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About Bohemia nugget. (Cottage Grove, Or.) 1899-1907 | View Entire Issue (May 19, 1899)
"ME N QOTTi T IH liMur..7
1 8 life $bk
rrr nE practicability or Marconi's sys
Ttem of wireless telegraphy was dem
onstrated at Notre Dame University
bv Prof. Jerome J. Green of the depart
ment of electrical engineering. It did not
require elaborate mechanical devices to
put the new system to a practical test. The
f -- - t
Inventor of Wlrelesj Telegraphy.
material of the apparatus used was taken
entirely from the physical laboratory of
the university. A storage battery that is
common to any electrical workshop, a re
lay and key from the telegraph room, an
induction coil from the X-ray apparatus
nnd a coherer and choking coil made by
students under Prof.' Green's instruction
constituted the paraphernalia. These
were all that was needed to generate the
power, charge the vertical wire and pro
intn ether a volume of nmgnetli
waves that Hashed uugiildcd through
space with the velocity of a ray of light
and descended witu tueir message nuu iu
tick of the coherer.
A brief description of the apparatus
used in wireless telegraphy will aid to an
understanding of the principles involved
'Plioro Is n marked analogy between jinr
conl's system nnd the system of telegraphy
now In use that was Invented ly .uorse,
Kneli hns an instrument called the trans
mltter, so adjusted as to produce electric
nhnnnmena. and each has an instrument
called the receiver, to reproduce the
sounds. But while the Morse system Is
dependent on an electric current to con
duct the signals, the .Marconi system uses
the ether ns a conductor, nnd propagates
the signals by electric waves.
The transmitter consists of nn eight
Inch induction coil, which is operated by a
storage battery of twenty-live volts. From
one of the binding posts or me muueuon
'coil a wire runs to n galvanized iron ball
that is suspended from some object that
rises above surrounding buildings. Ground
wires comtilete the circuit. Electric ills
turbnnce is produced by forcing sparks
ncross the space Intervening between the
discharging knobs on the induction coil.
These knobs are adjusted nnd can be nr
ranged so as to produce a spark of varying
length, depending on the capacity of the
metal ball and vertical wire wnleli is at
tached to one terminal of the induction
The ranid-oscillatlng, high-frequency
(sometimes 200,000) between the knobs
on the induction coil affect the ether In
the vicinity of the vertical wire and metal
ball so that electric waves are propagated
in every direction. These electric waves
continue until they reach a ball and wire
similar to those connected with the induc
tion coil. This ball and wire intercepts
the waves, and conducts them to the re
ceiver. The receiver consists of an instru
ment, called the coherer, which is con
nected with n high-resistance relay, such
as may be seen in any telegraph oillce.
This relay actuates an ordinary telegraph
Prof. Green became interested In the
work nfter reading Marconi's paper read
before the Institute of hlectncal Engi
neers in London. When the successful
experiments were made in transmitting
messages across the English channel he
determined to make an experiment for his
A number of visiting college presidents
called at the laboratory during the experi
ment and witnessed the lirst working of
the system. Among them were President
Whitney and Vice-President Conway of
Georgetown University, Washington;
President O Ilara of Mount saint Mary s
College, Emmetsburg, Mil.; President
Lehy of Holy Cross College, Worcester,
Mass.; President Fox of Saint John's Col
lege, Fordham, X. Y., and the president
of the Ottawa University. Canada. lhl
trial was made between two rooms In Hci
euco hall and the Instantaneous click of
the coherer made known the success of
the experiment. . ,
The receiving station was then move to
machinery hall, a distance of '-HX feet. 11m
doors and windows of both buildings were,
closed nnd here It was seen that wnlli
were no barrier to these magnetic waves.
Whether the waves penetraie or go n round
a building Is not known. The next day
the coherer was removed to the various
buildings on the eauipu with success
equal to the lirst day's trial.
