Oregon City enterprise. (Oregon City, Or.) 1871-188?, December 15, 1871, SUPPLEMENT, Image 5

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To the Senate and House of Representa
tives: In addressing my third annual
message to the law-making branch of the
Government, it is gratifying to be able to
state that during the past year success has
generally attended the eflort to excute all
the laws found upon, the statute books
The policy has been not to inquire into the
wisdom of laws already enacted, but to
learn their special interest, and to enforce
them accordingly.
The past year has, under a wise Provi
dence, been one of general prosperity to
the nation. It has, however, been attended
with more than usual chastisements in loss
of life and property by storm and fire.
These disasters have served to call forth
the best elements of human nature in our
country, and to develop a friendship for us
on the part of foreign nations, which goes far
toward alleviating the distress occasioned
by the calamities. The benevolent,who have
so generally shared their means with the
victims of these misfortunes, will reap their
reward in the consciousness of having per
formed a noble act, and in receiving the
grateful thanks of men, women and
children, whose sulferings they have re
The relations of the United States with
foreign powers continue to be friendly.
The year has been an eventful one, in wit
nessing two great nations speaking one
language and having one lineage, settling,
by peaceful arbitration, disputes of long
standing, and liable at any time to bring
these nations into hostile conllict. An ex
ample has thus been set, which, if success
ful in its final issue, may be followed by
other civilized nations, "and bo the final
means of returning to productive industry
millions of men maintained to settle the
disputes of nations by tiie bayonet and
broad-sword. I transmit herewith a copy
of the treaty alluded to, which has been
concluded, since the adjournment of Con
gress, with Iter Britannic Majesty, and a
copy of the protocols of the conferences of the
Commissions by whom it was negotiated.
This treaty provides methods for adjusting
the questions pending between the two
nations. Tho various questions are to be
adjusted by arbitration. I recommend
Congress, at an early day, to make the
necessary provisions for the Tribunal of
Geneva and for the several Commissioners
on the part of the United States called for
by the treaty. His Majesty the King of
Italy, tho President of the Swiss Confeder
ation, and His Majesty the Emperor of
Brazil, havo each consented, on the joint
request of the two Powers, to name an ar
bitrator for the Tribunal at Geneva. 1 have
caused my thanks to be suitably expressed
for the readiness with which the joint re
quest has been complied with, by the ap
pointment of gentlemen of eminence and
learning to the high positions.
His Majesty, tho Emperor of Germany,
has been pleased to comply with the joint
wish of the two Governments, and has con
sented to act as the arbitrator of tho dis
puted water boundary between the United
States and Great Britain. The contracting
parties in the treaty have undertaken to
regard, as between themselves, certain
principles of public law, for which the
United States have contended from tho
commencement of their history. They
have also agreed to bring these principles
to the knowledge of the other maritime
powers, and invite them to accede to
them; negotiations are going on as to the
form of the note by which the invitation is
to bo extended to the Powers. I recom
mend the legislation necessary on the part
of the United States to bring into opera
tion the articles of the treaty relating to the
fisheries and to the other matters touching
the relations of the United States toward
the British North American possessions, to
become operative as soon as the proper leg
islation shall be had on the part of Great
Britain and its possessions. It is much to
be desired that this legislation may become
operative before the fishermen of the Uni
ted States begin to make arrangements for
the coming season. I have addressed a
communication, of which a copy is trans
mitted herewith, to the Governors of New7
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Mich
igan, Illinois and Wisconsin, urging upon
the Governments of these States respect
ively, tho necessary action on their part to
carry into effect the object of the article of
the treaty which contemplates the use of
the canals on either side connected with
the navigation of the lakes and rivers,
forming the boundary, in terms of equity,
by the inhabitants of both countries. It is
hoped that the importance of the object
and. the benefits to flow therefrom, will se
cure the speedy approval and legislative
sanction of the States concerned.
