s$ , (t -m Wt JfaMfag zimmx. Astoria, Clatsop Co Oregon. I. C. IRELAXD, PUBLISHER. Little Things. Though little I bring, Said the tiny spring, As it burst from the mighty hill, 'TiB pleasant to know, Wherever I flow, The pastures grow greener still. And the drops of rain, As they fall on the plain, "When parched by the summer heat, Refresh the sweet flowers Which drooped in the bowers, And hung down their heads at our feet. Though the drops are small, Yet, taking them all, Each one doing all that it can To fulfill the design Of its Maker Divine, What lessons they give unto man ! May we strive to fulfill All His righteous will. Who formed the whole earth by His word! Creator Divine! We would ever be Thine, And serve Thee, our God and our Lord. A Child Queen. I wonder how many of the little readers of St. Niclwlas are fond of girl his- tory? If they answer candidly, I do not doubt that a very large proportion will declare that they prefer the charming stories they find in St. Niclwlas to the dull pages of history, with its countless battles and murdered sovereigns. But history is not every bit dull, by any means, as you will find if your elder sis ters and friends will select portions for you to read that arc suitable to your age and interests. Perhaps you are very im aginative, and prefer fairy tales to all others. I am sure, then, that you will like the story I am about to tell you, of a little French princess, who was mar ried and crowned Queen of England when only eight years old, and who be came a widow at twelve. This child-sovereign was born many hundred years ago in 1387 at the pal ace of the Louvre in Paris, of whose noble picture-gallery I am sure you all have heard if, indeed, many of you have not seen it yourselves. She was the daughter of the poor King Charles VI., whose misfortunes made him insane, and for whose amusement playing-cards were invented, and of his queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, a beautiful but very wicked woman. Little Princess Isabella was the eldest of twelve children. She inherited her mother's beauty, and was petted by her parents and the entire court of Prance. King Richard II. of England, who was a widosver about thirty years old, was ursred to marrv ajjain: and, instead of selecting a wife near his own age, his choice fell upon little Princess Isabella. "She is much too young," he was told. "Even in five or six years she will not be old. enough to be married." The king, however, thought this objection too trill ing to stand in the way of his marriage, and saying, "The lady's age is a fault that every day will remedy," he sent a magnificent embassy to the court of Prance, headed by the Archbishop of Dublin, and consisting of earls, mar shals, knights, and squires of honor un counted, with attendants to the number of five hundred. When the embassy reached Paris, and the offer of marriage had been formally accepted, the archbishop and the earls asked to see the little princess who was soon to become their queen. At first the French Council refused, saying so young a child was not prepared to appear on public occasions, and they could not tell how she might behave. The English noblemen were so solicitous, however, that at last she was brought before them. The earl marshal immediately knelt be fore her, and said, in the old-fashioned language of the time: "Madam, if it please God, you shall be our lady and queen." Queen Isabeau stood at a little dis tance, curious and anxious, no doubt, to know how her little daughter would an swer this formal address. To her great pleasure, and the great surprise of all present, Princess Isabella replied : "Sir, if it please God and my father that I be Queen of England, I shall be well pleased, for I am told I shall then be a great lady." Then, giving the marshal her tiny hand to kiss, she bade him rise from hiB knees, and leading him to her mother, she presented him to her with the grsce and ease of a mature woman. According to the fashion of the time, Princess Isabella was immediately mar ried by proxy, and received the title of Queen of England. Froissart, a cele brated historian living -at that epoch, says: "It was very pretty to see her, young as she was, practicing how to act the queen." In a few days, King Richard arrived from England with a gay and numerous retinue of titled ladies to attend his lit tle bride. After many graiTd festivities they were married and were taken in state to England, where the Baby Queen was crowned in the famous Westminster Abbey. Cecilia Clevelandyin St. Nicholas. "Civilization," said'a father to his in quiring son, the other day, "differs from barbarism in tfus: the one "kills its 'ene mies off at six thousand paces with a cannon-ball; the other cuts off their beads with a sabre at close quarter." -. Progress inTturkey. . It is thought by many that there has been no progress in Turkey. Without expressing any opinion, we can state a few facts which, being facts,' can not be contradicted. At the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, Turkey was, on the whole, very little, if at all, behind Eu rope. The horrors of the Inquisition and of St. Bartholomew, the cruelty of Philip II. and Jlenry VIII., fully equaled any thing of the sort in Turkey at the time. Since that period Christendom has ad vanced in the arts and sciences beyond Turkey; while the