EUROPE FAGES DIRE FOOD AND FUEL SHORTAGE in- Inadequate Supply of Heat Ex pected to Cause Much Suffering. HOW THE ENEMY STANDS People Have Lew to Eat Thli Winter Than Latt, la Belief Two Fodder Discoveries Disaffection In Austria. . London. Europe is going to lead the simple life this winter and for a long time thereafter. There Is not a country that does not now realize the real (lunger of extreme food shortage. But food shortage Is not the only or In most cases the worst of the men aces. Tho nations face and realize as never before the exhaustion of all nec essary supplies. Although food will be scarce In all countries, whether bellig erent or neutral, It Is doubtful whether that will Impose as much hardship on people ns the shortage of fuel, writes Jiidson C. Wllllver in tho New York Sun. In Europe's climate food Is fuel to the body quite as much us It Is nour ishment. Sharply restricted supplies of food, and that of u doubtful qual ity and poor variety, might be endured If there were plenty of fuel. It is when tho supply of fuel, both outside and inside, fulls below tho necessities of physical effort that people begin to suffer. Europe bus neither carbon for its food nor carbon for Its fireplaces, and In some respects the northern neutrals are even worse off than the belliger ents. Rations of Important food nec essurlcs have been reduced by some of them even below the amounts allowed in Germany. .,. England Is by far the best LppHd country In tho matter of food, affd the authorities ure making desperate efforts to make the popula tion, realize that rationing will soon be compulsory unless food consump tion Is considerably reduced. The food authorities have announced a policy of accumulating sufficient reserve to feed the country for three months, even if no Imports shall be received during this time. Question of Shipping. In the case of England it Is entirely a question of shipping. Rig stocks of food have been gathered In Australia, Now Zealand, Canada and elsewhere, but there are no ships to bring them here. England Is probably better situ ated in the matter of coal supplies than any other country, but must di vide with Its allies, France and Italy, and so far as possible some of the neu trals hope to be taken care of from the English mines. The German food situation Is puz zling. Apparently the authorities are not nearly so conlhleut about it us they would like the public to believe. Thu year's harvest turned out more sat isfactory than seemed probable dur ing the period of droughts nnd hail storms In midsummer, but on the oth er hand reserves were heavily drawn upon before tho harvest of 1017 was gathered. Reserves, Indeed, may fair ly be said to have disappeared. The carefully cultivated olllehil un derstanding In Germany Is that there will lie a better food supply this win ter than last. Tho Mpeelllo statements justifying tlds expectation are highly .unsatisfactory. The Munich Medical union has declared that there will bo css food, except potatoes, this win ter than last. Throughout Germany Hiere Is apparently a pretty general belief that, this Is true, and wide spread demand Is voiced for an In crease In the allowance of potatoes, In Germany, as In England, the Im mediate result of the harvest was a great Increase In the marketing of po tatoes with the consequence that In many places there were not storage facilities to take care of them. The fear Is expressed that a not Inconsider able portion of the potato yield will be wasted, partly because of overconsump t it'll In the agricultural areas nnd part ly fi i Inadequacy of storage facili ties. So from many German authori ties comes the warning that despite a big yield of tubers the coming winter Is likely to see conditions quite as bud regarding them, and worse as to many other things than last winter. Ominous Suggestion, The ominous suggestion Is made by some .of the German food authorities that It will not do to be too free with potntoes, because later It will be neces sary to mix more potato Hour with ce nvul Hour to stretch the supply. Also as there was a short crop of fodder throughout the country potatoes are likely to be required to feed domestic animals. The fear of such nn event has caused widespread demand that more hogs be slaughtered that they may not require to be fed with potntoes that the peo ple will need. The number of hogs In the country has been Increasing this year, and tho fact gives concern be cause the pig ts an active competitor of a munition worker or anybody else In the mutter of food requirements. German authorities have determined that beyond providing a moderate meat ration the transmutation of vegetable Into animal food ts a dangerously wasteful process. So there Is an effort to Induce farmers and village dwell jera to restrict the number of hogs and cattle to the point where It will be Just possible to raise the absolutely necessary meat ration. The relation of the general economic breakdown to agriculture Is lndlcuted In both Englund and Germany by mat ters affecting the supply of agricultural machinery. In Germany there Is a most serious shortage of all kinds of agricultural tools and machines, be cause the old ones have worn out and there Is neither metal nor manufactur ing capacity to provide new ones. In England the complaint particular ly concerns the supply of motor plows. The government long ago promised that thousands of these would be fur nished