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About Wallowa County chieftain. (Enterprise, Or.) 1909-1911 | View This Issue
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A Is The Coming Wheat
Granary Of The World!
r ' :'i r s r ' I i vs
You can buy land that will produce from 35 to 50 bushels of winter wheat, 45 to 60 bushels of
barley and from 60 to 100 bushels of oats, from the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, at $12 and
$15 per acre, one-tenth cash and the remainder in nine years at 6 per cent interest.
This land is in the Bow river valley east of Calgary, in the chinook belt of Alberta, along a main
line of railroad, is well watered, free from rock, gravel and alkali and covered with grass which will
make two tons of bunch grass hay per acre!
One Sod Crop Actually Pays For The Land And The Railroad Company Will Help You Farm
It. If You Raise No Crop You Make No Payment! You Can't Lose
Thirty practical farmers and investors of Umatilla and Union counties have bought this land.
Ten car loads of work horses and farming implements are being shipped from Pendleton into this new
district this spring. . These farmers know a good thing when they see it.
The Alberta winters are not severe. The country is visited regularly by warm chinook winds
during the winter season and cattle winter out and stay fat without hay or shelter.
Hundreds Of Wide Awake Americans Paid For Their Land With Their 1908 Wheat Crop
It is no experiment. Hundreds of new homes are being built, railroads are being constructed,
thousands of acres have been broken out and seeded and it is the last new country on the American
Buy direct from the railroad company and get low prices and easy terms. The company wants
you. It wants your citizenship in Canada and it wants traffic to haul out. It will help you pay
for your land. It will fence, break sod, drill wells, build houses or do anvthina for its sPttW
Go and see Alberta now.
It costs but $55 to maKe the round trip from La Grande to Calgary and return, by getting our cheap rate.
The weather is mild and open. Inquire for the date of the next trip.
Jonathan Johnson, Canadian Pacific Land Dept. Pendleton, Oregon.
Or J. E. Reynolds, La Grande, Oregon,
Home Course In
I. How a. Seed Starts to Grow
By C. V. GREGORY,
Agricultural Di-visic n, loboa Slate College
Copyrltfht, 1908, by American Press Association
fk SEED in a simple thing to look
at It might ns well be a
AjL pebble or a grain of sand for
all there seems to be to it.
Only a bean, you any, yet there's, n
great deal more to that beau than you
ever dreamed of.
Take a bean Just an ordinary white
benn out of the pantry and look at it.
The smooth white outer covering Is
the seed coat. It is almost water
tight and is a protection for the parts
that He within. On one side you will
notice a very conspicuous spot. This
Is the seed scar and Is tho place where
the little stem that fastened the bean
to the pod was attached. Nenr one
end of the seed scar, or hllum, ns the
botanists call it, is a small round hole,
the mlcropyle. If you put a bean iu
water it will soon begin to swell be
cause of the water which it absorbs
through the mlcropyle.
Now, taUe a bean that has been
soaked for a few hours. The seed
toat will come
off easily. The
part of the bean
that is inside Is
found to be split
In two length
wise. These two
halves are called
Is only another
name for seed
If you look close
ly you can see a
little plant tuck
ed snugly away
Just to one side
of tho middle is
a small stem, the
ed to it is the
plumule, a tiny
bunch of leaves so small that you
may have Uifliculty In making thorn
out. Farther on, at the end of the
bean, is the stubby root, or radicle, j
These different parts are found in ev-!
ery seed, no matter how small. i
Now that you have seen what is In
the bean, examine a pumpkin seed in
V1Q. I A LITTLE
the same way. It Is muc'a tlie same
inside as the bean, only flatter. The
hllum Is at the pointed end, and the
plumule is so small that you may not
be able to see it at all. In these two
seeds there are only two main parts,
the seed cont and the little plant. By
far the greater part of the room inside
the seed coat is tnken up by the fleshy
Now let us look at a different kind
of a seed. Take a kernel of corn that
has been soaked for several hours and
cut it in two lengthwise the narrow
way. The back of the grain is made
up in pnrt of a hard, flinty substance
and in part of a white, mealy layer. A
large part of the front of the kernel is
taken up by the soft, oily germ.
Look at the cut section of the germ
carefully.- The little plant can be
made out very plainly. The little
pointed stem which points upward and
outward is the cotyledon. There Is
only one cotyledon in corn instead of
two, as in the other seeds you have
examined. If you will take a cotyledon
of a corn plant that has been left in a
warm place until it has commenced to
grow and cut it In two lengthwise you
will see that the inside is packed with
layers of tiny leaves ready to unfold
as soon as their turn comes. This is
the plumule. The other parts of the
little corn plant you will be able to
make out with little trouble.
You have doubtless been wondering
what the rest of the kernel, the port
back of the germ, is for. While It Is
not a part of the plant Itself, it Is of
very great use to it, as we shall see.
The little plant when it begins to
grow must have food. At first it has
no roots to get this food from the soil,
so it must get its nourishment from
some other source. This source is the
part of the kernel outside of the germ
itself, or the endosperm. In the pump
kin seed and the bean the endosperm
nnd the cotyledons are the same that
is, the food material is stored in the
large, fishy seed leaves.
