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About Beaver State herald. (Gresham and Montavilla, Multnomah Co., Or.) 190?-1914 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 11, 1913)
NEWS NOTES OF
Resume of World’s Important
Events Told in Briei
A house committee proposes to build
mail ears for government use.
Party line« were entirely forgotten
In a currency debate in the senate.
Mr. and Mrs. Sayre, the White
House newlyweds, hsve arrived in
A terrific snow storm, accompanied
by a 60-mlls gale, swept the New Eng
The president of the Missouri Pacific
says low rates ti rsatsn the solvency
of the railroads.
Democratic leaders regard Wilson's
nomination for president in the next
campaign as certain.
It ia claimed the Coast artillery Is
abort of men necessary to properly
man the fortifications.
Cincinnati was practically •dry”
for several days, owing to the break-
ing of a 60-inch water main.
An international campaign to pre
serve the game birds and animals of
ths world haa been started at Berne,
San Francisco Chinese
Uphold Rebel Caoae
San Francisco—If the radical wing
of Uw revolutionary party in China
succeeds in Ite plane to start an up
rising for the overthrow of President
Yuan Shi Kai it will receive financial
aid and moral support from the San
Francisco Chinese, who filled the war
chests that overthrew the Manchu
Two thousand members of
____ _ China
association, at a secret
meeting In Chinatown, adopted resolu
tions indorsing ths plans of ths radical
wing for immediate civil war. The
San Francisco Chinese also tabled a
promise to send their reaerve fund
when it should be needed.
News of the radicals' action spread
like wildfire throughout the section.
Coincident with the news of the
Young China association's action haa
come the disclosure of a split in the
revolutionary forces in China.
Officials of the Young China asso
ciation. which financed and directed
the war against the Manchus from
this city, explained that the revolu
tionary party in China was divided in
to radicals and conservatives.
radicals favor immediate rebellion to
overthrow President Yuan Shi Kai,
whom they charge with seeking to set
himself up as emperor.
are directed by Dr. Sun Yat Sen,
former provisional president of China,
who, though in Kobe, is In complete
touch with the situation.
City’s Work Arranged to
Portland. Or., gave a "municipal"
band concert, charging 10 cents ad
Portland—For the benefit of labor
mission, and took in 366. The ex*
ers and others unable to secure work
pense was 3200.
during the winter months, the city
A theatrical manager at Oregon
City, Or., held a "fake" baby lottery. commission has decided to change its
and ths house could not hold the heavy construction season in the water
crowds who bought tickets.
and sewer departments from Summer
to the winter months. In accordance
Vilhjalmar's Stefansson's Arctic ex
with the policy, as much of the sewer
ploration vessel, the Karluk, is drift
and water main laying will be put
ing helplessly in an ice pack some
through between now and spring as
where in the Arctic, with 25 of the
possible, and work will be shut down
crew on board.
during the summer, either partially
A terrific storm Nov. 30 dashed or altogether.
The change Is season has been
water against the lenses of the light
on Tillamook Rock, off the Oregon brought about by labor conditions
coast, 132 feet above average high which members of the commission say
are bad. Mayor Albee says there is
water, breaking one of the glasses.
not a day that he does not receive
Remnants of the Mexican federal letters, telephone calls or personal
garrison of Chihuahua together with calls from persons who cannot get
many other rebel troops and officers work and have families to support.
and many civilians, have
Ojinga, across the Rio Grande from
Presidio, Tex., after a
march of 185 miles through a region
parched by heat and devastated by the
Walla Walla. Wash.—That the State
college experiment station ia trying
Dr. Anna Shaw has been re-elect«! to grow wheat which will resist smut,
head of the North American Woman was told at the college extension
school here. G. Schaefer said that
the collgee has secured an Alaskan
Denver, Colo., 1» completely tied up wheat which resists smut, but which
by a heavy »now«torm and blitxard.
haa a low yield and milling quality.
Mrs. Pankhurst arrived in England It haa been crossed with Washington
and was arrested on board the steamer wheat of high yield and milling qual
ity, and it is hoped the hybrid will
before she could land.
have the good qualities of both.