In time to put a greatly In creased ttcreage In cereals under culti vation in 1018. Now when the fall plowing season Is on It develops thut want of shipping or other reasons have prevented the delivery of anything like an adequate number of these ma chines. A Dresden physician who Is quoted as an authority, has recently dis cussed the German food situation ns regards the requirements nnd supplies of various classes of consumers. He finds that children up to eight years of age are receiving a reason ably satisfactory ration, but the amount ullowed to those from eight to eighteen is utterly Insufficient and that the shortage seriously threatens the physical vitality of the next genera tion. Some of the German jurisdictions have recently announced that newly married couples will be granted n PRINCESS JEANNE Little Princess Jeanne, youngest member of the Italian royal family, photographed while on a visit to wounded soldiers recently, returned from the Italian battlefront. The princess is one of the most popular members of (he king's family, espe cially with the Italian public. She Is Idolized by tho soldiery. double food allowance for the first six weeks of their married life! Else where provision has been made to double the food allowances of nursing and expectant mothers. The effort to find fodder for animals has started the professors on many Investigations nnd Inquiries. Doctor Degen, director of the seed testing sta tion In Budapest, claims to have dis covered two valuable articles of fod der. He writes: "The searush (Bolbosehaenus marl tlmus) was known, as regards tho part above ground, ns a fodder equal In value to straw. Recent experiments have, however, shown that the tubers growing on the roots underground nre far more valuable. They come very near to the horse chestnut In the amount of raw protein, raw fat and starch contents, w ithout the bitterness. If they nre used for the manufacture of spirits the wash, either wet or dried, can also be used for fodder, ."The pond bullrush (Schaenoplec tus lacnstrls) also contains n valu able underground organ. The horizon tal roots, containing a great quantity of starch, form ft good concentrated fodder. If used In distilleries the wash Is not so valuable as that from the searush. But In a time of need It Is a raw material that can be used for various purposes." Milk famine confronts all Europe. The situation has long been bad, and grows steadily worse everywhere. There Is constant and Increasing con flict between the various state and mu nicipal authorities dealing with the i food question throughout Germany. In this regard the German situation Is much more complicated and difficult to handle than the English. The state and municipal govern ments In Germany nre very jenlous of their authority In ihelr respective ju risdictions, and the federal authorities A. 4Tf V-i dare not or cannot Impose universal regulations upon them. In Saxony ar rangements have been made to reim burse farmers who would Import from other states cows and heifers In calf. Farmers making such purchases will receive a premium of 20 per cent of thi price paid, not to exceed 300 marks. This arrangement has caused violent compluint because the prices of butter and milk nre olready fear fully high and the consumers complain that the farmers are muklng Immense profits from producing them. . From Frankfurt comes the report that at present milk deliveries In that city amount to about one-sixth those of peace times. Receipts scarcely suf fice to take care of tho privileged cus tomers, Invalids, nursing and expect ant mothers, and so forth. A large share of what is actually obtained Is produced by the inunlclpul authorities from their municipal dairies and farms. It has been a very expensive method, yet the situation Is so bad that the town has decided to extend It still further. German speaking Austria has long been jeulous of the comparatively fa vorable food situation In Hungary, and recently the disaffection has become acute. It is charged that Hungary Is feeding herself bountifully and leaving the rest of the empire to shift as It can. For whatever Hungary Is will ing to send Into the German speaking regions outrageous prices ore charged, and the subject hns been discussed with painful frankness In the legisla tive bodies of both stntes. It was said that recently lard from Hungury had been sold In Austria at nearly eight times the price It would have cost In Hungary. The same gen eral sltuutlon prevails ns to many oth er Hungarian food supplies. The Hungarians complain with equal rancor that they are charged excessive prices for all manufactured articles produced in Austria. The two gov ernments have been trying to agree upon a general policy of leveling down tho prices of both. But at this point they are confronted by the same diffi culty which has been so many times experienced in Germany ; no system of price control will stretch Inadequate supplies to the point of adequacy. In Holland the state's control Is be ing extended to almost all food sup plies. There are Indications that the rationing system Is going to be estab lished before winter shall have far ad vanced. The use of fat and margarine by bakers and confectioners and by hotels, restaurants and clubs In pre paring food has been prohibited. The government has guaranteed prices for wheat, rye, oats, barley, etc. As to crops not avallnble for food the areas that may be planted