I renew the recommendation for an ap
propriation for determining the true posi
tion of the forty-ninth parallel of latitude,
where it forms the boundary between the
United States and the British North Amer
ican possessions, between the Lake of the
"Woods and the summit of the Rocky Moun
tains. The early action of Congress in the
recommendation named would put it in the
power of the War Department to place a
force in the field during the next summer.
The resumption of diplomatic relations
between France and Germany has enabled
mo to give directions for the withdrawal of
France, by the Diplomatic and Consular
representatives of tho United States in that
country. It is just to add that tho delicate
duty of this protection has been performed
by the Minister and Consul at Paris and
the various Consuls in France, under the
supervision of tho latter with great kind
ness as well as with prudence and tact.
Their course has received tho commenda
tion of the German Government, and has
wounded no susceptibilities of the French.
The Government of the Emperor of Ger-
manv continues to manifest a friendly
feeliner toward tho United States, and a de
sire to harmonize with the moderate and
just policy which this Government main
tains in its relations with Asiatic powers,
as well as with the South American Repub
lics. I have given assurance that the
friendly feelings of that Government are
fullv shared by the United States. The
ratification of the consular and naturaliza
tion connections with Austria and Hun
gary have been exchanged.
I have been officially informed of the
annexation of the States of the Church to
the Kingdom of Italy and the removal of
the capital of that Kingdom to Home. In
conformity with the established policy of
the United states, l nave recognized this
chanace. The ratification of the new treatv
of commerce between tho United States
and Italy has been exchanged. The two
powers have agreed in their treaty that
property at sea shall be exempt from cap
ture in case of war between the two pow
ers. The United States have spared no op
portunity of incorporating this rule into
the obligations oi nations.
The Forty-first Congress, at its third ses
sion, made an appropriation for the organi
zation of a Mixed Commission, for adjudi
cating upon the claims of citizens of the
United States against Spain, growing out
of the insurrection in Cuba. That Com
mission has since been organized. I trans
mit herewith the correspondence relating
to its formation and its jurisdiction. It is
to be hoped that this Commission will af
ford the claimants a complete remedy for
their injuries. It has been made the agree
able duty of the United States to preside
over a Conference at Washington between
the Plenipotentiaries of Spain and the al
lied South American Republics, which has
resulted in an armistice, with the reasona
ble assurance of permanent peace.
The intimate friendly relations which
have so long existed between the United
States and Russia continue undisturbed.
The visit of the third son of the Emperor
is a proof that there is no desire on the
part of his Government to diminish the
cordialitj- of these relations. The hospita
ble reception which has been given to the
Grand Duke is a proof that on our side we
share the wishes of that Government. The
inexcusable course of the Russian Minister
at Washington, rendered it neoessarv to
ask his recall, and to decline to longer re
ceive that functionary as a diplomatic rep
resentative. It was impossible, with self
respect or with a just regard to the dignity
of the country, to permit Mr. Catacazy to
continue to hold interviews with this Gov
ernment, after his abuse of Government
officials, and during his persistent interfer
ence, through various means, with the re
lations between the United States and other
powers. In accordance with my wishes,
he has been relieved of further intercourse
with our Government, and the manage
ment of the affairs of the Imperial nation
has passed into the hands of a gentleman
entirely unobjectionable.
With Japan we continue to maintain in
timate relations. The Cabinet of the Mika
do has, since the close of the last session
of Congress, selected citizens of the United
States to serve in offices of importance in
several Departments of the Government.
I have reason to think that this selection is
due to an appreciation of the disinterested
ness of the policy which the United States
has pursued toward Japan. It is our de
sire to continue to maintain this disinter
ested and just policy with China as well as
The correspondence transmitted here
with shows that there is no disposition on
the part of this Government to swerve from
its established course. Prompted by a de
sire to put an end to the barbarous treat
ment of our shipwrecked sailors on the
Corean coast, I instructed our Minister at
Pekiu to endeavor to conclude a conven
tion with Corea for securing the safety
and humane treatment of such marines.
