Image provided by: Morrow County Museum; Heppner, OR
About The Boardman mirror. (Boardman, Or.) 1921-1925 | View Entire Issue (April 4, 1924)
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BOARDMAN, MORROW COUNTY, OREGON, FRIDAY, APRIL 4, 1924
COUNTY UNIT SCHOOL
SYSTEM MEAN'S IN
Umatilla county's school superin
tendent, who for the past month has
been actively campaigning for the
county unit measure, bases much of
his argument on the claim that under
the proposed system taxes will be re
duced, and that centralization of au
thority will reduce cost of conducting
schools. Inspection of tax levies in
counties which have been operating
under the county unit system show
that instead of a reduction in cost
the result has been just the opposite.
In Coos county, which adopted the
county unit in 1921, taxes for school
purposes increased nearly $100,000
in 11)22 over the 1920 levy. In 1920
the levy for all school purposes in
Coos county was $322,560.21. In
1922, one year after adoption of the
county (tlrtt, the levy wa. ' 0360. 40
These figures are taken from the
1923 report of the state committee
on tax investigation.
Crook county adopted county unit
in 1921, and even in this small coun
ty an increase of taxes of $16,0C
folic ved adoption of the measure
Crook county's total school tax i:
19-?. under the district system, wat
$61,234.71. In 1 922 under the
county unit it was $77,666.20.
Klamath county showed an In
crease of $r0,000 in school taxo3 l
1922 over the 1920 tax. In 1920 tlu
tax was $202,755.68 In 1922 tb
budget adopted after the county wen1
under county unit was $251,856.21
In these counties when the schoo!
authorities put on their campaign for
control of the schools under tot
county unit system, the same claim
of ability to reduce expense was
made, but the figures prove thei
claims to have been unfounded.
When the elementary school mill
age tax was on the ballot several
years ago, every school authority
urged the measure on the plea that it
would reduce taxes by making out
lying lands help pay the cost of th'
schools. No one can find this redu,
tion showing on their tax state
The argument that a measure Will
reduce taxes is one every politician
advances. The thought of tax sav
ing is pleasing to the voters, but the
voters have discovered that in spite
of all promises made by the polit'
clans, taxes continue to pyramid
Each new measure that is adopte'"
means new expenditures and in
Study of the county unit measure
will convince anyone that it will sure
ly increase school taxes. While as
much as five per cent might possibK
he saved on lump purchases of chal'"
fuel and such items, this saving will
be more than offset by the greatly in
creased cost of administration. A
county superintendent who is capable
of handling the affairs of all the
schools of Umatilla county would un
doubtedly receive $400 or $5000 a
year. All of his expenses would have
to be met. Under the present system
the expense of the superintendent'?'
office Is high. Although he receives
a salary of only $1 800, the budget
for 1922 called for additional expen
ditures for mileage, assistants and
office expense, bringing the total to
$4300. Under the unit system, with
no public control of expenditures
these expenses would undoubtedly
show a great Increase.
Assistant superintendents, super
visors, and office help, as well as a
county school clerk, would have to lie
paid good salaries. Under the county
unit system the voters have no way
of limiting the salaries or expenses
to be allowed. They are privileged
to object to any item, hut the county
board, on advice of the superintend
ent, may adopt such budget as they
desire, in spite of any and all objections.
DHM E DOPING A smooth AWN
EI) BARLEY BEING UNDERTAKEN
The farm boy, the hired man, and
the farmer himself, for that matter,
will rise to a vote of thanks and
give three cheers for the scientists
of the United States Department of
Agriculture When they succeed in
developing on a commercial scale a
variety of barley that can be wal
lowed in with impunity on a hot
summer day without wearing a cast
iron shirt and overalls. The saw
edged beards of the many varieties
of high-yielding barleys have been
Instrumental in keeping down the
icreagj of barley, and only its abil
ity to produce a high acre yield in
pounds of feed has maintained the
Attempts by the agronomist
harge of barley investigations
the department to develop
tmooth-awned variety from
rough-awned Manchuria, which is a
popular high-yielding variety, have
"united in considerable progress.
Enough seed for general distril u
ion is not yet available, however.
