The Boardman mirror. (Boardman, Or.) 1921-1925, December 01, 1922, Image 1

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Have you noticed how few wormy
apples and pears appear on the mar
ket today compared With their
abundance fifteen and twenty years
ago? In those days nobody cared
to eat an apple or a pear without
first peeling and quartering it, per
forming a surgical operation on those
numerous specimens showing unmis
takable evidence of animal life,,
present or past. Not infrequently
a third or a half of the fruit in at
barrel was infected. Though "live
ly" cheese might have its friends,
inhabited apples or pears had none
at all and the consumption of these
fruits suffered.
Why has the number of wormy
apples diminished? And what pro
duces the parasitic infection of the
noble fruit, anyway?
Let's answer the last question first.
The infection is produced by the
codling moth, the female moth de
positing the eggs on the outside of
the young fruit or within the blos
som. Fifty years ago (here wasn't a
codling moth anywhere west of the
Rockies. Though the moth was plen
tiful from Michigan and Missouri
to the Atlantic, the Far West was
clean, free of the pest.
Matthew Cooke first noticed the
codling moth in California during
the summer of 1874. Cooke was no
scientific entomologist. He was mere
ly a manufacturer of fruit boxes
who had a sharp ey and a brain
keen enough to make the right de
ductions from his observations. Hi'
traced the wormy condition of the
apples in several orchards to the
new insect, the codling moth, and he
made himself a nuisance by urging
quarantine measures, including the
thorough cleaning or destruction of
picking boxes.
Expensive Ignorance
Did they listen to him? Of coins i
not; until the codling moth was Hy
ing in droves through every orchard
until a sound apple or pear tree be
came exceedingly rare. Then, when
it was too late, they created the
office of state horticultural commis
sioner, gave Matthew Cooke the job
and enabled him to start the world'?
first quarantine against the intro
duction of plant pests.
liut the control of the codling
moth cost money, lots of it. The cod
ling moth inflicts a loss of at least
seven dollars a year on every acre of
commercial apple and pear orchard.
To put it another way, the codling
moth loads a perpetual mortgage of
$100 an acre on every orchard and
the owner has to pay seven per cent
interest without a chance to pay off
the principal.
The Charge of the ling Brigade
Yet he need never have incurred
the debt. If the proper quarantine
measures had been taken early
enough, the codling moth, an immi
grant from foreign shores, need never
have gained a toothold in America,
and most emphatically it could have
been kept out of the Far Western
But bo far as monetary damage is
concerned the codling moth is a pi
ker when compared with that king
pin among naturalized alien plant
enemies, the cotton boll weevil.
Twenty years ago this insect was un
known in the United States Coming
from Mexico, a country which it had
reached from its original Old World
home, the boll weevil crossed the
Rio Grande and marched north until
it had spread over nearly the entire
cotton area of the South. Talk about
Sherman's march to the sea! Com
pared with the ravages of the boll
weevil, that historic raid was as de
structive as a convention of super
annuated Sunday-school superintend
ents. I-ast year, in 1921, the greedy
larvae of the boll weevi! destroyed,
according to the Department of Ag
riculture, cotton equal to 6.250,00fi
bales weighing 500 pounds each. At
ten cents a pound this quantity rep
resented a value of $312,500,000!
Between 1900 and 1921 the bo'l
weevil damage reached the equiva
lent of thirty million bales worth
a billion and a half at ten cents a
pound, the loss averaging 35 pounds
per acre per annum or twenty per
cent of the actual production.
Can you blame Arizona and Cali
fornia for establishing strict quaran
tine against Southern cotton? Their
cotton plantations are clean and they
want to keep them clean if it is
humanly possible.
Twenty years hence Arizona and
California will have a million acres
in cotton, not the common Southern
variety, hut the long-staple Egyp
tian type worth thirty cents a pound
up. If the boll weevil loss be only 35
pounds to the acre- the pink worm
iias twice the destructive appetite
of its humbler brother infestation
by the pest will then cost the South
west twelve million dollars a year.
Infestation can be prevented by an
efficient quarantine backed by pop
ular i "pport and co-operation. Which
is better, o spend twelve thousand
a year now or lose twelve million
per annum in the near future?