Admiral Rogers was instructed to accom
pany him with a sufficient force to protect
him in case of need. A small surveying
party was sent out, and on reaching the
coast was treacherously attacked at a dis
advantage. Ample opportunity was given
for explanation and apology for the insult,
but neither came. A force was then land
ed, and, after an arduous march over a
rugged and difficult country, the forts
from which the outrage, had been commit
ted were gallantly assaulted, and were des
troyed. Having thus punished the crim
inals, and having vindicated the honor of
the flag, the expedition returned, finding
it impracticable, under tho circumstances,
to conclude the desired convention. I re
spectfully refer to the correspondence re
lating thereto, herewith submitted, and
leave the subject for such action as Con
gress may see fit to take.
The Republic of Mexico has not yet re
pealed the very objectionable laws estab
lishing what is known as a free zone on the
frontier ef the United States. It is hoped
that this may yet be done, and also that
stringent measures may be taken bv the
Republic restraining lawless persons upon
the frontier. I hope that Mexico, by its
own action, will soon relieve this Govern
ment of the difficulties experienced from
these causes.
Our relations with the various Republics
of the continent and South America con
tinue, with one exception, to be cordial and
friendly. I recommend some action by
Congress regarding the overdue install
ments, under the award of the Venzuela
Claims Commission of 1SGG. The internal
dissensions of this government present no
justification for the absence of eflorts to
meet their solemn treaty obligations. The
ratification of an extradition treaty with
Nicaragua has been exchanged. It is a
subject for congratulation that tho great
empire of Brazil has taken the initiatory
steps toward the abolition of slavery. Our
relations with that empire, always cordial,
will naturally be made more so by this act.
It is not too much to hope that the govern
ment of Brazil may herealter find it lor its
interest, as well as internationally right, to
advance toward entire emancipation more
rapidly than the present act contemplates.
The true prosperity and greatness of a na
tion is to be found in the elevation and
education of its laborers.
It is a subject for regret that the reforms
in this direction wnicn were voluntarily
promised by Spain have not been carried
out in tho West India colonies. The laws
and regulations for the apparent abolition
of slavery in Cuba and Porto Rico leave
most of the laborers in bondage, with no
hop of their release until their lives be
come a burden to their employers, x de
sire to direct your attention to the fact,
that citizens of the United States are large
holders in foreign lands of this species of
property forbidden by the fundamental
law of their own country. I recommend
to Congress to provide by stringent legis
lation, a suitable remedy against the hold
ing, owning or dealing in slave property
iuforeign lands, either as owners, hirers
or mortgagees by citizens of this Govern
It is to be regretted that the disturbed
condition of the Island of Cuba continues
to be a source of annoyance and ot anxi
ety. The existence of a protracted strug
gle in such close proximity to our o u ter
ritory, without apparent prospect of an
nnrlv termination, cannot be other than an
object of concern to a people who, while
chchniniii!? from interference in the affairs
r,f nthfir nowers. naturally desire to see
every country in the undisturbed enjoy
ment of peace, liberty and the blessings of
free institutions. Our naval commanders
in r.iiian waters have been instructed, in
caso in should become necessary, to spare
no effort to protect the lives ana property
of bona fide American citizens, and to
tho fiiVnitv of tho Has:. it is
im'no,! that nil rendin: questions vrith
Spain, growing out of the affairs in Cuba,
mav lin in the spirit of peace and
conciliation which has hitherto guided the
two imwprs in their treatment of such
To give importance and to add to the effi
ciency of our diplomatic relations with
China and Japan, and to further in obtain
ing the good opinions of these people, and
to secure to the United States its share of
the commerce destined to flow between
these nations and the balance of the com
mercial world, I earnestly recommend that
an appropriation be made to support at
least four American 3'ouths in each of those
countries to servo as part of the official
family of our Ministers there. Our repre
sentatives would not even then be placed
on an equality with the representatives ot
great Britain and some other powers. As
situated, our representatives in Japan and
China have to depend for interpreters and
translators upon the natives of those coun
tries, who know our language imperfect',
or procure for the occasion the services of
employes in foreign business houses or
the interpreters to other foreign Minister's.