Prof. Green then suspended the vert I-
i ...i t .1... .1.. ..tn(T nil tlll Plimtlllrt.
cni wire iriiiu im- imh" i
i i. nr in-. r....t The Instrument!
.... ,-i,.K- ml listed and a trial 0
.... i . o. Mr.'j iiimiiIi'Iiiv. a mile B
WHS muiii.' ui ui. ' -. - - zhiz 'id
and a halt away. Here again the tappings tJ
t,.iv im when a single wall &H ' '
divided the sending ami reccniiig
meats. , . a!aa;
Iu the laboratory at St. Mary's ncademy jJSig
was an Induction coll that had been j7' '"
I..,,.. t,r fr.. inrl bv Itev. Provincial
Zahtn. This coll could be pressed Into ser
vice in establishing a sending station at
St. Mary's, nnd Prof. Green set his stu
dents nt work to lit up auother set of In
struments for that puriHjse. The Instru
ments used In transmitting the messages
require no more space than a sewing ma
chine, and those at the opposite end may
be carried In the hand. The storage bat
terv used iii the Notre Dame experiments
had a capacity of forty ampere hours.
The power was conducted to an eight-Inch
induction coil that transformed the low
ti.nsloii electricity of the battery to the
high tension oscillating current that prop
agated the waves, wnieii. discnargco rrotn
the vertical wire and metal sphere, travel
nt the rate of 1S0.0OO miles a second.
These waves reeinble in length the
nves of sound rather thau those of light.
A vertical wire and sphere receive the
impulses nnd convey them to the coherer.
This instrument is the essential one In the
ireless system. It consists of n glass
tube a few Inches in length, the ends of
hich are closed witli adjustable braxi
plugs. The space between these plugs is
filled with filings of sliver nun nickel,
'hich cohere when nueeted by the elec
trical wares. The cohesion of the parti-
i.i hi i i ' iii r k,n in ni i
fculurwS t-i 111 "-1 I I
An Aimtrinn uiiicm- u,,,.,
iicniruuiuiii in icrveru' i 'l
cunt Hi t.m Ce.i.ury (lf fiSmei
1... 1..l1 III.! III.) I. ""'t
" "" Mllllll
,.ii. . ii
the light at Knitting., ""ft
Hi) was In r iii I tuiir..,-m ,
limit display f cimiui, (., ,.., u'Ui
'""I P, I
cles reduws the resistance sumdently to
cause the relay to operate. The normal ri
slitnnco of the coherer Iu Prof. Green'i
trials was 10.000 ohnis; when nffected J
the iinpulses It was reduced to between
ten and lifiy ohms. The power of trans'
mission Is Increased fourfold by dotibllna
the height of the vertical wire. The wnvc
enn be concentrated In one direction, like
the rays of n searchlight. This Is effect
ed by means of u Klgt oscillator and a re
Some exirlmetits In the Marconi sys
tem of wireless telegraphy took place re
cently between Wlmereux, a village on the
French coast three miles north of Hull
liigne. and the South Foreland. A jh1
l."0 feet high was erected at Wlinereui
nnd the nectmsary Instruments were plac
ed In a small station. A pule of the same
height was erected hard by the South
Foreland lighthouwc and the Instrument
put In one of the rooms. The distance
from station to station In thirty miles.
The tests were conducted with I he assent
of the French Government, under the nt
(OIIK1IKK AND ItKI.AT
sonal supervision of Mr. Marconi. The
tests proved highly satisfactory. J hey
u'ri riiiiiliirted in the nresence of dele
gates from the Freueh war ntllce and the
French poslolllce, who espnuMM theiii
selves much gratified nt the excellent
working of the system.
THE LATE EX-SENATOR TABOR
Was Bred In Poverty, Acquired Mill
ions and Died Without a Cent.