Specimen! of this smooth-awned
Sarley are to bee seen in the Office
if Cereal Investigations of the de
triment. These awns are so smooth
hat they may he pulled across the
face in either direction without any
oughness being apparent except at
In these investigations It wn
ound unwise to eliminate the awns
ntirelv because they serve a defi
nite putpOCe , W 'hen they are re
tovd from the growing head by
lipping, the ash is deposited in the
nchis, or small stem to wh'ch the
rernel is attached, making it more
brittle and allowing the grain to
hatter easily. The awns, it seems,
ict as a sort of safety valve or store
'ions" for thi" excess material. It
''a'i been found more practicable to
develop a variety with a smooth
;wn than to reniov? it entirely.
Smooth-awned barleys are still In
he experimental stage. Several
high-yielding strains adaptd to dif
ferent climatic conditions are ready
'or Increase to larger plats and
field culture. Whether thev can
ompete with the rough-awned var
letlea remained to be determined.
Frank Wilbur spent several days
last week visiting friends in Irrigon.
Mr. Garretson from Tioardnian,
was In Irrigon on business last Friday.
Mr. and Mrs. Smith Jordan were
in Irrigon a short time Sunday aft
Mr. and Mrs. Wesley Chaney
have returned to Irrigon to stay for
Raymond Jordan and Hill Knight
were at the home of Mrs. Rebecca
Knight over Sunday.
Mrs. Paul Jones is the guest or
Mrs. H. T. Wapole for a few days
Walter Warner motored to
Boardman with his mother Satur
day, to attend the teachers' institute.
Farmer Smith spent Thursday
and Friday with Mr. and Mrs. Sea
man and jiiscussed many of the
M. A. Cleveland of Stanfield, was
in Irrigon Thursday in the inter
ests of his papers and picking up
odd jobs for bis press.
The Irrigon baseball team played
at Umatilla Sunday afternoon. The
game was quite one-sided, Umatilla
winning 17 to 4.
There has been considerable ef
fort made to organize a lodge of the!
Grange in Irrigon. At last reports
all things looked favorable for its
INTERESTING FACTS SHOWN Mr. Doherty of the Tortland
BY OWENS DUST COUNTER chamber of Commerce, was an Ir
rigon visitor Saturday. Mr. Taylor
For more than a year part the of the Henniston Reclamation seiv
Weather Bureau of the United fl ,
Elates Department of Agriculture
has been determining the dust con-
tents of the atmosphere in a sub-1 Gertrude Graybeal gave a party
burb near Washington, D. C, by j.n the gym Saturday, March 29, for
means of an Owens dust counter. ,,, t,.hq aA nni Knight
One of the interesting faets brought
out by these record, la that during 'i,1 a "wd tended. Games j
the winter months, when coal is be- were played and there was a uttie
Ing burned tor housenoin neating, dancing. A .nice supper was served
the average number of dust parti-
George C. Howard of Portland
eles of a size that can be seen un-
rlov tlia mirTimrnnn is nhnllt 830 Iter i
cubic centimeter of space, which is and Attorney Woodson of Heppner
more 'ban tic as many as in sum- were in Irrigon on business Friday
mrr v.ii"n the average is a little less Mr. Woodson went back to Heppner
than 400. 'on the train and Mr. Howard motor-
Daring December, January, and ' .
February 1923-24, the number of , ed back to Portland.
dust particles in the atmosphere
was little more han half that of the Alex Thomson of Echo has rented
arae months in the preceding year. tne R s Lamareoux place for the'
When bituminous coal was used very
season and has taken charge. R. S
wtjtal nt!ior iMtMWmMti Liken
within the city and compared with Lamareoux has a contract hauling
those In the suburb before mention
ed, show that city atmosphere con
tacted 1,831 dust particles per cu
bic centimeter when the suburban
atmosphere yielded a count of 761.
Through the cooperation of the
cord wood at Greshaui for some
time this season and has gone there
to do the hauling.
Mr. F. L. Brown, our one-time
army aviators at Polling Field. It county agent, now in the Insurance
has been possible to measure the businpS8 at Heppner, made a busi
ness trip through the district the
dust content of the atmosphere un
In nn nltiliwle of 10.000 feet. At
this height the average number of last of the week. He reports wheat
dust particles per cubic centimeter and prospects reasonably good in
Is less than 50. while in summer, at the upper part 0f the county.
6.000 feet, which is nearly at the,
top of the surface haze, it is about , , , ,
.q Mrs. U. W. Grimm and sons, are
There is very close connection be- guests of Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Grimm
tween the haziness, or dustiness, of for a few days. She motored to
the atmosphere and the visibility.