Alfalfa Next
Let's take a look at a small beetle
that puzzled some ranchers in Utah
fifteen or sixteen years ago. They
not iced that the first cutting of their
alfalfa was very light, that the yield
was only half or three-quarters of a
ton per acre instead of twice that
quantity. That was bad enough, but
there was no second crop at all. The
iields just wouldn't grow. When the
ranchers investigated, they found
every stalk of alfalfa covered with
greedy little worms eating the new
Btems and leaves as fast as they grew.
And then the worms disappeared. The
alfalfa grew again. Two weeks la;er
me iields were swarming with flocks
tit small beetle! equipped With a long
snout, with which they tapped the
alfalfa stems to imbibe the juice.
If the ranchers had taken a vry
close look, they would have discov
ered that the female beetle, having
punctured the stem with her point d
si. out, turned round and deposited
a cluster of eggs in the hole; that
ti:ose egg clusters, almost invisible
to the naked eye, would cost tin m
two to three tons of hay per acre
the next season.
"It's a weevil," said the entomol
ogists. "It belongs to the order of
the Coleoptera, more particularly to
the subdivision of the Curculienidac,
also known as Phytonomus posticus,
the Austrian or European alfalfa
weevil. Very common in all Mediter
ranean countries and very destruct
ive. Xow how did Phytonomus post
icus come across the ocean, travel
overland two thousand miles wiihottt
Stopping off anywhere and settle
down here on the west side of the
An Alfalfa Quarantine
That mystery has never been
solved. Nobody found out how the
alfalfa weevil got from Europe to
Utah, but the I'tah alfalfa growers,
besides losing a large portion of the
crop annually, soon discovered that
no one wanted the balance. All the
surrounding states established quar
antines against Utah alfalfa.
Radical, drastic measures taken
early enough might have succeeded in
totally eradicating the pest while it
was confined to a few acres near
Salt Lake City, just as Florida has
practically succeeded in eradicating
citrus canker by burning every
orange and grape fruit tree found
to be infected. But nobody realized
the seriousness of the new pest and
it was allowed to spread until it
covered practically every alfalfa dis
trict in Utah. From Utah It crossed
over lno southern Idaho, southwest
ern Wyoming and a portion of west
ern Colorado, the quarantine not
withstanding. Two years ago it took
a long leap west and appeared in Ne
vada The Jitney We- il
There are hundreds of miles of
desert, long stretches of salt flats
totally devoid of vegetation between
the infested Utah field and the Ne
vada district in which the weevil
now made its appearance. The rail
road was constantly watched by sus
picious Inspectors. How did the wee
vil make the leap?
After a short investigation the
culprit was found. It was that new
breed of hobo, the Tin Lizzie tour-
Designated at Last Meeting of
Highway Commission as
Primary Road
iv .,., i
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I !' XxtV I
j iyi -f ''"Z f vi' " ,mm m '"""j1" Ym,mm'mvjrw mm
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ist. In I'tah he robbed the nearest
alfalfa stark of hay upon which to4
make his bed. As he rolled up his
blankets in the morning, a few wee
vils or larvae were rolled up in them.
Making camp the next night in N(-j
vada, the indignant weevils aband
oned their prison, took wing and lit
in the nearest alfalfa patch.
California has a half million acres
in alfalfa, liven though Utah ha"
learned to hold down weevil damag i
through better cultivation, through
pasturing early in the Mafton and
through spraying with arsenical poi
sons, nevertheless there is still con
siderable loss. This loss plus the
cost of control measures is probably
the equivalent of a ton a::d a half
per acre. At the low price of six
dollars a ton, California's potential
loss through the alfalfa weevil would
be close to five million dollars a
It surely is worth while to keep
inspectors on all the main, roads
leading from Nevada in o California
to examine the ever-increasing num
ber of automobiles maki'ng long
distance tours Even if it were nec I
sary to keep live hundred guards
employed on the roads from snow to
now, the expanse would be a drop
compared with the ocean loss thai
would be incurred should this Euro
pean pest succeed In crossing the Si
erra Nevada.
Keep the Weal Clean
The fruit industry of th" Far
West has reached its present hug I
size, largely because the West wai
clean. Compared with Europe, the
West had very few species of inju
rious insects and fungi as a result
the growers were able to produce
large crops of clean, marketable
fruit. They still enjoy this advantage,
but every year the increase in world I
name necessitates greater vigilance,
more rigid inspection of the growing
number of commercial arteries.