I would also recommend liberal meas
ures for the purpose of supporting the
American lines of steamers now plying be
tween San Francisco, Japan and China, and
the Australian line, almost our only re
maining lines of ocean steamers, and of in
creasing their service.
The National debt has been reduced to
the extent of ?8(3,057,12G 80 during the year,
and by the negotiation of National bonds
at a lower rate of interest, the interest on
the public debt has been so far diminished
that now the sum to be raised for interest
account is nearly seventeen million of dol
lars less than on the 1st of March, 1809. It
was highly desirable that this rapid dimu
nition should t ake place, both to strengthen
the credit of the country and to convince
its citizens of their entire ability to meet
every dollar of liability without bankrupt
ing them. But in view of the accomplish
ment of these desirable ends, of the rapid
development of the resources of the coun
try, its increasing ability to meet the large
demands, and the amount already paid, it
is not desirable that tho present resources
of the country should be taxed in order to
continue this rapid payment.
I therefore recommend a modification of
both the Tariff and Internal Tax laws. I
recommend that all taxes from internal
sources be abolished, except those on spir
ituous, vinous and malt liquors, tobacco
in its various forms, and from stamps.
In readjusting tho tariff, I suggest that a
careful estimate be made of the amount of
surplus revenue collected under the pres
ent laws, after providing for the current
expenses of the Government, the interest
account, and a Sinking Fund, and that
this surplus be reduced in sucli a manner
as to afford the greatest relief to the
est number.
There are many articles not produced at
home, such as medicines compounded,
from which very little revenue is derived,
but which enter into general use. All
such articles I recommend to be placed on
the free list; should a further reduction
prove advisable, I would then recommend
that it be made upon those articles which
can bear it without disturbing home pro
duction, or reducing the wages of Ameri
can labor. I havo not entered into figures,
because to do so would be to repeat all that
will be laid beforo you in the report of
tho Secretary of the Treasury.
The present laws for collecting revenues
pay the collectors of customs small sal
aries, but provide for shares in all seizures,
which, at the principal ports of entry par
ticularly, raise the compensation of those
officials to a large sum. It has always
seemed to mo as if this system must at
times work perniciously; it holds out in
ducements to dishonest men, should such
got possession of those offices, to be lax in
their scrutiny of goods entered, to enable
them finally to make large seizures. Your
attention is respectfully invited to this sub
The continued fluctuations in the value
of gold, compared with the national cur
rency, has a most damaging effect upon
tho increase and development of the coun
try, in keeping up prices of all articles
necessary in every-day life; it fosters a
spirit of gambling, prejudicial alike to na
tional morals and national finances. If
the question can be met as to how to got a
fixed value to our currency that value
constantly and uniforml3r approaching par
with specie a very desirable objectjwould
be gained.
For the operations of the army in the
past year, the expense of maintaining it,
the estimates for the ensuing vear, and for
continuing the sea coast and other im
provements, under the supervision of the
War. Department, I refer you to tho accom
panying report ol the Secretary ot War.
call your attention to the provisions of
the Act of Congress, approved March
3d, 1SG9, which discontinues promo
tion in tho Stall Corps ot tho Armv
until provided for by law. I recommend
that the number of officers in each grade
of Staff Corps be fixed, and that whenever
the number, in any one grade, falls below
the number so fixed, that the vacancy may
be filled by promotion from the grade be
low. I also recommend that when the of
fice of Chief of Corps becomes vacant, the
place may be filled by selection from the
Corps in which the vacancy exists.
The report of the Secretary of tho Navy
shows an improvement in the number and
efficiency of the naval force without mate
rial increase in tho expense ot supporting
it. This is due to the policy which has
been adopted and is being extended as far
as our material will admit, of using smaller
vessels as cruisers on tho several stations.