Fruitgrowers of North Yakima,
L. C. Crow, of Pullman, president
Wash., won about 11000 in prizes at of the State Farmers' union, said the
the Spokane Apple show.
organisation in five years had saved
A tremendous fall of enow extends farmers over 13,000,000, an average
over the entire Rocky Mountain sec of 31500 for the 2000 members. He
•aid on wheat sales they had saved
tion! of the United States.
32.500,000, 3 cents each on sacks or
Civil and military authorities in 3750,000, and the warehouse charges
Germany have a serious clash over a have been rcdcued from 75 cents to 50
triffiing matter in the town of Zabern.
cents a ton.
Washington College Seeks
New Smut*I)efying Wheat
Wheat—Track prices :
per bushel; bluestem, 93(u94c; 40-fold,
84c; red Russian. 81c; valley, 83c.
Oats—No. 1 white, 325.50 per ton.
Coro—Whole, 336 ton; cracked, 337.
Oats—No. 1 white, 325 50 ton.
Coro—Whole. 336; cracked, 337 ton.
Barley — Feed. 324 6t 24.50 ton;
brewing, 325; rolled, 326.
Millfeed — Bran, 320.606421 ton;
shorts, 822.506323; middlings, 329<< i .30.
Hay—No. 1 Eastern Oregon timo
thy. 316.50; mixed timothy, 314; al
falfa, 314; clover, 896110; valley
grain hay. 311<<£13.
Onions — Oregon, 32.50 sack; buy
ing price, 32.10 f. o. b. shipping
Vegetables Cabbage. 1631 }c pound;
cauliflower, 32.50 crate; cucumbers,
pound; head lettuce, 82.256(2.50 crate;
peppers, 5617c pound; radishes, 1063
12c; per pound; head lettuce, 32.25
box; garlic, 12(6115c per
sprouts, 11c; artichokes, 81.50631.75
doxen; squash, 1 pal|c pound; celery,
83.5O(<(4 per crate; beans, *<.:! im
pound; rhubarb, 3}c pound; turnips,
31.25 per sack; carrots, 31.10; pars
nips. 31.25; beets, 31.25.
Green Fruits — Apples, 60c6f82.25
box; pears, 31631.50; grapes, crates,
81.50631.75; cranberries, 311 barrel.
Potato»» Oregon, 8Ocot31 per hun
dred; buying pric», 70(<i80c at ship
Poultry —Hena, 146314}«; springs,
13idb 14c; turkeys, live, 18c; dressed,
choice, 23 (<f 25c; ducks, 12 63 15c;
geese, 12(d 12}c.
Eggs -Oregon fresh ranch, 40&41c
doxen; storage, 29(<i,34e.
Butter Oregon creamery, prints,
extras, ITitSfle; cubes, extras, 34c;
cubes, firsts, 32c.
Pork Fancy, 106310}« pound.
Veal—Fancy, 14c pound.
Hops -1913 crop, prime and choice,
206(21«; 1912 crop, nominal.
Cattle — Prime steers, 87.75638;
choice, 87.506(17.75; medium, 37637.60;
choice cows, 86636.50; medium. 35.76
6(6; heifers, 866(6.75; light calves,
|8«(9; heavy. 366(7.75; bulls, 356(6;
Hogs — Light, 37.256(8.10; heavy,
Sheep Wethers, 34635; ewes, 33.25
634; lambs, 846(6.
Teamsters Resume Work.
Indianapolis— Two thousand union
teamsters who have been on strike for
a week will return to work, according
to union officials. Several more team
owners signed union contracts within
the past few days, it was reported at
the labor temple.
No action was taken at the union
meeting for a general settlement of
the strike, and only employes of the
team-owners who have signed agree
ments to pay the union scale and not
discriminate against union men will
be permitted to return to work.
Woman War Nurse Dies.
Santa Barbara, Cal.—Mrs. Mina
Finger, said to have been the only
woman in the United States entitled
to a pension for personal services dur
ing the Mexican war, died here Satur
day. She was 78 years old. Mrs. Fin
ger ministered to the sick and injured
during the Mexican war, in which her
husband fought as a United States
soldier. The government awarded a
medal to Mrs. Finger in 1876.
Auto Judgment Is 115,000.
Oakland, Cal.—The heaviest damage
ever awarded as the result of an auto
mobile accident in California was
given to Mrs. Francesca Birglia by a
jury In Judge Harris’ department of
the Alameda County Superior court.
The verdict was 315,000 in a suit for
325,000 directed againat Charles H.