The prosperity of the farmers af
fects all of us. If the alfalfa weevi'
reduces Farmer Brown's hay STOS
twenty tons, the town retailers, tb
city wholesalers and manufacturer;
lose a hundred dollars' worth of
Brown's business. Eventually the
weevil will force the price of alfalt;-j
up, whereupon you and I will have toi
pay more for our milk and I nt er 1
You, Friend Reader, may think thai
it's not your funeral If ihe Mediter
ranean fruit fly, the clrus canke . tie-
Oriental melon fly, the boll weevi! or
the plum curcullo are turned loose
In the orchards and fields of th- Fa:
West, but nevertheless you will help
pay the cost.
Therefore, let us all co-operate
with the quarantine officials and keep
the west clean. December SUNSET
Recovery of $75,000,000 Al
leged Improperly Spent at
Camps Is Planned.
Washington, D. C. Lagal action to
recover more than $20,000,000 alleged
to have been obtained fraudulently
from the government in the construc
tion ol lour army cantonments during
the war was instituted by Attorney
General Daugherty as the first formal
step iii a far reaching prosecution of
these who held contracts for the
building of war camps.
The number Of suits to be filed has
not been definitely decided, but it was
Indicated that a dozen or more sep
arate actions were in prospect.
The initial cases are expected to
involve construction of Camp Upton,
Vaphank, N. Y.; Camp Jackson, Co
lumbia, s. C; Camp Sherman, Chilli
COthe, Ohio, and Camp Funston, Fort
Riley, Kans.
Unofficial estimates place the total
sum thai will be sought in all ol' the
recovery suits contemplated at more
than 175,000,000. In one camp, costing
$1 3,0(H),(Mi0, auditors were s ;i i 1 1 to have
found indications of an excess expend
iture of $5,000,000,
In the first group of four suits In
which action is to be instituted, the
government seeks tO recover a total
Of I21,SOO,000; the Camp Upton suit
involving $0,000,000, the Camp Jack
son suit $tl, 500,000, the Camp Sher
man suit $r,lion.iaio and the Camp
Funston stilt $4.000. 000.
Last week the big news was the
Umatilla Rapids meeting in Pendle
ton. Now comes the announcement
that the Wallula cut-off has been
d signaled a primary highway and
colics in this year's appropriations.
Paradoxical as it is, Pendleton is
behind the rapids project full-hearted
and magnanimously, bul s fen
(we cannot believe any of the big
and broadminded ones I lead by He
oarrow-vlsloned, selfioh B, o. t Kd
die's Orgy) make an awful hulla-
toloo, holding Pendleton as greater
I ban Ihe whole northwest - even the!
I'nited States. Why? In 'lr su
preme selfishness and avnru u :iess,
for the nickle, they w' h to force
all the traveling public C come
through Pendleton SV n ai the sac
flee of lime and BT' The Kasl
Oregonlac loudly sliou brigand at
the federal engineer and in the same
breath implores- for a road into the
mountains and barren wastes to lb"
The Wallula rut-off requires
scarcely an; grading, and as we
learned in school, is a straight line
the shortest distance between two
imints. The diagram above will show
yon the saving In distance. Il is
along the river grade a route al
ray selected by railroads for their
routes. It is demanded by the peo
ple of eastern Washington, northern
Idaho. Montana, and every city but
petty Pendleton.
There is some of the most pro
ductive land along the cut-off of
any on the Cmaiilla project and!
Pendleton would derive mors boat!
from this area, if she did but know
it, than from all the barren wastes
to Ihe south.
Where and how the esteemed edi
tor of the evening paper, could get In
BUCh a frame of mind as to lose SMO
lately his sense of right and fair
ness is beyf d us We all boost tor
the Round! p and the whole wo Id
knows ahou' it Pendleton is looked
upon as one of the MggfjK little cities
in th world. Don't tell us that the
Idlgewater being spilled by 'he K. O
represents the real IVndb'ton spirit.
Such tactics as are be'tig pur 0 H
by the K. O will not hasten the
((instruction of the (Irani county
road nor retard the building of the
cut-off. It will only serve to breed
a gnat big scab on Pendleton.