By this means we have been enabled to oc
cupy at once a larger extent oi cruising
ground, and to visit more irequentiy the
ports where the presence ot our flag is de
sirable, and generally to discharge more
efficiently the appropriate duties of the
navy in time of peace, without exceeding
the number of men or the expenditures
authorized by law.
During the past 3rear the Navy has, in
addition to its regular service, supplied the
men and;ofiicersfor the vessels of the Coast
Survev, and has completed the surveys au
thorized bv Congress of the Isthmus of
Darien and Tehauntepec, and under like
authority has sent out an expedition, com
pletely furnished and equipped, to explore
the unknown ocean ot the iSorth.
The suggestion of the report as to the
necessity for increasing and improving the
material ot the Navy, and the plan recom
mended for reducing the personnel of the
service to a peace standard by the gradual
abolition of certain grades ot officers, the
reduction of others and the employment of
soino in the service of the commercial
marine, are all considered and deserve the
thoughtful attention of Congress.
I also recommend that all promotions in
the navv above the rank of Captain be
made by selection instead of seniority.
j-ms course win secure in the higher
grades greater efficiency, and hold out an
incentive to young omcers to improve
themselves in the knowledge of their pro
fession. The present cost of maintaining
the Navy, and the cost compared with that
of the preceding year, and tho estimates
for the ensuing year, are contained in the
accompanying report of the Secretary of
tho Navy.
As shown by the accompanying report of
the Postmaster General, exhibits a gratify
ing increase in that branch of the public ser
vice. It is the index of the growth of edu
cation and of the prosperity of the peoole.
two elements highly conducive to the vigor 1
and stability ol republics, with a vast ter
ritory like ours, much of it sparsely popu
lated, but all requiring the services of the
mail, it is not at present to be expected that
this Department can be made self-sustaining,
but a gradual approach to this end
from year to year is confidently relied on,
and the day is not far distant when the
Postoffice Department of the Government
will prove a much greater blessing to the
whole people than it does now.
The suggestion of tho Postmaster Gen
eral for improvements in the Department
presided over hy him are earnestly recom
mended to your special attention, espec
ially documents favoring the consideration
of the plan for
Of the United States with the postal S3-S-
tem. it is oenevea that by such a course
the cost of telegraphing could be much re
duced, and the service as well if not better
rendered. It would secure further ad
vantage by extending the telegraph
through portions of the country where
private enterprise will not construct it.
Commerce, trade and above all the efforts
to bring a people widely separated into a
community of interest are always benefit
ed by a rupid intercommunication. Edu
cation, the ground work of Republican in
stitutions, is encouraged by increasing the
facilities, to gather with speed news from
an parts ot the country, the desire to reap
the benehts ot such improvements will
stimulate education. 1 refer you to the
report of tho Postmaster General, for full
details of tho operations of last year and
for comparative statements of results with
former years.
There has been imposed upon the Exec
utive branch of the Government, the exe
cution of tho Act of Congress approved
April 20th, 1871, and commonly known as
the Ku Klux Daw, in a portion of tho State
of South Carolina. Tho necessity of the
course pursued will bo demonstrated by
the report of the Committee to investigate
the Southern outrages. Under the provis
ions of the above Ac! I issued a procla
mation calling the attention of the people
of the United States to the same, and de
claring my reluctance to exercise any of
tho extraordinary powers thereby confer
red upon me, except in caso of imperative
necessity, but making known my purpose
to exercise such powers whenever it should
become necessary to do so for the purpose
of securing to all citizens of the United
States the peaceful enjoyment of the rights
guaranteed to them by the Constitution
and the laws.
After the passage of this law, informa
tion was received from time to time that a
combination of characters referred to in
this law existed, and were powerful in
many parts of the Southern States, partic
ularly in certain countiss of South Caroli
na. Careful investigation was made, and
it was ascertained that in nine counties of
that State secret combinations were active
and powerful, embracing a sufficient por
tion of the citizens to contest the local
authority, and having among other things
the object of depriving the emancipated
class of tho substantial benefits of free
dom, and of the privilege of the free polit
ical action of those citizens who did not
sympathize with their own views. Among
their operations were frequent scourgings
and occasional assassinations, generally
perpetrated at night by disguised persons.