appalling horrors of the French Revolution, the Commune, the Cuban war, American slavery, and the Russian knout, and many other in stances too common, too awful, and too recent to be forgotten, have shown us there is still too much of the tiger blood remaining in our natures to enable us to be too free in condemning Turkish atroc ities when they are fighting to preserve their national existence. But granting that up to the time of the Greek Revolu tion Europe had completely distanced Turkey, we find that since that time there have been really great social changes and innovations in Turkey, most of them improvements and reforms. Re ligious toleration, which, as regards all sects but the Moslem, existed in Turkey before it was even dreamed of in Christen- .dom, has been extended to Mohamme dans, and a man may now in Turkey ac cept any faith he chooses, and be actual ly protected in it. Such absolute toler ation exists elsewhere only in Great Brit ain, the United States, and Germany, and one or two of the minor States of Eu rope. Numerous periodicals have been established in Constantinople, Smyrna, and elsewhere, and the censorship of the pres is less oppressive than in France. Numerous $Rorks have been printed, and scholars like AchmetVefik Pasha would be creditable to any people. Mil itary and medical colleges, and numer ous universities and educational institu tions, supported by the government or by private enterprise, have been founded, while the circulation of the Bible and re ligious works of every manner of belief is carried on throughout the empire with perfect freedom. The army and navy are organized and armed entirely upon European models, with the exception of the irregular soldiery, and many of the officers and members of the government have been educated abroad. The slave trade in women has been practically abol ished, and there is a strong tendency to introduce reforms in the garb and regu lations of the harem itself. And, to crown all, a legislative body has been or ganizednd Moslem and Christian have been placed on an equality. These and numerqus&ther reforms have all been ac complished within forty years, and have naturdirymet with opposition from the conservatives, while the brevity of the time thatJhas since elapsed does not allow us yet fully to judge of the possible re sults. But it is only fair to the Turks to allow them credit for the reforms they have attempted to accomplish, and for the fact that if some of these reforms had depended upon the fanaticism of the na tive Christians, little would have been done in this direction. S. G. W. Benja min, ia Harper's Magazine. A Strange Woman. It would seem, judging from the hero ine of the following sketch, that cleanli ness is not necessary to perfect health. A wealthy English widow, of the first George's time, never allowed her room to be cleansed, and the windows were so in crusted with dirt as to permit scarcely any light. She reasoned thus, when asked for an explanatien: If the room were wetted she might catch cold; if the windows were cleaned glass might be broken and somebody hurt. She never washed herself for fear of cold ; as a sub stitute she anointed her face and neck with a little milk and hog's lard, finished off with a touch of rose pink on her I cheeks. She was methodical in her hab its, eating with one favorite knife, fork and plate, and drinking out of one cup. She had excellent health, abhorred physic and doctors, and cut two new teeth at the age of eighty-seven. She had no near re lations, and refused to see those more distantly related. One pleasant charac teristic is recorded : she had a large, well kept garden, in which she passed the most of her time' reading. Although she lived entirely through the reign of the First and Second Georges, and far into that of the Third, she continued to wear fashions of the time of George First as be ing those of her married life. Notwith standing this, she was everywhere treated with respect. Perhaps her gold had something to do with that, however. Her household consisted of one servant (an old man), two lap-dogs and a cat; and these were her only companions. She survived until extreme old age. Got Eneugh: Tobacco at Last. On the 20th of August a curious case of poi soning by nicotine occurred in Turin. GioTanni Delogdes, aged 17, visited that city in compliance with an invitation from his uncle. After dining he joined his uncle and several friends in the room allotted him during his stay in Turin. There they drank light wine and smoked continually until the early hours. When the company separated he did not cease smoking until nearly overcome by sleep. His room was completely im pregnated witk smoke, and the young man, suffocated by the excessive quantity of nicotine he had enhaled, never woke again, although every effort was made" to revive him. Dr. jTessler, of, Turin, was ot the opinion thatdeath was. the ieauit ui puibuuiug uy uiuuuuc. jg "If you call that coffee," said Squib to his landlady, "you don't know beans." Skobeloff Storming a Redoubt. He had four regiments of the line, and four battalions of sharpshooters. Still keeping up his murderous fire, he formed under its cover two regiments, the Vla dimiraki and theZoozoski, in the little hollow at the foot of the low hill on which was built the redoubt, together with two battalions of sharpshooters, not more