Spear, whose automobile ran down and
killed Mrs. Birglia'» hueband.
Daniels Reports Saving.
Washington, D. C.—An additional
saving on the purchase of material for
the new battleship Pennsylvania was
announced by Secretary Daniels in con
nection with the award of a contract
for the purchase of four »tern tub
•hafts, which haa been placed with
an independent Baltimore company.
The bid was little over half of that of
the lowest submitted by three great
Income Tax to Be Collected.
Washington, D. C. Secretary Mc
Adoo says the income tax will be col
lected while suits are pending attack
ing its validity, and should the Su
preme court decide against the law,
the money will be returned.
Oregon's Com Show
Opens Visitors’ Eyes
Plans to Reorganize
OF PARCEL POST
Washington, D. C.—Reorganization
of ths department of agriculture forces
is foreshadowed in Secretary Hous
ton's first annual report.
A plan to
Pendleton — With 150 entrlee and corn cannot be satisfactorily grown.
lie submitted to congress In th» fiscal
more than 6000 ears of corn on exhib
exhibited in the United States were year estimates fur 1916, proposes to
it, the Corn show opened in thia city.
here from Baker county.
carry out th» work of th» department
There were exhibits
With moat of the enlriea were re
county in Oregon penetrated by the ports of yields per acre and coat per in five or six main groups, such aa~re
O.-W. R. A N. company, under whose bushel. On irrigated land the produc search, state relations, rural organisa Weight Limit In Outer Zones In-
tion runs as high as 85 bushels per tion. forest service, weather and reg
auspices the show was hold.
creased to 20 Pounds Books
C. L. Smith, agriculturist for ths acre, and on dry land from 26 to 45 ulation. Such a plan, Secretary Hous
May Go at Parcel Ratea.
railroad, declares the corn on display bushels. Ths most successful yields ton believes, will promote co-ordina
compared favorably with any dis
played at any show In the country, The universal experience is that seed tion.
Plans for rodlstrlctlng the country
Washington, D. C. — Postmaster
and says the exhibit demonstrates that imported from the East does not do
there is no section of Oregon in which well until acclimated.
for the enforcement of the pure food General Burleson's policy to increase
law are announced, and the secretary the weight limit of parcel poet pack
announces his Intention to ask for au ages In first and second sones from
thority to prepare amendments to ths 20 to 50 pounds, to admit books to the
pure food law to Improve the food sup parcel poet and to reduce ratea In the
third, fourth, fifth and sixth sones,
ply. protect the public health and pro
was approved by the interstate com-
mote uniformity in food legislation.
I merce commission.
Free distribution of seeds by mem '-The maximum weight of parcels to
I.a Grands — Farmers from many three state.
bers of congress should be discontin all zonhe beyond the secund waa in-
Members of the union marched In a ued, the secretary recommends.
He I creased from 11 to 20 pounds.
parts of Oregon, Southern Idaho and
body to the meeting place headed by would substitute a constructive work
The commission's "consent” to the
Eastern Washington who are member«
(he La Grande band.
in distributing new seeds and plants.
proposed change was transmit tod In
of the National Educational and Co
Conditions vary widely in the Unit three iettera from Chairman Clark to
Arthur Swift, state president of the
operative Union of America convened
inion and vice president of the nation ed States, says the report, because , Postmaster General Burleeon.
in their fourth annual convention here
•I organization, presided. Mr. Burk farmers do not equally need better approved
Former Mayor Hall welcomed the
holder, of Coquille, in his address said: credit arrangements end all sections weights. to be in effect January I,
visitors and speeches in response were
"The farmers* union will be felt as are not similarly circumstanced. The 1914, are as follows:
made. The session was featured by
To reduce the rates in the third sone
power in the commercial world secretary believes there does not ap
committee deliberations and speeches
to be need for unique or special from 7 rents for the first pound sod 6
as well as in the political world and pear
by a national officer.
legislation or for legislation which rents for each additional pound to 6
In the evening the La Grande Com- will be recognized by the greatest pol shall aim to give the farmer credit on
cents for the first pound and 2 cento
merial club was host at a reception,
easier terms than other members of for each additional pound.