This food material consists' largely
of starch and oil. Neither of these can
be used by the developing plart with
out first being changed to a liquid
form. This is one of the reasons why
seeds will not germinate without wa
ter. The other reason is that the wa
ter Is needed to soften the seed coat so
the plant can get out. But this starch
and oil will not dissolve In water
without first being changed to a solu
ble form. This is accomplished by
means of ferments called enzymes. If
you will put a piece of starch on your
tongue for a moment you will find that
It will begin to tasto sweet. This is
because the ferments in the saliva art
changing it to sugar. The enzymes Id
the endosperm work in much the same
way, changing the starch and oil to
sugar and other soluble substances.
These are dissolved by the water and
go to feed the growing plant
These enzymes cannot work without
air and warmth. You already know
that a seed will not germinate in cold
ground, and if you will put some
beans in a glass of water and leave
them for several days you will find
that they will not germinate, no mat
ter how warm they are kept, because
they cannot get air. The reason is that
without both air and warmth the en
zymes cannot prepare the food for the
plant, and if it cannot get food of
course it cannot grow.
After the plant has started to grow
the seed coat is no longer of any use
to It. In some plants, such as corn,
the little plant finds its way out very
easily. The little pumpkin plant with
its heavy coat, has a harder time. In
deed, were it not for a little contriv
ance with which nature has provided
It it could not get out at all. This Is a
tiny hook on the lower end of the
seed. This hook catches on the end of
the seed coat and peels it back as
neatly as you take off your coat.
Watch for this in a germinating pump
kin or squash seed and see if you can
not notice it In some seeds, like hick
ory nuts, the plant is unable to get out
until the seed coat is cracked by the
frost or in- some other way.
We have seen that a seed cannot
start to grow unless it has moisture,
warmth and Air. It not only needs
these, but it needs them in the proper
proportions. In a light, sandy soli
moisture is often lacking, and the
seed Is slow in germinating for this
reason. In such a soil growth will
start more quickly If the soil Is pack
ed tightly around the seed. The seed
will soak up moisture more rapidly if
the particles of soil are iu close con
tact with it on all sides. Packing
down the soil in the row with the
flat side of a hoe or with a board or
with the broad, flat planter wheels In
the field helps the seed to absorb
moisture and so hastens germination.
In a heavy, sticky cloy soil there is
usually plenty of moisture, but air Is
often lacking. If such a soil is pack
ed dowu too tightly over the seed the
particles are forced so closely together
that very little air can get through,
and hence germination is delayed. In
a soil of this kind seeds should never
be planted very deeply.
The most important factor of all Is
Warmth. A cold soH may have
moisture and air In exactly fhe right
amounts, and still the seed will not
start to develop. Even if it does be
gin to grow progress will be slow, and
the plant will have a weak, unhealthy
look. It is of the utmost importance
to wait until the seed bed is warm
before planting the seed. Many seeds
which would rot or produce only
spindling stalks if planted In a cold
soil will grow into strong plants If
planting is delayed until the soil has '
become warm. Any seed will make a
stronger, better producing plant If it
has a warm seed bed to start from.
The rapidity with which soli will
warm up in the spring depends a great
deal upon the nature of the soil itself.
A sandy soil warms up quickly be
cause the air can get down Into it
easily, thus warming it all the way ,
through at once. Another reason for
the higher temperature of sandy soil !
is its greater dryness. As long as wa-1
ter is evaporating rapidly the ground'
win be cold. The process of evapora
tion requires a great deal of beat
allow the surplus water to be given off
by evaporation we must provide tile
drains and dltchei to carry It away
We' shall study more about dralnnjre
and the movement of water through
the soli in another article.
(to be continued.
Ilcd Cross Gives 9150,000.
Uoine, Feb. 9. It is announced
officially that the American Ited
Cross, through Ambassador Grlscom,
has put $150,000 at the disposal of
the committee organized by Queen
Helena, which has undertaken the
establlBhmeiit of an orphanage to be
devoted to the care of children of
homeless and without care of par
ents after the earthquake diBuuter.
A Common Cold.
We claim that if catching cold
could be avoided some of the most
dangerous and fatal diseases would
never be heard of. A cold often
forms a culture bed for germs of
Infectious dlsoases. Consumption,
pneumonia, dlphthe:la, and scarlet
fever, four of tho most dangero.-.s
and fatal diseases, are of LJiIb clasi.
The culture bed formed by the cold
favors the development of the germs
of these diseases, that would not
otherwise find lodgment. There 13
Jlttle danger, however, of any of
these diseases being contracted wae.i
a good expectorant cough modlcl ie
like Chamberlain's Cough Homely
is used. It cleans out these cultj.e
beds that favor the development of
the germs of these dlsoasos. That is
why this remedy has proved so u a
versally successful n preventing
Jineumonla. It not only cures your
told quickly, but minimizes tho risk
of contracting these dangerous dis
eases. For sale by Burnaugh &
FIG. n HOW A 6QCABH FLINT TAXES OFF
ITS BKZU COAT. ;
We can help the soil to become
warm in the spring, then, by doing all ,
that we can to check evaporation. Did ;
you ever notice how quickly the sur-
face of a wet field became dry after it
had been harrowed? This is because
stirring and loosening the soil stops
the water from coming up from be-1
low. The water in the loose upper 1
layer soon evaporates, and after that
the heat Is used in warming the soil
Instead of turning the water into va
por. Of course if we are not going to
D II I
1 1 1
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