Most of the dust consists of finely
divided mineral matter atl loess
from the surface of the earth, al-
Portland and came up on the train
from there. On her return, she will
drive from Portland to San Frnn-
though soni diatoms, spores. and cIsco where Mr. Grimm is employ-
C.HAKS OF TUBERCULOUS
COWS REARED FUME
Thirty calves dropped by tuber
lous cows in the valuable breeding
and experimental herd of the Unit
ed States Department of Agriculture
in Alaska from 1917 to 1920 ha
been successfully raised and adjud
ged free from tuberculosis. While
ordinarily the practice of retaining
such stock In the herd is to be con
demned, and should p allowed
only in extremely excopt'onal care";
the BUCOeea of the Alaskan experi
ment proves that a very valuable
animal which has becoj.ie infected
with tuberculosis need not be
slaughtered: and that the excellent
qual'ties which such an animal
would transmit to its offspring
can be transmitted and perpetuated
in the offspring without incurring
any risk of transmitting the disease.
Considerable effort ha3 been ex
pended in developing a breed of ca
tle suitable for Alaskan conditions
by crossing the Galloway breed with
Hoist ein-Frieslans, when in eplti of
all known precautions having been
taken the disease made Its appear
ance In the herd. Measures were
Sdoptod to retain the diseased ani
mals and to raise "alve- from fiem
because of their value. The di cased
cattle were placed in nuarantlne 1"
miles from the healthy herd and
treated as sound Cattle, beirg given
free access to pasterns and reeelvln"!
the usual feed. For the first 24
hours after birth the calves were
allowed to remain with their dan"
in order that they might draw off
the first milk, or co'ostruc, from th
udders. They were then removed to
separate Quarters and fed the pas
teurized mttk from the tuberculous
mother. Milk, top'her with grass
and such other forige as was eaten
at will, constituted 'be on'ire rati"
until six months or age Wrhen eld
eroui:h, thov were tetrt, and nron
befhg pronounced healthy were add
ed to the sound herd.
Breeders of pure' red cattle prob
ably will not retain reu-tors tor
breeding excent In pare cises. oven
though the affected animals are val
uable. The experiment proves, how
ever, that highly mized reactor!
need not be slaughtered They can
not be cured, hut they can be Iso
lated and bred for the product'or. of
(1UV BABY CHK'I S WITH
CARE, DEPARTMENT ADVISES
Practical poultry ra'scrs a'-'
farmers are relying upon the larg
hatcheries more and more each year
as a source of supr'v for tuelr ne"
crop of chicks. In other words, en'''
year sees fewer and fewer chick
batched under hens, and the mam
moth hatcheries are taking the
place, to a certain e'tent, of th;
smaller incubators which are com
monly operated on farms. It Is be
cause of the fact that farmers are
buying babv chirks from the Icrf
commercial hatcher'es that official?
of the United State; Depart ment of
Agriculture feel the neeessit" of
urging them to exercise great rcr"
In deciding upon where to buy th!
year's supply of chi-ks.
The question of supreme hnnpr'
ance to a purchaser of baby chid;
Is the source of simply of eggs for
the hatcheries. Manv of the hatch-1
cries have their business well or-v"
Ized and are able to guarantee the ,
quality of the chicks. Some of thi
hatcheries, however, are not SO p-.r
ttcular where they purchase th"
eggs they use and arc not able to
guarantee high-qualltv chicks.
Especially where the chicks al
to be used for layers and for devel
oping the flock, the purchaser
should Insist Upon a satlsfaefOrj
statement from the hatcherv an to
th quality of eggs used. Only nure-1
bred chicks should b" purchased, He
should satisfy himself that the eggl
were from a flock of standard final
ity with trap-nest records and that
the flock was In good breeding ro
dltlon. Purchase babv chleks win
great care says the department. Ii
is bett'r to nay a few cents more (
for good ouality chicks that ran be I
TEACHERS' INSTITUTE WEATHER INFORMATION' AIDS
IS A BIG SUCCESS A GREAT VARIETY OF
The local teachers' institute
Saturday was an unqualified
cess. Over thirty teachers
present including those of
The county superintendent
on hand to discuss questions
last T)l, rc,,.,.,,Rpumi n.-e bundled by
sue- the Weather Bureau of the United
were States Department of Agriculture
the value to various 1
other Interests of exact
teachers and to deal with matter
related to her office.
State Superintendent J. A
Churchill occupied most of th
morning session with talks on
subjects of school measurement
and eighth grade examinations. .