President Crowe, of the Washington society.
after which there w'aa an address on
What is needed Is the crea
To reduce rates for the fourth sone
"Marketing” by Professor McPher organisation, spoke, and was followed 1 tion of conditions and machinery
from 8 cents for the first pound and 6
by L. M. Rhodes, of Tennessee, who which will put him on credit founda
son, of Oregon Agricultural college.
cents for each additional pound, to 7
Three hundred members were in at •aid that all the farmer wants is a tions to secure money at the same
cents for the first pound and 4 cents
tendance, with state official^ from square deal, and ho will get It.
rates as those which prevail for other i for each additional pound.
classes and for other sections.
To reduce the ratea for the fifth
To gain information to enable the sone from 9 cents for the first pound
department to serve rural women bet and 7 cents for each additional pound,
ter, the secretary has addressed letters to 8 cents for the first pound and 6
La Grande Eastern Oregon lumber 'of inouiry to the women of 55,000 se cents for each additional pound.
Chicago Oregon made good Satur
day at the United States Land Show men at a meeting here took steps to lected farms, covering every county.
To reduce th« ratea for the sixth
Analysis of th« small part of the sone from 10 cents for the first pound
in the Coliseum in the prediction that prevent permanent closing
. letters as yet digested shows that and 9 cents for each additional pound,
it would show the Middle West the
true meaning of the term "booating. ” Plummer gateway in Idaho, whereby farm women desire assistance In all to 9 cents for the first pound and 8
It was Oregon day at the exposition Eastern Oregon would lose Milwaukee phases of home management, especial cents for each additional pound.
"It seems obvious,” says the com
and if anyone doubted it that doubt road connections to pointe east of ly as to ways of obtaining running wa
was soon dispelled by the Amalgamat Minneapolis.
The lumbermen have ter. labor-saving arrangements and mission, "that the service to the the
better hygienic and sanitary condi public will be promoted by these
ed Association of Oregon Boosters, not
organised a sub-organisation of the tions. The overwork of women and
changes, provided the revenue from
Representatives of nine commercial Western Pine Manufacturers* associa children and difficulty of securing do the service is not less than the coet
mestic help sre mentioned by several thereof. Your experiences and sta
clubs, development leagues and com tion.
missions and special commissioners ap
The Interstate Commerce commis- of the writers. The department be tistics seem to show clearly that the
pointed by Governor West united in •ion recently suspended until February lieves that intelligent help to women revenue will not be less than the coat
celebrating the day.
its order closing the Plummer gate In matters of home management will of the service.”
All day long the aisle near the ex way, and the Eastern Oregon men will contribute directly to the agricultural
hibit of the Oregon State Immigra have counsel
bring argument success of the farm.
therefore, to ask congress for means
tion commission was crowded with •gainst the closing.
The Oregon boosters gave
The meeting held here result«! in and authority to make more complete
14 illustrated lectures in the Great •uch steps being taken.
Reaolutlons studies of domestic conditions on the
Washington, D. C.—Reports recent
Northern railway lecture hall and the were adopted and forwarded to the : farm.
ly emanating from official sources
regular exposition halls.
commission setting out that great
have said that the United States
Two men who attracted considera harm will be done if the Middle West
'steamship Dolphin, which sailed Mon
ble attention were William Hanley, ern market is closed so that the Ore-
day for Santo Domingo, Is being sent
the Harney county ranchman, and D. (on &. Washington will be the only
there in connection with the "observ
M. Ix>we, special representative of the carrier. They pleaded for open gates
Mexico City—Foreigners must not ation” of elections to be held In De
Aahland Commercial club, who has an st Spokane and Silver Bow, which be interfered with If fighting occurs in cember, ostensibly for the purpose of
exhibit of 314 products grown on his ■ heretofore afforded added rate compe-
■ the federal district. This indication insuring fairness in the elections. It
Rogue River Valley ranch. Colonel ' tition and markets.
The matter is
is said on reliable authority, however,
Hanley gave two lectures. Interesting serious with Eastern Oregon millmen, is contained in the general army or that the State department Is confront
These orders ed with a grave situation in the con-
the visitors with personal stories of as the difference in rates with the ders Issued Munday.
how homesteaders are "making good" gate closed ia material.
specifically say that in the event of ■ duct of Its affairs in Santo Domingo.