have been strictly limited; In some cases to not more than 40 or B0 per cent of the plantings of normal years. A pre mium has been offered for Increased areas of land under the plow. The government Is going to requisition the entire crop of sugar beets, the factories will convert them Into sugar, and this will be turned over to the government at n fixed price for distribution. The price demanded of the public will not be Increased. Although Denmark Is, In proportion to area and population, one of the greatest agricultural producing nnd exporting countries In the world, It Is now confronted with shortage of al most everything. The country's but ter production has decreased alarming ly, and there Is a demand for ration ing. The government Is undertaking to subsidize the production of butter so ns to reduce prices ; that Is, to ap ply to butler practically the same rule that was applied to bread In England. The English government Is subsidizing bread to the extent of about $40,000, 000 n year, thus making It possible to sell the English loaf of war bread for four and one-half cents. In Norway the government and the local food authorities are working to perfect a rationing system In time to save the country from disaster this winter. At Chrlstlnnla a big scheme for storing reserves of food has been worked out and some 25 warehouses In various parts of the city ore being stocked. Under a law passed last May the government has establshed a mo nopoly of the Import of wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, pens and lentils and other grains nnd meal used for human food except rice and potatoes. Chance to Marry Free. 'V Lorain, O Mayor L. M. Moore of Lorain has been niayorlng two years, and has not yet performed a marriage ceremony. Now he wants to marry some couple before he becomes nn "ex" and before his powers as a matri monial splicer expire. "I have rend up on the require ments nnd believe I can do a good job," said the ninyor. "All that I need Is a couple. To the first Applying I will marry them free, and give the bride a present." JAPANESE BUILD 250 SHIPS A Y: AR Toklo. Japan Is able to build 250 ships a year, their tonnage totaling 1,000,000, according to n government stntement. The shipbuilding business of Japan has had an unprecedented growth since the beginning of the war, and on September 1 there were 118 shipbuilding slips owned by 42 firms, besides 24 slips which are building and will be ready before the end of the year. These facilities are more than three times ns great as at the beginning of the war. Each slip Is capable of turning out a ship of more than 1,000 tonnage in less than n year. WORLD HAPPENINGS CURRENT WEEK Brief Resume Most Important Daily News Items. COMPILED FOR YOU Brents ofCNotedJlPeopIe, Governments and Pacific Northwest and Other Things Worth Knowing. A successful daylight air raid has been made on Karlsruhe, according to a British official communication issued Monday night. Austria-Hnugary has officially recog nized the independence of Finland, ac cording to a dispatch received in Am sterdam from Vienna. The British food ministry announces that it intends to make compulsory the employment of a certain percentage of potatoes in breadmaking. This is for the purpose of saving cereal foods. Major Augustus P. Gardner, of Hamilton, Mass., died late Monday at the Camp Wheeler base hospital at Macon, Ga., after a short illness trom pneumonia. He was the first congress man to join the army after war was declared. President Wilson's address defining war aims of the United States has been published in full by the Berlin newspapers and by papers in other northern cities of Germany, according to reports made to the State depart ment from Copenhagen. Frederick L. Small, a former Boston broker, was hanged at the state prison at 12:18 o'clock Tuesday morning for the murder of his wife, Florence Ar leen Small, at their home in Ossipee, in September, 1916. The governor's council refuseda reprieve for Small. Formation of an athletic class com posed exclusively of mothers, sisters and sweethearts of men in the military service of the United States is an nounced by Stanley Dougan, athletic instructor at the Eureka, Cal., high school. This is said to be the first class of its kind in the United States. Ten army officers, including General Leocadio Parra, out of 45 arrested in connection with a plot to kill General Alfredo Novo, commander of the mili tary district in the state of Mexico, and Augustin Millan, governor of that state, were executed Monday at Tolu ca, the state capital, about 40 miles from Mexico City. Agents of the American steamship Texan, a vessel of 14,000 tons, re ceived advices Monday from naval au thorities that she was sinking at sea. The location of the ship was not given. The naval authorities did not state the cause of the Texan's distress, but re ports from other sources were that the vessel had been rammed amidships in collision with another ship. The dreadnaught Texas established the highest record for gunnery prac tice last year, the Navy department announces, and will receive the Knox trophy, awarded annually to battle ships scoring the highest nnmber of Doints. Cantain Victor Blue, who commanded the Texas, has been or dered to Boston to receive the trophy from the Sons of the American Revo lution. Warning of the possibility of a final breach in the Russo-German negotia tions is the outstanding