In the afternoon Mr. Churchill
from the records of the bureau, A
manufacturer of SnOW-removlng o-
paratUS who Wished to enlarge the
r.iarki t for his product wrote in re
cently Inquiring as the th? areas
tne throughout the co'-rtry where ui
the usual) v beavv snowfall occurred, !n-
terrenng mm irarri's, and necessi
tating snow removal. In addition to
the lt of BUCtl local I Ins which was
it him. Including Alaska, be was
explained the County Unit plan lor given information as to the depth of
school administration, and was list
ened to by a goodly number of
Boardman and irrigon people.
Miss Wolff bad charge of the
musical program which included
two numbers given b Children of
the third and fourth grades.
Fining (he noon hour the local
teachers served a free luncheon to
the visitors in the schooleal'eterln,
fi r which they were rendered a
vote of thanks.
The only ufttpleasant feature1 of
the day was the disagreeable weath
er which prevented many people
from attending the meeting.
Watch th" litter
the ycr and chr.r."'
be -omen damp and
localities it is besl
at this time ol
e as often as I
heayy, in soph
to change It ev
cry Ion d'.'.ys. Damp Utters cause the
house to ''e damp, and is the SOUTCS
of much disease.
It is good Idea to put clean fund on
the floor of the brooder house uu-
dernoath the litter, it laonlH m'
plnced i.i the house several days be
fore the chicks are put In so that I!
will be thoroughly dried out.
the heaviest snowfalls known and
the aervage snowfall for different
places on tjie list.
A peculiar request wa ' 'tide not
long ago for wind dat'i frori
lions that did not have wind velo
cities. A manufacture of wind
mills requiring little wind o niwi'"
them was Interested In Mndlftff U"t
where conditions were l 'n t favor
able for other types of wledmils.
Persons preparing hlstorlia of
towns and counties for speedier, or
printed material, real estate book
lets, or similar user, fretuontly in
quire for weather data for a nun' or
of yeatS past to incorporate in their
acounts of a localitv. Such Info" i
attOP is Willingly supplied from f1i
records. Insurance companies rre
now Insuring against drough. ruin,
crop failure, hall tornadoes, Ii v l
canes, and other destructive BMtr
id phenomena, ail kinds of wr
priefle ranging from fashion ?how.
baseball games and enterttlnmenta
to crop. Weather Bureau data for i
th" basis of mte c mputatlon and
settlement of all th"-e cases.
The highest reward that C"l
gives us for good work Is the ability
to do better work.
Men do not lack strcfh, they
lack the will to concent rut i and act.
IS FIVE CENTS ON THE DOLLAR OF VALU
ATION TOO MUCH TO EARN?
pollen have been found at all alti
tudes up to 10,000 feet. In winder,
however, in or rear the city, many
products of combustion are found.
An o' joct Lesson For Purebred s
EXPERIMENT STATION NOTTS
(Feed More Hay)
Last week the financial phase of
feeding hav were discussed. Now
come the fertility features. The
I aw of Compensation again applies
No soli, much less our light arid
soils which are low in organic mat
ter, will permanentlv product
crops which are continually remov
ed without the return of the refuse.
We must go even further than
maintaining the fertility of our soils
they must be built up. The de
ficiency of organic matter and nit
rogen Is best remedied by the re
turn of manure to the land. Tvight
years' results show that manure ap
plied to Alfalfa at the ra'e of S ton
per acre gives a return of 4!3
pounds of hay per ton of manure
ed with the Standard Oil Co.
SENATORS ''' WASHINGTON
A 1 1 E IH SY
Washington. Of the entire num
ber now in office the three men who
have shown the greatest attention
Or.e lot of wool that larked staple t tnP interests of their efnstitut
cansed the importation of over 40 entg an(i wno naVo been most con
head of purebred sheep Into Tyler , gigtently in their sats are Senator
county. West Virginia, in 1923. ac-; McN'arv, Capper and Shepard.
cording to reports to the Fnited i gneh la the rtatement of Afst
states Department of Agriculture, j anrt Secretary Henrv M. Pose, of the
The owner of this lot of wool had it I I.Tnited States Senate, who has cus
graded while at the wan house in tody of the roll calls of the Sen
the cooperatively pool early In thejators and he bases his statemert on
j tr. It wa- pronounced good In i the records of th roll call durinr
quality but lacking staple. He then
asked the extension serviee what he
could do to improve it and. follow
ing the advice given, purchased a
purebred Delaine ram in an adjoin
ing state. A number of sharp grow
ers of the county were present when
the new ram arrived, and as s re
sult of the interest in improved
stock thus aroused a boys' and girls'
shep club was organized. For club
members and adult farmers, tot-ether.