Their victims in almost all cases were citi
zens of different political sentiments from
their own, or free persons who had shown
a -iisposition to claim equal rights with
other citizens. Thousands of inoffensive
and well-disposed citizens were the suffer
ers by this lawless violence. Thereupon,
on the 13th of October, 1871, a proclamation
was issued in the terms of the law, call
ing upon the members of the combina
tions to disperse within fivo days, and to
deliver to tho Marshal or military officers
of the United States all arms, ammu
nition, uniforms, disguises, and other
means and implements used by them for
carrying out their unlawful purposes.
This warning not having been heeded, on
the 17th of October another proclamation
was issued, suspending tho writ of habeas
corpus in nine counties in that State. Di
rection was given that within the coun
ties so designated persons supposed, on
credible information, to be members of
such unlawful combinations should bo ar
rested by tho military forces of the United
States and delivered to the Marshal to be
dealt with according to law. In two of
said counties many arrests have been
made. At the last accounts the number of
persons thus arrested was one hundred
and sixty-eight. Several hundred, whose
criminality was ascertained to be of an in
ferior degree, were released for tho pres
ent, these having generally made confes
sions of their guilt. Great caution has been
exercised in making these arrests, and,
notwithstanding the larue number, it is
believed that no innocent person is now in
custody. Tho prisoners will be held for
regular trial in Judiciary tribunals of the
United States.
As soon as it appeared that the authorities
of the United States were about to take
vigorous measures to enforce the law, many
persons absconded, ard there is good
ground for supposing that all of such per
sons have been violators of tho law. A full
report of what has been done under this
law will be submitted to Congress by the
Repugnant to civilization, decency, and to
the laws of the United States. Territorial
officers, however, have been found who are
willing to perform their duty in a spirit of
equity and with a duo sense of sustaining
t he majesty ot the law. IN either polygamy
nor any other violation of existing statutes
will be permitted within the territory of
the United States. It is not with the re
ligion of the self-styled saints that we are
now dealing, but their practices. They
will be protected in the worship of God ac
cording to the dictates of their consciences,
but they will not be permitted to violate
the laws under the cloak of religion.
It may be advisable for Congress to con
sider what in the execution of laws against
polygamy is to be the status of plural
wives and their offspring; the propriety of
Congress passing an enabling Act author
izing the Territorial Legislature of Utah to
legitimatize all born prior to a time fixed
in the Act might be justified by its hu
manity to these innocent children. This is
a suggestion only, and not a recommenda
15. 1871.
Has resulted favorably, so far as rn ,
judged from the limited time during which
it has been in operation. Through the Sorts
of the various societies of ChrlsUans to
whom has been intrusted the execution of
the policy, and the Board of Commission
ers authorized by the law of April 10th
1809, many tribes of Indians have been
induced to settle upon reservations, to cul
tivate the soil, and perform productive la
bor of various kinds, and to part ially accept
civilization. These are being cared for in
such a way, it is hoped, as to induce those
still pursuing their old habits of life to em
brace tho only opportunity which is left
them to avoid extermination. I recommend
liberal appropriations to carry out the In
dian peace polity, not only because it is
humane,;Christiaa-like and economical.but
because it is right. I recommend to your
favorable consideration also the policy of
granting a Territorial Government to In
dians in the Indian Territory, west of Ar
kansas and Missouri, and south of Kansas.
In doing so every right guaranteed to the
Indians by treatv should bo
Such a course misfit, in tim. ltl mana
of collecting most of the Indians now be
tween tho Missouri river and Pacific ocean,
and south of tho British Possessions, into
one Territory or one State.
Tho Secretary of the Interior has a treaty
upon this subject at length, and I recom
mend to you his suggestions.
I renew my recommendation that the
public lands be regarded as a heritage to
our children, to be disposed of only as re
quired for occupation and to actual settler.