than twelve .hundred yards from the scarp. Then placing himself in the best position for watching the result, he ceased fire and ordered the advance. He ordered the assaultiug party not to fire, and they rushed forward with their guns on their shoulders, with music playing and banners flying, and disappeared in the fog and smoke. Skobeloff is the only general who places himself near enough to feel the pulse of a battle. The ad vancing column was indistinctly seen, a dark mass in the fog and smoke. Feel ing, as it were, every throb of the battle, he saw this line begin to waver and hesi tate. Upon the instant he hurled for ward a rival regiment to support, and again watched the result. This new force carried the mass further on with its momentum, but the Turkish redoubt flamed and smoked, and poured forth such a torrent of bullets that the line was again shaken. Skobeloff stood in the shower of balls unhurt. All his es cort were killed or wounded, even to the little Kirghiz, who received a bullet in the shoulder. Again he saw the line hesitate and waver, and he flung his fourth and last regiment, the Libausky, on the glacis. Again this new wave car ried the preceding ones forward, until they were almost on the scarp; but that deadly shower of bullets poured upon them; men dropped by hundreds, and the result still remained doubtful. The line ouce more wavered and hesitated. Not a moment was to be lost, if the re doubt was to be carried. Skobeloff had now only two battalions of sharpshooters left, the bebt in his de tachment. Putting himself at the head of these, he dashed forward on horse back. He picked up the stragglers; he reached the wavering, fluctuating mass, and gave it the inspiration of his courage and instruction. He picked the whole mass and carried it forward with a rush and a cheer. The whole redoubt was a mass of flame and smoke, from which screams, shouts, and cries of agony and defiance arose, with the deep-mouth bel lowing of the cannon, and, above all, the steady, awful crash of that deadly rifle fire. SkobelofFs sword was cut in two in the middle. Then, a moment later, when just on the point of leaping the ditch, horse and man rolled together on the ground, the horse dead or wounded, the rider untouched. He sprang to his feet with a shout, then, with a formidable, savage yell, the whole mass of men streamed over the ditch, over the scarp and counterscarp, over the parapet, and swept into the redoubt like a hurricane. Their bayonets made short work of the Turks still remaining. Then a joyous cheer told that the redoubt was captured, and that at last one of the defenses ol Plevna was ia the hands of the Russians. Having seen as much as I have seen of the Turkibh infantry fire irom be hind trenches and walls, I thought it was beyond flesh and blood to breck it, a belief which had been strengthened by KirlofFs repulse, which I had just wit nessed. Skobeloff proved ihe contrary, but at what a sacrifice I In that short rush of a few hundred yards, 3,000 men had been loft on the hill-side, on the glacis, the scarp and the ditch one fourth of his whole force. I believe that Skobeloff looks upon such attacks upon such positions as almost criminal, and disapproved highly the whole plau of at tack on Plevna; but he believes that if any attack is to be made it can only be done in this manner, and that, although the loss of men may be great, it is better that the loss should be incurred and the victory won, than half the loss with the certainty of defeat. Skobeloff seems to be the only one among the Kussian gen erals who have studied the American war with profit. Iandon News. A Powerful Stratagem of Rhet oric. Monsieur Chaix d'Est Ange re cently died in Paris. He was one of the greatest lawyers of France, and his great est triumph at the bar, and one of the greatest triumphs ever obtained at the bar, was achieved in the case of a man called Benoit whom he was prosecuting for paricide. Benoit had all along per sisted in declaring he was innocent, and there was nothing but circumstantial evi dence against him. M. Chaix d'Est Ange resolved to employ one of the most startling and dramatic figures of rhetoric ever used in a court of law. Turning to the prisoner he placed the scene of the murder in vivid and strik ing language before him: "There," he cried, "sat your father, quietly reading the paper, near the win dow. He could not see who came into the room. You paused one moment and then raised the hatchet " "Yes, yes!" cried Benoit, ''that's it; that's how I did it 1" What the repeated interrogatives of the examining magistrates had failod to elicit from the murderer was forced from him by the eloquence of the barrister. Constantinople has a circumference of about thirteen miles. Its harbor, the "Golden Horn," is a long, capacious in let of the Bosphorus, running along the northeast side of the city, with sufficient depth for the largest vessels and capable of receiving 1,200 sailing vessels at one time. k The Greenbackers.of. 2ew York. want "a law to sustain labor."' What we need just now is a little more labor to sustain law. Portland (Me ) Transcript. By the Late Dr. TV. W. Hall. POISONS. Poisons either burn or give other dis comfort in passing down the throat; these are organic poisons, and are metallic, de stroying the delicate lining of the parts along which they pass and causing