It Is learned that certain funds of
fighting the officers in command of the
In the evening the Oregonians sere
the Dominican government, held tem
naded the different exhibits, accom
porarily in the custody of an official
that the lives and property of all for
panying from booth to booth the Ro
appointed by the President of the
tary Quartet, of Chicago, singing Ore
eigners are to be respected; that no United States, have lieen transferred
gon songs. The Royal Rosarians and
moneys or supplies are to be exacted from the Bank of St. Mitchellena to
the Eugene Radiators, in uniform, ing of The Dalles power project com from them and that they must be per the Banco National without authority
D. M mittee, several daya ago, Vernon A. mitted to leave the scene of the fight from Washington.
Lowe, wearing overalls and carrying a Forbes broached a project whereby it ing at any time.
The American minister of Santo
little pig and a hoe, was also along. is hoped to obtain 3450,000 from the
The government haa disregarded the Domingo, James Msrk Sullivan, wrote
Sprigs of mistletoe and fir were dis Federal government for the irrigation warning of the Zapata forces that they to the receiver general of customs,
tributed to the women and envelopes of 20,000 acres west of the Deschutes would shoot sny railway employes in Walter Vick,
authorising him to
containing small graine to the men. river and adjacent to the present state case the operation of trains on the make this transfer of funds. The
Cuernavaca line was attempted after owner of the Banco Nacional, N. M
All were treated to Hood River apple Tumalo project.
At the time the so-called "Columbia December 1, and as a result a pitched Jarvis, was a friend of Mr. Sullivan*»
Southern bill” waa introduced in the | battle haa taken place between Cuer before his appointment as minister.
last legislature, the secretary of the navaca and Iguala.
Lula Valdes, a
The power to grant such authority
interior said, in effect, that the gov Mexican who was naturalized In Texas
lies solely with the officials of the
ernment policy would be to match and Is a member of the Order of Rail bureau of insular affairs of tbe War
state appropriations for such projects, way Conductors, who was in charge of Department. It waa said at tbe bu
Wedderburn -The fishing season on dollar for dollar.
In the Deschutes the train, waa shot and seriously reau of Insular affairs that the trane-
Rogue River closed by law on Novem investigation, where the state put up
wounded, while another conductor, a fer waa not made on orders.
ber 20, but few fish were caught dur 350,000 for survey work, the national
Mexican, also was wounded.
ing the month. The fall run of fish government also contributed 350,000.
The Zapata forces had made ar
did not come up to expectations nor to Now it appears that the department of
rangements to dynamite the train, but
that of former years when the late P. the interior has notified The Dalles
through miscalculation they fired on
D. Hume operated the cannery here.
Power Project that It has set aside the train just before it reached the
The Macleay Estate company put up 315,000 for co-operative surveys and
mine. The train stop;>ed and a fight
nearly 6000 cases of canned salmon investigation of the CeliIo water proj
ensued in which several of the eacort-
Berlin Professor Branca, the fam
and 187 tierces of mild cured fish dur ects on the Columbia.
ing soldiers were killed.
ous paleontologist, haa advanced what
ing the past season. The law opening
he terms a new theory of the origin of
Rogue river to commercial fishing i
life. He does not accept the theory
Stick to Farm Is Advice.
went into effect June 4, this bqing
Washington, D. C.—"Stick to the of spontaneous generation as a scien
Eugene—By agreement, the South
the first commercial fishing done in
Rogue river since it was closed in ern Pacific company has just paid farm and keep out of politics,” was tlfic solution nor the Biblical explana
1910. Under the new law, the season 35000 to Mrs. Annie McClaren for the admonition given to 1200 boy and tion which pre-aupposea a miracle and
la therefore unacceptable. His theory
commences next year on April 15.
2.31 acres of land at the Western lim girl corngrower» from Ohio by Spank la that life la as old as the lifeleee
its of Eugene, in order that a "Y” ' er Clark at a reception tendered the matter of which the stars and planets
may be laid to connect the main line young farm experts here by the Ohio are composed.
New Line May Be Delayed.
Life, he holds, haa
Rpeaker been "vaccinated" into the earth by
Eugene — Recent rains along the of the Southern Pacific with the tracks congressional delegation.
of the Willamette-Pacfic.