feature of , the current news from Petrograd Monday. In the meantime according to the cor respondent of the London Daily Mail in the Russian capital, the armistice has been extended until February 18. The Russian delegation returned to Petrograd, but the peace negotiations will be resumed after an interval at Warsaw. Ratification of the Federal prohibi tion amendment was recommended to the Virginia legislature Friday by Governor Stuart in his message deliv ered at the biennial session. The British admiralty reports the sinking in the past week of 18 mer chantmen of 1600 tons or over by mine or submarine, as well as three mer chantmen under that tonnage. A record-breaking drouth for Tucson and Southern Ariz., was broken Thurs day when rain began falling. This is the first rainfall since September 10 and cattle ranges have been badly burned. Lignite mines in the northwestern section of North Dakota were offered to the govenrment during the period of the war at a meeting of operators rep resenting mines having a total output of 5000 tons per day. Government supervision of prices of wool and cotton was sanctioned by the National Retail Clothiers' association at a conference with representatives of the efficiency committee of the Na tional Council of Defense in Chicago. Western railroads have issued orders for a general resumption of solicita tion of passenger and freight business. Executives of the road are now in a position to handle more business, that there is no pooling and, therefore, no reason why each road Bhould not ge aneaa ana ootain as much business as TEUTON SPY CAUGHT Accomplice of Bcrnstorff and Boy-ed Taken at Aviation Camp-Docu-mcntary Evidence Secured. Norfolk. Va. Naval intelligence officers left here Monday night for Baltimore with Walter Spoerman, sus pected of being an active figure in plots launched by Captain Boy-ed, the former German miiuary muwuc, ' believed to have been a captain in me German army. According to the story unomciauy the man was arrested Satur day while in the act of attempting to blow up a magazine in tne unnnisneu armv aviation field under construction near Newport News. The prisoner will be turnea over w officers of the department of Justice at Baltimore for a hearing. So far the only charge formally lodged against him is understood to be that he is a dangerous enemy alien. Documents found in his possession, however, are declared to reveal his connection with Boy-ed ana lormer German Ambassador BernstorfF, and to incriminate in a spy plot persons in Washintgon, Baltimore and other cities. Details of the contents of the documents are withheld, but it is un derstood that they will lead to a num ber of arrests within a few days. Spoermann's activities are said to have attracted the attention of naval intelligence officers many weeks ago, but hiB arrest was deferred until addi tional evidence could be gatherecf. Officers followed him night and day, however, the quest leading through several cities, and even toat least two army camps. Frequently, according to the story, the prisoner posed as an officer of the United States army. Finally he visited the great army and navy base on Hampton Roads. Before that a young naval agent, pos-tno- ns n fripnH nf Germanv. had made himself acquainted with Spoermann. The officer followed his man closely in Newport News and finally to the aviation field, four miles north of this city, where the arrest was made. ENGLAND NEEDS MORE MEN Sir Auckland Geddes Asks for 420,000 Britons to Carry On War. London Nearly half a million men from Great Britain alone are to be re cruited into the British army at the earliest date possible, and it is prob able that many more will be added to that number in the coming month. These will comprise the younger men, who up to the present have been exempt because of their employment in industries essential to the war services. This announcement was made in the house of commons Monday by Sir Auckland Geddes, minister of national service, whose statement of the gov ernment's man-power proposals are re plete with interesting details of Great Britain's strength in the struggle, into which she means to throw her full re sources. The minister set forth the status and needs of the British fighting and mu nitioning forces and measures the gov ernment is taking after agreement with most of the labor leaders for re cruiting from the classes of skilled workers, who were promised exemp tion when conscription was adopted. The empire has enrolled 7,500,000 fighting and labor battalion forces dur ing the war, according to the state ment of the minister, and now has more than 4,000,000 enrolled, but needs more men to hold its own againBt the enemy until the American strength is available. He praised the spirit in which the labor leaders have met the govern ment, but regretted that the Amal gamated Society of Engineers had re mained outside the conference, adding, however, that the institution was still open to the members of this societv. He paid warm tribute to the work of the women and declared that some of the young men among the million ex empted workers apparently considered themselves a privileged class and threatened to hold up by strikes the building of airplanes and ships. Prison for Emma Goldman. Washington, D. C Conviction of Emma Goldman and Alexander Berk man on charges of conspiring to pre vent operation of the selective service act bv ureine men of draft tn