The career of Horace A. W. Tabor,
the former Croesus of Colorado, who
died recently lu Denver of appyndlcitls,
"was characteristic of the frontier com
munities In which he lived. It '.llus-
were prospecting. These cobblers, Au
gust Ulchc and George F. Hook, dug
for ore on the top of a hill. Other min
ers laughed at their folly, but the cob
blers stuck to their picks, and after
digging twenty-six feet struck a vein
of carbonate ore of surpassing rich
ness. This was the Little Pittsburg
mine. Tabor made a million or more
from his Interest. The site of his store
became the center of Leadvllle and
Tabor grew Immensely wealthy. Ills
fortune was estimated at from ?0,000,-
000 to 9,000,000. Then he moved to
At that time Denver was a placid
town of 50,000 people. Tabor believed
In Its future. Near the city, "out on
the prairie," he built La Veta Place at
a cost of a million. This was his dwell
lng. Then In the city he built the Ta
bor Block and the Tabor Grand Opera
House at a cost of $2,000,000. His
high plateaus of the Itocky Mountains.
Though protesting, she obeyed her Hus
band and sued for divorce on tlie
ground of desertion. The decree was
granted. Pretty "Iiaby" Doe. of Lead
vllle. Immediately became Mrs. Tabor
No. 2. One ninbltlon was fulfilled.
The sent in the Semite next was au
talned. but for thirty days, to 1111 the
unexpired term of Henry M. Teller.
He failed of re-election. After his
thirty days In oillce In Washington his
fortunes begnn to wane. The need for
rendy money sent hlin to the lenders.
Mortgages were the result. Mines fail
ed. Ills buildings were not prolltable.
One by one the properties were sold.
Millions slid from hltn ns rapidly ns
they had como to him. Tabor became
Ho went out from Denver, lived in a
cabin near Ward, Houlder County; lo
cated n mine and tried to dig new for
that nt 08 years of nge Tnlwr might
huve adequate shelter and food,
A PLAY UPON WORDS.
no HACK A. W. TABOII.
trates the ups and downs of life in a
etrlklnc manner. He was a poor store-
keener, then a rich miner. He lived In
a cabin, then In a palnce. Ho sat 'n
the United States Senate, one of Its
wealthiest members, and last year was
eind to cet the salary of postmaster of
Denver upon which to eke out nn exist
Tabor was born In Vermont in 1830
and went to Kansas, where ho served
one term in the Legislature. After
fighting grasshoppers and drought for
some years he packed his wife and
some things to ent nnd some tools to
die with into a prairie schooner and
started to find gold. Sometimes ho
irent store in mlnlutr camps, selling
flour for $25 per 100 pounds nnd bacon
for 50 cents a ptfund. Again ho would
at fnrtnno In a nlacer claim, and then
6ot up a forgo nnd sharpen tools for the
From 1801 to 1878 lie led a inonoton
nna nristpnec. workine drearily and
profltlng little, With the proceeds of
tbo sale of his last yoko of oxen ho
opened a little store In a desolate Color
ado gulch, about 10,000 feet above sea
IovpI. In Anrll. 1878, ho supplied
'crub stakes" to two shoemakers who
SENATOR TABOR'S LAST HOME AND MINE.
building enthusiasm provoked a boom
Tabor was ambitious to bo a great
figure in his stato and In the country.
In fulfillment of his ambitions ho need
ed, or thought he needed, a. seat In the
United States Sennto and a fair young
wife. Ho got both. IIo paid $400,000
to tho faithful woman who had ridden
with him In tho pralrlo schooner nnd
had shared in tho privations of a pros
pectci's life and the cruel cold of tho
tunes out of tho ground. Success was
not so fnmlllar as it had been at Lead
vllle. For eight months ho dug nnd
found nothing and was forced to apply
to Millionaire Stratton, a former $3-a-day
enrpenter, who had struck it rich,
for a loan. Stratton advanced him $30,
000 and Tabor continued his mining. '
In the spring of 1898 President Mc
Klnlcy appointed him postmaster of
Dewer, tho city ho had built up. Tho
miners of Colorado were not displeased
Kxiicrlcnce of n Qmirtct nf Itniimlcr
on ii inn in n i-now.