in flammation more or less painful and dan gerous, including all strong acids. There are other poisons which may be swal lowed unawares, as laudanum, paregoric, morphine and the like. As the time for saving life in case of poisoning sometimes passes within five minutes or less, every head of a family and every intelligent person should have some general principles of action, with coolness of manner, so as to give the power to act advantageously in any emer gency. If an alkaloid as opium, or morphia, or other anodyne has been taken, all of which produce dullness of every grade to stupor and iusensibility, the first point is to get it out of the stomach as instanta neously as possible; put a heaping tea spoonful of salt and as much ground mustard in half a glass of water, stir it and drink instantly. In a moment of time violent vomiting takes place, which should be promoted afterwards by drink ing warm wTater, which further dilutes the poison. In a few moments drink freely of strong coffee; this helps to an tagonize any of the poison which may re main. If the patient seems dull or sleepy, he should be taken under the arms by two persons and made to walk actively until he is fully waked up; if that cannot be done, put him under the pump and let the water fall on his head while sitting up, from a distance of two feet, from a pitcher or bucket until he is fully awake; for if you do not wake him he dies. In case of organic or metallic poisoning, scalding the throat in its pas sage, the first grea't point is dilution; the most accessible thing is warm water, but warm milk is better, and liquid oils or hog's lard are better still, for they not only dilute but they soothe and shield the parts in a very grateful manner; keep on drinking them until free vomit ing is induced; then swallow the whites of several fresh eggs, which combine with the most acrid poisons and form chemical compounds, harmless and inert, of any remnant of poison which may be left alter the vomiting. But while these things are doing, send for' a physician, and when he comes tell him all that has been done and show him what has been vomited. For many poisons there are more specific antidotes than the above; but most of them are seldom at hand. The points instantly to be arrived at are, in painless poisons, to get them out of the stomach instantly. If painful, dilute first, cover the burned parts with some soothing material, as oils, and then get them out of the stomach. Strong coffee and whites of eggs are good for both kinds of poisons. Americans in Paris. Americans make the best Frenchmen of all the foreigners who flock here. The Russians, a large colony always, are al ways Russe,extravagaut, barbaric in splen dor, and gross to excess in carriages, women, wine and diamonds. A pet mon key showering about a casket of the Esterhazy diamonds is a good illustration of a rich young Russian ooyard scatter ing his first crop of wild oats on the fruit ful soil of Paris. The English are al ways English wherever you find them, and will want some little isle of light in the next world. Egotistical, selfish, economical to parsimony, faultfinding and supercilious, they are the betes noir of the continent. The German rarely travels, wastes no money, assimilates with nothing but beer. The American, after a brief residence, waxes his moustache, wears lacquered boots, swings a cane as slender and deli cate as a lace thread, drinks black coffee in tiny cups on the boulevards, says "Pardon, Monsieur," twice a minute,and places his right hand on his heart when bowing to a lady. TVhat endears him most to the Parisians' heart is the noble disregard of cost which characterizes the American sovereign abroad. If the Duke of Hamilton has a fine suite of rooms,au premiere, at the Hotel St. Germaine, the bonanza king wants the whole of the first floor. If Prince Paul Demidoff has a saloon box for his mistress at the Xew Opera House (which will cost the nation $20,000,000 when finished), some lucky Baldwin of the Best and Belcher mine takes two boxes and fills them with dia monds and questionable women. That's the sort of a man the American in Paris generally is, to the extent of his means. Paris Gorr. Washington Capital. Pleasant for Him. xVn honest Eng lish farmer, while harvesting, kept his gun near-him to shoot pigpons. Seeing one, he reached out and took the gun by the muzzle, but, in-drawing it toward him, by some means the gun went off,and the contents passed near his head without injuring him. iLs soon as he had sura. ciently recovered irom the shock he has tened to the house, and informed his wife of his narrow escape; at which the good womau, who is noted for her economy, raised her hands and exclaimed, in a tone of regret, "Sure, and it's a pity that the charge was lost." The discovery of the satellite of Mars is owing to the fact that this planet is many millions of miles nearer the earth at present than for nearly eighty years. Take a good look at Mars now; you will not see him so big and bright again for nearly a century to come and it is a trifle doubtful if you will then. -, A lonely Keokuk bachelor wants to adopt a girl baby, not less than eighteen years old. Mars. When Galileo turned towards Mars the telescope with which he had discovered the moons of Jupiter,the crescent form of Ve nus and many other wondersin the heavens he was