Those already granted have been, in groat
part, disposed of in such a way as to secure
access to the balance by the hardy settler
who may wish to avail himself of them,
but caution should be exercised.
Then, in attaining so desirable an object,
our educational interests may well be as
sisted by the grant of proceeds of sale of
public lands to settlers. I do not wish to
bo understood as recommending in the
least degree a curtailment of what is being
done by the General Government for the
encouragement of education.
Submitted with this, will give you infor
mation collected and prepared for publica
tion in regard to the census taken during
the year 1870, tho operations of the Bureau
of Education for tho year, the Patent;Of
lice, the Pension Office, tho Land Office
and the Indian Bureau.
Gives the operations of his Department for
the year. As agriculture is the ground
work of our prosperity, too much impor
tance cannot be attached to the labors of
this Department. It is in tho hands
of an able head, with able assistants, all
zealously devoted to introducing into the
agricultural productions of the nation all
useful products adapted to any of the var
ious climates and soils of our vast terri
tory, and to giving all useful information
as to the method of cultivation of tho
plants, cereals and other products adapted
to it particularly. Quietly but surely
And if liberally supported, the more wide
ly its influence will be extended and the
less dependent we shall be upon tho prod
ucts of foreign countries.
Tho subject of compensation to tho heads
of Bureaus and officials holding positions
of responsibility and requiring ability and
character to fill such properly, in one to
which attention is invited. But few of tho
officials receive a compensation equal to
the respectable support of a family, while
their duties are such as to involve million
of interest. In private life services demand
compensation equal to the services render
ed; a wise economy would dictate tho same
rule in the Government service. I have
not given tho
For the ensuing year, nor the comparative
statement between the expenditures ot tho
year just passed and the one just preced
ing, because all these figures are Contained
in the accompanying reports, or in those
presented directly to Congress. These es
timates have my approval.
More than six years having elapsed since
tho last hostile gun was fired between the
armies then arrayed against each other,
one for the perpetuation, the other for tho
destruction of tho Union. It may well be
considered whether it is not now time that
That instrument does not exclude the bal
lot, but only requires the disability to hold
office of certain classes; when the purhYy of
tho ballot-box is secure, a majority of
one is sure to elect officers reflecting tho
views of the majority. I do not see tho
advantage or propriety of excluding men
irom omce merely because they were, be
foro the Rebellion, of standing and charac
ter sufficient to be elected to positions re
quiring them to take oath to support the
Constitution, and admitting to eligibility
those entertaining precisely the same
views, but of less standing in their com
munities. It may be said the former vio
lated an oath, while the latter did not.
Tho latter did not have it in their power to
do so; if they had taken this oath, it can
not be doubted that they would have
broken it as did the former class. If thero
are any great criminals distinguished above
all others for the part they took in oppos
ition to the Government, they might, in
tho judgment of Congress, bo excluded
from such an amnesty. This subject is
submitted to your careful consideration.
The condition of the Southern States is,
unhappily, not such as all true patriotic citi
zens would like to see; social ostracism for
opinion's sake, personal violence, or
threats toward persons entertaining politi
cal views opposed to those entertained by
the majority of the citizens; prevents im
migration and tho flow of much-needed
capital into tho States lately in rebellion.
It will be a happy condition of the country
when the old citizens of these States will
take an interest in public affairs, promul
gate ideas honestly entertained, vote for
men representing their views, permit the
sole freedom of expression and ballot in
those entertaining different political con
Under the provisions of the Act of Con
gress, approved February 21st, 1871, a Ter
ritorial Government was organized in tho
District of Columbia. Its results have thus
far fully realized the expectations of its ad
vocates. Under the direction of the Terri
torial officers a system of improvements
has been inaugurated, by means of which
Washington is rapidly becoming a city
worthy of the Nation's Capital, the citizens
Of the District having voluntarily taxed
themselves to a large amount for" the pur
pose of contributing to the advancement of
the seat of Government.
On the part of Congress, in order that the
Government may bear its just share of the
expenses of carrying out various systems,
of improvement.