4 0 registered ewes and three
registered rams were brought into
the county before the end of the
the terms of the senators,
So far as Senator McNarv is 'on
cerned. Ms record Is almost perfect
The only time he was away from
roll calls since he cameNo 'he Sen
ate was d-'ring the time of the death
and funem'' of his wtfe some year?
ago. and Inter when he was con
fined to his hotel bv the grippe.
Official figure tell the story of
Senator McNary's devotion to Ore
gon and the United States. He hau
not mlsse 1 a single roll call or been
absent from his desk during all the
session since this congress met in
IMPOSSIBLE TO EORfUKT
RADIO WEATHER CONDITION"
Several tlgdAs recently Hie sug
gestion has been made that Hi
Weather Bureau of the United
states De pert men I of AffrHiltare
undertake to Issue forecasts of con
ditions affecting re.dio recent on.
The matter has been lvn ear-rut
consideration and concl'i-ler
has been reached thai It Is not ad
visable for the bureau to enpr.i- in
such a profect at th" present time.
It Is well known that radio re
ceptions are far bettr In the winter
thnn in the summer nnd at night
than bv day; also, that, afparently,
the weather Is one of th" factors
that Influence the receptions. How-I
vev. these relat'ons have not besn
fully worked out. and other factors I
are Involved. The whole mater has
recently been the subject of eon j
slderable Investigation, both In thl
country and abroad and It Is al'n-
gather probable that the time will i
come when the forecasting of th
conditions In question can be under
taken with a reasonable MfUMtaM
Let us print those butter wrappers.
If a business worth $10,000 earned $500 net in
come a year (or $41 a month), would it be consid
ered an unreasonable profit and proof that its
prices were too high?
The railroads are in that situation today.
The 1923 net return for the whole country
was less thnn 5 per cent. As of DeceRiber 31, 1919,
th Interstate ( oniBierce Commission gave to the
railroads a tentative valuation of $18,900,000,000.
With actual figures for 1920, 1921, 1922 and with
1923 conservatively estimated as $1,100,000,000,
there has hcin invested in the railways since this
tentative valuation a net amount of $2,371,583,
000, making the value as of December 31, 1923,
$21 271,583,0(10 On this amount the Railways in
1923 earned an aggregate uet operating income
of approximately $997,010,000, or 4.09 per cent.
The Government guarantee of earnings expir
ed August 31, 1920. If this guarantee had been
continued as repeatedly but erroneously claim
ed the Government would owe the railroads
more than a billion dollars.
Last year the roads handled a record volume
of business but could not earn the fair return of
5 per cent to which the Interstate Commerce
Commission, under the Transportation Act, has
found they arc entitled. If the roads cannot earn
6 tier cent in a big year, what will they do in a
The Transportation Act provides that if a road
in any year earns more than 6 ner cent it shall
pav one-half of the excess to the Government
The Act is, therefore, a I. imitation rather than a
Civc Transportation Act Fair Trial
Tb" TnnTri-:'t'ni Ael should be ylven n fulr t'"t and Us
merits Judged by the retain of n rormnl period of reeeoWs
length. The yenr lfl,;i "'s the first Hlnce the war under con
ditions atuiroachlntr xtahlll-atlnn.
What thr' rnllroed 'tuatlon deride 1i"'t row I" "ot ' "r
law but more confidence. The railroads have emerged from
the welter of the war. r-siered thir morale, made enormous in
vntmftti of new i--o""v. nnd In 19E3 bandied a peak buflness
with universal satlsfact'on.
The Transportation Acl is the onlv really constructive raM'-end
legislation of a generation. PreV'OUS acts wen- fctttMSt rolelv
repre.ive In framing the Act the public Interest was para
mount The Ait directs the nterstats Commerce Co'umlHrlon
to "give due consideration to the transportation needs of the
country and I'M neeessit v of enlarging railway facilities In or
der to prwWe the people at the United states with adoqwtte
Olv the A t ii chance. Don' amend It. If the r"iuls are let
alone tley Should make as good a record foi efficiency this
eer an last,
Constructive SUggestiMU are alwajs WCtCOOX
April 1. 1H24 C. It. tilt AY,
Omaha, Nebruska I'reitldent.
UNION PACIFIC SYSTEM