altogether disappointed. His tele scope was indeed too small to show any features of interest in Mars, though the planet of wTar is much nearer to us than. Jupiter. Mars is but a small world. The diameter of the planet is about 4,400 miles, that of our earth, being nearly 8,000. Jupiter, though much farther away, has his immense diameter of more than 80,000 miles, to make up for the ef fect of distance. With his noble system of moons he appears a remarkable ob ject even with a small telescope, but Mars shows fewer features of interest even with telescopes of considerable size. It was not, then, till very powerful tel escopes had been constructed that astron omers learned what we now know about Mars. It is found that his surface is divided into land and water, like the surface or our own earth. But his sers and oceans are not nearly so large compared with his continents and lands. You kuow that on our own earth the water covers so much larger a surface than the land that the great continents are in reality islands. Europe, Asia and Africa together form one great island; ITorth and South America another, not quite so large; then come Australia, Greenland, Madagascar, and so forth ; all the lands being islands, larger or smaller. On the other hand, except the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Aral, there are no large seas entirely land-bound. In the case of Mars a very different state of things prevails, as you will see from the three accompanying pictures (bitherto unpublished), drawn by the famous Eng lish observer, Dawes (called the Eagle eyed.) The third and best was drawn with a telescope constructed by your fa mous optician, Aivan Clark, of Cam bridge, Massachusetts. The dark parts are the seas, the light parts being land, or in some cases cloud or snow. But in. tliese pictures most of the lighter portions, represent land ; for they have been seen, often so shaped, whereas clouds, of course, would change in shape. The planet Mars, like our earth, turns on its axis, so that it has day and night, as we have. The length of its day is not very different from that of our own day.- Our earth turns once on its axis in but before reading on, try to complete this sentence for yourself. Everv one knows that the earth's turning on its axis produces day and night, and nine persons out of ten, if asked how long the earth takes in turning on its axis, will an swer, 24 hours; Und if asked how many times she turns on her axis in a year, will say 363 times, or if disposed to be very exact, "about 363 times." But neither answer is correct. The earth turns on her axis about 3GC times in each year, and each turning occupies 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds and one-tenth of a second. We, taking tho ordinary day as the time of a turning or rotation, lose count of one rotation each year. It is necessary to mention this, in order that when I tell you how long the day of Mars is, you may be able to correctly compare it with our own day. Stars, then, turns on his axis in 24 hours 37 minutes 22 sec onds and 7 tenth-parts of a second. So that Mars requires 41 minutes 18 seconds aud six-tenths of a second longer to turn his small body once round than our eaith requires to turn round her much larger body. The common day of Slurs is, how ever, only about 30 minutes longer than that of our common day. Mars has a long year, taking no less "than 687 of our days to complete his cir cuit round the sun, so that his year lasts only about one mouth and a half less than two of ours. Like the earth, Mars has seasons for his polar axis, like that of the earth, is aslant, and at one part of his year brings, his northern regions more fully into sun light, at which time summer prevails there and winter in his southern regions;. when at the opposite part of his year his southern regions are turned more fully sunward and have their summer, while winter prevails over his northern regions.. Around his poles, as around the earth's, there are great masses ot ice, insomuch that it is very doubtful whether any in habitants of Mars have been able to pen etrate to the poles, any more than Kane or Hayes, or Jtfares or Parry, despite their courage and endurance, have been able to reach our northern pole", or Cook or Wilkes or James Ross our Antarctic pole In the summer of either hemisphere of Mars, the north Polar snows become greatly reduced in extent, as is natural, while in winter they reach to low lati tudes, showing that in parts of the planet corresponding to the United States, or mid-Europe, as to latitude, bitter cold must prevail for several weeks in succes sion. Prof. R. A. Proctor, in St. Nicholas. Out of the Mouth op a Babe. A three-year old little girl at Rochester was taught to close her evening prayer, dur ing the temporary absence of her father., with: "And please watch over my papa." f- It sounded very sweet, but the mother's amazement may be imagined when the child added : "And you'd better keep an eye on. mamma, too." . Where screws are driven into soft wood and subjected to considerable strain,, they are likely to work loose. In such cases the use of glue is recommended Prepare the glue thick; immerse a stick about half the size of the screw and put it into the hole; then immerse the screw and turn it home as quickly as possible- An Ithaca man has inverted an 18-day watch. .- ' .