It appears that one Idle lav tho frou.
the duck, the lamb unci tho skunk start-
etl rortli together to visit the show.
Just what sort of show It was, relntoH
tho Cleveland Plain Dealer, the citron.
Icier doesn't state. Anyway, It was
something that the iucorly nssorted
quartet was anxious to attend, mid
they hopped nnd waddled, and gam
boled, and trotted toward the big can
vas IncloHiiro with delightful throbs of
Finally they reached the door-tender,
tlie frog leaping the line.
Well, tho frog had a greenback and
passed right In.
Tho duck had a bill and followed tho
Tho lamb lind four (iiiarforH ninl fil.
lowed tho frog and duck.
But tho unfortunate skunk was left
on the outside. Ho had only a scent.
Nnturally ho turned away feeling
As ho was slowly going back over
tho hill ho met a hoop simko rolling
along nt a lively rate toward tho show.
Tho skunk greeted hltn. but the Hllll l.-ll
did not stop.
"Don't Interrupt me," ho cried, over
ills shoulder. "I've got to do a turn
nnd I'm n llttlo late."
And ho rolled along.
At the top of tho hill tho skunk no
tlccd another old frleud approaching.
It was tho sardine.
"Hullo!" cried tho sardine; "what's
So tho skunk told him.
"I can guess how you feel about It,"
said tho sardine, sympathetically. "I
belong to tho smelt family myself. But
say, old fellow, you como right back
with mo I've got a box."
And tho skunk and tho sardlno went
OmmdlHiis In tho House or Iorls
Cnnnda has three of her sons sitting
In tho House of Lords, viz., Baron Hal
Iburton, tho Earl of CarnwaUi and tho
Earl of Elgin.
When you have sympathy with nn
ug y person It Is a sign that you are
round us covered uiti, n,,, i
dust or imttli.. gnu,,,, ,l( .""II
men lining tin i sniui,, ...."'"M
imwfcd, their riuew Ntie,,uMi ,,,
(ler siiiolio nnd pomI iu.r v)l
i... i. ..i. i.. .. " r-u I
mo nil iiiu iiinigr, iilinllv, Ins,. I
IIOIIIC lll'WllllKl llll lil ,. ,..i . " ,JS
rnptnlii'H riNiiiPM for i.-imnJ
through our lilin U,iiiu,u iiUn "l
nit lYnm Sill ii 1 1 1.,... ... ... ar'''lrJ
llllull'ltlL' III llillt'i. ,1,,.. i
rtiier icicimiK lilin (., Uinti, J
s mid telling Id in I,, w,ui,j. 1
Mllllll (lUtlllll'll It. II ''I
iiHl.ed for news, ami i ,(1 (I 4
Ju.l mine out or a. II..H ,, , ,l
Hiniiiilrnti. lie slum. ,i ' f
mil xii I it :
"Then there Iiiih i . i, i,nl(cVl
"ji". i repneii.
"Anil Din I'imiilt -i" i , .
"W'll tifll'Jt ttl.fj.M I. ..I II
-mil wuere ih ivtuu', I
lie inquired. "1
"Ills Ihitfftlilp. ih.- M ,rin tw I
Iheie. Ileiileiiiitit." I iii.mv.ri,ji J
iiik. in nn' nil nn- nn
few miles distant.
"But I see nothing u-re tat
"It Is the siiioke of 1 1., TinnjM
UK. iii-iiii'iiHiii; sue ih u wrckfcl
II... ll I. "I
t .1 V? WV . .1.
He was silent, run! -,)ii111()j
"t?libM 111 llur .in il... i..,u.i.
