pull up the infested
plants, remove eggs and maggots by
hand picking, and reset.
When the plunts are entirely free
from the pests they may be protect­
ed by putting tarred paper disks about
them. This keeps the flies that lay
the cabbage maggot eggs from de­
positing the eggs against the stem, or
near enough to it fo r the young grubs
to reach it before they starve. Pro­
fessor Lovett says that the young
larvae do not travel far, "considerable
less than an inch and a half,” before
reaching food.
Hence if tne disks
prevent the fly from laying the eggs
within a radius o f an inch and a half
from the stem the young grubs will
These disks may be bought from
garden supply houses and easily and
quickly applied.
A fte r that, the
growers may feel pretty certain that
the plants will be protected until too
far advanced for material damage to
be inflicted. Success with the disks
depends on getting them on plants un­
invested either by egg or larvae, and
having them fit snugly enough around
the stems to prevent the fly from
dropping eggs near them.
I f it is desired, tarred paper, single
fold, may be bought and the disks
made from it. The paper is cheap,
but there is some labor in preparing
the disks. Some growers cut them
into two or three inch squares— the
writer prefers the three-inch size—
then cut across the center from one
side nearly but not quite to the op­
posite side, and finish by slitting the
center at right angles to the first cut.
The writer has found it a great help
to drive a heavy spike down through
the center before slitting the disk.
This action turns down the paper at
the center and forms a flexible flap
that fits snugly against the stems.
The disks may be made with a tool
recommended by the U. S. Bureau
o f Entomology. The blade, (fig. A .),
is made o f a band o f steel bent into
a half hexagon with an acute angle
reaching nearly
to the center.
smaller part making a star-shaped
cross at the center o f the disk, (fig.
b) is attached to the handle. One
edge o f the paper is cut into notches,
(fig. c.) and then beginning at the
left the disks are cut as in the illustra­
tion. The disks are about 2>, inches
in diameter.
They should be well
pressed down around the plant and
kept fle e o f dirt on top.
Sulphur applied in the drill row
with the seed is recommended by some
Hig. A —a Tarred felt card in outline, one-third
szie; b tool for cutting cards, about one-sixth
size-; c showing how discs are tut, dotted lines
show position o f tool. ( A lter Gofl.)
growers. Three pints milk of lime
and one tablespoonful crude carbolic
acid mixed with one gallon o f water
and sprinkled with a garden sprink­
ler about the plants, is another pre­
ventive o f some value. One pint of
kerosene to three gallons o f sand,
mixed and applied near the plants, is
a repellant.
Powdered tobacco, or
white hellebore with ten times quan­
tity of lime, placed about the plants
every weeks, gives good results.
A diluted emulsion o f 1 pint crude
carbolic acid, 1 pound soap and 1 gal­
lon o f water, applied to plants when
: lit in the field, is not only a good pre­
ventive but is useful in destroying
larvae and eggs already on the plants.
The soap is dissolved in the boiling
water, anil the acid is added only a f ­
ter the soap and water have been
portant. The mixture is then agitated
briskly until it is perfectly emulsified,
taken from the fire.
This is im-
One part o f the mixture is used to
fifty parts o f water. As much soil
is drawn from the plant as can be
removed without damage, anil about
half a pint o f the mixture poured
down along the stem. The operation
must be repeated every eight or ten
days while the pest continues active.
Oregon Agricultural College, Cor­
vallis, Sept. 13.— The work o f forming
cow testing associations is advancing
rapidly among the progressive dairy­
men o f Oregon. The twelfth of these
associations was formed recently by
W. A. Barr, O. A. C. and Federal
Dairyman, in Yamhill county.
The Yamhill County association is
made up of breeders of pure bred
and also grade stock. A large number
o f breeders are interested in the move­
ment and the association starts off un­
der promising conditions. The results
of the associated movement is expect-
i 1 to be the selection and use o f better
dairy cows and dairy sires for breed
Ing and to detect and eliminata the
un rofit: ble cows from the dairy -i o
ducing herd.
The officers o f the new association
a e F. E. Lynn, o f Perrvdale, presi­
dent: II. W. Jones, o f Am ity, vice
'resident; and VV. A. Forrest, o f Me
Minnville secretary-treasurer.
erations will be begun about the mid­
dle o f the present month.