Hermlston has come out for the
cut-off, but qualifies her endorse
ment by wunti- the road diverted
at Cold Spring thence through the
Columbia district, which also shows
the cloven hoof upon her part. The
cut-off has been surveyed within a
mile or so of the road from Ilcrmis
lon lo Columbia and could be easily
connected for any travel (hat might
wish to go that w. , Out there is
no reason for this additional dis
tance. The cut off has been designated
by the I'nited Stales g( .iinenl for
Ihe greatest good lo the greatest
number, so let the heat! .. rage.
Thanksgiving Program by School
Wednesday afternoon each grade
in the school contribute,! a lurnber
to a successful program.
The audience joined Ihe school in
SlBging "A me: b a", after which the
school gave the salute to the iiag.
Then the school and audience sane,
"llringing in the Sheaves."
The first and second grades gave
a Thanksgiving exercise, each one
showing which pari of ihe menu bis
letter of the alphabet siood for.
Poor old Z had a hard time getting
on the table, but be remembered
how be felt the next day, ivA..y)
and so forth, and stood for all Ihe
oilier things belonging to the dinner.
I lie no nn gi uue imjvs i -1
cited "( i the lliver and Through
the Woods", 1 the girls dressed
in little Pi
sang a littl
Fifth and six
dialogue), where
around Buster
an caps and aprons,
Pur B song
x a grade boys gave a
e In t centered
ha .ds and his
Thank' giving dinner, wl''- ihe result
that the doctor had lo be calb-1 next
day, and who administered .is pills
very efllcienllv, and Husler go i Id
of 'hem just SS ably.
The seventh and eighth grades
gave a dialogue, "A Thanksgiving
Predleatuent." Louise Klagos repre
senting a young hou -vlfe was left
alone to prepare He rst Thanks
giving dlnn"r for her husband. She
called In Mary Smith help hi r
Who lei ihe dog get the drecsed
chicken and carry it o" down the
'i ii,. Sru ery l( a call'd
and an order given him for a 10-lb.
road ai.d some cranberries. The
eranb'Triej. were spilled twice, and
were never cooked, (he grocer boy
took the apples Mrs Newlywid was
(Continued to last page)
W ashington, I). O Federal lax col
leotiOUS during the fiscal year ended
June 80, Utl, fell off almost $1,400,, or SO per cent hb compared
with the previous year. Income and
profits taxes collected showed a de
crease of $1,141,000,000, or :r per cent.
Total lax collections for the year
aggregated $:i,i!i7,4.r,i,ns:!, compared
with $4,!i!ir,.;!r7,061 for till, while in
come and profit tuxes for LtSJ amount
ed to $:,.0S(l.!H8,4(i4, against $:;,228,
1117,67;! Hie previous year.
Miscellaneous collections arising
from taxation other than that on In
comes and profits amounted to $1,110,
tJMll for 1922, a decrease of $256,
6X0.770, or lit per cent.
Summary of the income and profits
tax receipts during the yeaf by states
showed New York far In the lead in
amount with Pennsylvania second and
Illinois third. Collections by states
Alaska $173,787.12, California $I2,
Iftl.lllJI, Hawaii $14,6:'.2-,:iO.J7, Ida
ho $1,. '172,658 22. Montana $2,:i02,2:!l 74,
Oregon $I4,:i.:4.:i'.i7 18, Washington
IIMSMSOJ, Wyoming lJj?,tlT.0J,
Desire For Economy May Prevent
Any Lcgislat.on at This Session.
Washington, I). C. Opposition to
further fi ller. il activities in reclaiming
arid lands at this time has manifested
Itself mining the members of congress
who represent the middle west sec
tions 'I his became apparent when Presi
dent Harding conferred with a num
ber of the most active members of
the committee on irrigation and pub
lic lands In the house.
In view of the desire for economy
in all departments on the part of the
administration and of the middle
west opposition, those best informed
In reclamation matters believed there
w ,.il ,', be no reclur- ii'lon legislation
at this se -Jon
Ctates Divide on ... . ,-C. 9. Divorce.
Washington, . Railroad i-otu-missions
representing two western
slates, California and Nevada, have
asked the Interstate commerce com
mission to continue the merger of the
Southern Pacific and Central Pacific
railroads, which the Huoreme court
has ordered dissolved, while commls
Hi itis of two other states. Wyoming
ami Idgho, have urged approval of the
separation Representative Mondell,
hOUM republican b ader, made the
principal argument lor Wyoming In
supporting the separation decree.