' "i .ii II J j
see another culuiiui uf Hn..,e fj.
uie uiiieiiui iMirniiit,' nn ( ( vl
nearer iti us, is tin- rim. n f.UUi
im-nni'in, nun ini' i un.r Is u.-ifU
inn is on tne ihiit..n, i iiTi.rjtJ
Illlll IS lint VISHlle.'
nil... II I... ....
inn. in; iiiiermp'c 1, "y .ij
then iientroyiHl Imir i:...i (pkBlI-J
mjIs or Cervera s:
"yhii, ileiileiiiitit. i . nocne'j
l(M)K It few llllli'M fai't.r )t'l
waril. niii! you will aimt'.rrr- J
of smoke; that Is t.'i - i ..r3,cj
Im'hcIi near Awmi.i. rm a i
Colon, she In still fmt'.ir ;) t-,-:?
ward, out of sight fr .i, m icp
you will we Iier pri-Hi uii) ns y . -A
tnlu steers In that dini i.vu
inlral KnmtMou, who Is nt tl.at ttli
Ills eyes ranged along tu iLortui
(Kiluted out the illfTeriDt vcsjhIi.
"Meln Gott!" he ex.'I.HineiL T.l
you lutvu destroyed the whole of i-'j
splendid Hiiu.idrou! I did uot ti.Ut
After a moiueiit more of silent
Ishmeut. he wild, uiih a iwllie 'pi
liatliy which concealed cngir tM
"And your Injuries, captnln?
losses has the American siiu.idroo i-v
"None," I replied.
"But, cnptnln. you do not oaVrj
Htand; It Is what casuall.--!
ships lost or disabled that 1 ait'
"None, lieutenant." I said, 'TUb
dlaiia was struck twice. suffen-Jt'
Jury, no low. Tlie other sh!pjri
tually lu the same condition. Wen
all of us perfectly ready for an
battle as much so as berorc Certa
came nut this morning."
Ills nstonlshmeiit was now compln
"Meln Gott!" lie exclaimed
"Admiral Knmnson'H fleet hamleitPJM
these great Spanish ships, and wit1
Injury to his own siiundron! Sir, Iti
unheard of. I must go to Inform H
nr .1 llnrtn'H liiivo for IiUIUffi
Bret Harto works away nuletljll
London, mid seems to like tlie tfi
altliotigli the cllnmto can nnnm '"i
fiiiiiiinrlsoii with that of CalIfora
Tho effoto luxury of the capltnlnpp
lo suit hlin better than the rlcortjl
tho backwoods. I was spenltius
hlin onco on this subject, mid upt
lng tho rigid life Henry Thoreau wj
led at Waldeii Pond, as compared
tho luxurious surroundlngH or
modern mitliorH. I advocated a rct
to tho simpler hnblts of our nuccswa
"Yos," ho said, "living op paw
jieas sounds very lino in a book, v io
1 visited Emerson I was astoiiUDW"
find how closo Wnlden Pot" y
ii. i ,u,.,1 mill I W
lllll IjlllUlBUll liuilivaiw.i. iju
mented on this. I had IimiBlnea
iiiu iiniiii wfiH nwiiv out In tho ' , I
noHS, miles from any huinn"
. . ,.,.n!f.J
(In.. Ttr.rr.Kit liiwii-unii C0lia ' ' J
Hunt ,v-.w ..-- lAtlfiWl
Mrs. Emorson snoko UP In tho '""'.J
a woman oxjioslng a IuimluS! J
yes, Henry took good euro not I
out of hearing of our Uinnci
Cobwlgger-llow was It tunt tw i
yours wouldn't do nny of his w-
jjrown i guess n o "vv" t(Hjti
showing him to a tntui who v.nl
buy n dog. Harlem Lire.
About lUllroad Kiiuiloyc'-
i..,wi in nvcrj
Tlicro aro aou eiupioy-" - etct
miles o rallrond !u tho Uu1
From n actor's standpoint on ejj
In.llnnion linf mm L'OOd tUFB
I1.1V.I...I. ...... V, . o