The con- Clark said legislators who amounted life germa from other planets through
coast are causing concern to engineers
nection now made gives direct access to anything In thia country were elth meteorites.
in charge of the construction of the to the coast line from the East on the er bom or brought up In rural dis
The scientist maintains that'thia hy-
Willamette-Pacific railroad from Eu Southern Pacific, and it is desired to tricts. Senator Pomervnn said: "If
la strongly supported by In
gene to the Siuslaw, giving rise to the have another branch from the North I were a girl I would rather be able to
fear that it will be impossible to fin west. The whole of the included tri bake a good loaf of bread than dance dications of the existence of life in
all the planets.
ish some of the concrete abutments angle is purchased.
before the rivers rise.
New Indian Tribe« Found.
the abutments it will be impossible to
IHaiMMr of Dead Timber,
Cream Rates Protested. . .
finish track to the tidewater by the
Three tribes of In
Salem—The Portland Pure Milk and
Spokane Arrangements for dispos
first of the year, as bad been hoped Cream company haa filed a complaint ing of the timber damaged In the III10 diana hitherto unknown, have been
for. A landslide at the western portal with the State Railroad commission forest fires In the Pnrlfle Northwest
discovered by the University of Penn
of the Noti tunnel makes necessary to against the American Exprees com are being made by the Federal govern
sylvania Amaron expedition in rs<ioM
«end out a steamsbovel.
pany. alleging that its rates for send ment, according to I xmls I,. Sharp, of Brasil never before penetrated by
ing cream over the O.-W. R. & N. be chief of field division of the depart white men. according to a letter re-
Troutdale Gets Woman Mayor,
tween Portland and other place« In ment of the Interior, who waa In Hho r«lv«d nt the university museum last
Troutdale— Oregon and the Went Oregon are excessive.
Eight other kane recently. Mr, Sharp said that Hatiirdny from Dr. Farabee, head of
won another woman mayor when Mr». Portland creameries also have signed there are vast areas of such timber, the expedition.
The Indian» call
Clara Latourelle Larsson, daughter of a petition which haa been filed with which mini he marketed al <m.. i.. themselves I'orocntoa, Ajamaras, and
the late Joseph Latour:lie, one of the the commission protesting against the get anything
out of It,
which If Zapneaa
Dr. Farabee obtained vo
pioneers of Oregon, was elected head rates.
used now wl..
Ill have ronsld«t»lila cum cabularies of their language.
of the Troutdale city government with
aenliiglenl specimens of raro interest
Oakland Skunks Plentiful.
only five votes to spare. Her oppon
•lio were found.
JIHen’« I'itime Ilnme Made.
ent was S. A. Edmundson.
Oakland—Skunks are so plentiful In
thia vicinity that catching them has
London Among passsogets taking
Napolenn llouse Fading.
Pendleton Gets Thanks.
become a lucrative occupation. A lo the boat train at Foston to Mil on the
Renetta bave b een received
Pendleton— Expressing her thanks cal barber haa SI 35 worth of skins of Mauretania tor New York recently llint laingwooil house in Su Helena.
for the Pendleton Indian bathrobe sent animals caught during receasea from was Mme. Luisa Tetrasslnl, the f»m W liete Namlunn died, ia falling to
her as a wedding present, a letter was tonsori al duties and Ralph Lucas, a mi» <>|mralle star, whn wore a hat pieve» fot lark of fonda to repair it
received by the Commercial eljb from high school boy, took a day off from whlrh was apparently adorned with udì l'iately
In o'oaequence. «eversi
Mrs. Francis B. Sayre. The wedding the study of algebra and composition aigrettes of the most aspenslya vari p tnml fieni damiti«« bave prepared a
present was the gift of the association to catch enough of the animals to aty, but tornei! mit to he, on rloser In Ifieaaute sabine fot an appropriai ion
»peelton, merely ehleltan feathers
in behalf of the eitiaens of Pendleton. bring him SIS.
nf 34« , tifiti (ut Ine npiieep of tbe bcuee.
50-Pound Packages Carried in
First Two Zones.
Farmers in Convention
Demand Square Deal
Seek Open Gateway
Oregon Boosters Make
for Oregon’s Timber
Big Showing at Chicago
Santo Domingo Affaire
Cause Battirehip Trip
Will Protect Foreigners
in City of Mexico
Big Tumalo Project
After Government Aid
Rogue River Fish Pack
Is Not Up to Average.
SCIENTIST HAS NEW THEORY
AS TO ORIGIN OF’ LIFE