register, was Tuesday sustained by the supreme court. Conviction of Louis Kramer and Morris Becker on charges of conspiring to prevent persons of draft age from registering, were also affirmed. Kramer was sentenced to two years' imprisonment and a $10,000 fine and Becker, to 20 months' im prisonment. Fewer Deaths Reported. Tacoma, Wash. Health conditions at Camp Lewis improved considerably in the last week, according to the re port issued by Lieutenant-Colonel P. C. Field, division surgeon. There were five deaths, including one from scarlet fever, one from pneumonia and one from meningitis. The cases of communicable diseases total 146 among 31,800 men. Ger man measles and scarlet fever showed a marked decrease. British Losses 24,979. London British casualties reported during the week ending Monday to taled 24,979 officers and men, divided as follows : Killed or died of wounds Officers 117; men, 5149. Wounded or missing-Officers, 304: men, 19,409. WASTE OF FOOD 10 BE TOPPED New Laws to Enforce Meatless and Wheatless Days. CAFES WILL BE HIT Rich and Poor to Be Treated Alike-Price-Fixing; to Have No Place in Proposed Regulations. Washington, D. C Bills to amend the food law so as to empower the food administration to compel observ ance of wheatless and meatless days, or any other measures it prescribes, were introduced Wednesday by Repre sentative Lever and Senator Pomerene, acting for the administration. Mr. Lever - explained the bills in the fol lowing statement: "The food situation the world over is acute and demands upon us are growing each day. With a disrupted labor situation, production approach ing its maximum, the vital question, therefore, is one of conservation of foodstuffs. "We must strike at the waste evil. The administration has undertaken to ' do this through voluntary agreements and has succeeded wonderfully well, but there is a percentage of recalci trants we have not been able to reach by appeals to their patriotism. We purpose to reach theBe under the bill which Senator Tomerene and I are introducing. "The bill is especially aimed at ho tels, restaurants, dining cars and pub lic eating places. "In such establishments, I Bhould think, probably 50 per cent of the food of the country is consumed, and it is in such places that we find the greatest waste. There should be power in the hands of the food administration to fix the portions of vital necessities that may be served to any one individual. "We hope also in this bill to see to it that all classes of people, rich and poor, are treated alike. It is not fair to the man on the street who cannot afford a steak at 60 cents, for the gor mandizing rich to waste enough on one meal to feed a whole family of poor. "This bill provides that the Presi dent is authorized to issue rules and regulations modifying, limiting or pro hibiting the sale, use, manufacture or distribution by any person conducting a public eating place or by any manu facturer, producer, carrier, distributor or other person of any foodstuff, feed or material necessary for the produc tion, manufacture or preservation of foodstuffs or feeds. "This bill is confined to foodstuffs, feeds and materials necessary for their production, manufacture and preserva tion. There is no idea of price fixing in it." DRAFT WILL CLAIM ALL AT 21 Registration to Follow Closely in Wake of Youth Reaching Jyiajority. Washington, D. C. The government has decided on draft registration of all young men as fast as they become 21 years old as the means of keeping filled the ranks of the war army. It has decided against raising the draft age limit above 31 years. An administration bill was intro duced Tuesday at the request of the War department, by Chairman Cham berlain, of the senate military commit tee, to register for draft all men who have reached 21 since June 5, 1917, when the draft law became effective. The administration's support seems to assure its prompt passage. The bill agrees with the recommendations of Provost Marshal-General Crowder. Other administration bills introduced by Chairman Chamberlain, at the re quest of the War department, will supplant the draft law to make it workable under conditions that have developed. One would permit furloughing of National army units for harvest work or other civilian duty. Another would eliminate enemy alien population from basis of calcula tions for draft quotas, by making the basis for each Btate, the number of men available in class one. War Foreseen by Navy. Washington, D. C Further testi mony about how the Navy prepared for war in advance of its declaration was given the house investigation com mittee Tuesday by Rear-Admiral Tay lor, chief of the Bureau of Construc tion and Repair, and Rear-Admiral Griffin, chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. They said they began contracting for adequate supplies a month before congress adopted the war resolution and that there is now on hand all material that may be need ed in repairing warships. Texan's Fate is Mystery. New York The fate of the American-Hawaiian steamship Texas, report ed in a wireless message Monday as sinking somewhere off the coast, re mained a sea mystery Wednesday. Officials of the company have received no further information about the ves sel, which is presumed to have been the victim of a collision. They were confident, however, the crew of 43 had been rescued by other vessels, which had proceeded on their voyage.