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About Beaver State herald. (Gresham and Montavilla, Multnomah Co., Or.) 190?-1914 | View Entire Issue (Dec. 26, 1912)
GET CASAS GRANDES
NEWS NOTES OF REBEUS
Defeat S00 Federáis and Capture*
Resume of World’s Important
Events Told in Brief.
Turkish reinforcements are daily ar
riving from Syria and Kurdestan.
Balkan peace delegates are already
talking over the new boundaries of
Bulgarian forces around Adrianople
maintain strict censorship of press dis
A theater especially for children
and their attendants has been opened
in New York City.
A Denver man committed suicide on
learning that his mother-in-law was
coming to visit him.
The Bavarian government has aban
doned the idea of establishing a re
gency over King Ludwig.
Twenty-two of the crew of 27, of
the steamer Florence, perished when
the ship was wrecked on the New
Professor James Israel, noted Ber
lin surgeon, denies having performed
any operation on the young son of the
The senate committee investigating
conditions in Mexico finds the Madero
government a failure and that a state
of anarchy exists.
Governor Osborn, of Michigan, has
given away his horses and two auto
mobiles, and hereafter will take his
recreation by walking.
An Italian anarchist chosen by lot
to assassinate King Victor Emmanuel,
of Italy, tried to commit suicide rath
er than carry out his task.
A colony of American negroes 20
miles west of Durango, Mexico, was
looted by rebels and several of the in
habitants wounded and otherwise mis
Fire in the city hall of Los Angeles
burned nearly six and one-half million
dollars’ worth of currency, bonds and
other securities, besides many valua
Roland O. Graves, a French aviator,
flew from Tunis, Africa, to Rome,
Italy, with but two stops.
El Paso — Casas Grandes, the most
important town in the ranching and
lumbering district southwest of Ju
arez. has-been taken by rebels per
sonally commanded by General Pascual
Orozco, Jr., it is reported from rebel
official sources. Also it is said that
the federal column of 800 men march
ing against the rebels at Ascención
was defeated, with its commander.
General Jose Blanco, among the pris
Confirming this report, S. D. Am
brose. an American hotel man of Co
lumbus, N. M., has arrived here. He
was in Ascención at the time of its
capture and talked with General Sal-
azaar, whose forces took the town.
While there a messenger arrived di
rectly from General Orozco with a let
ter from the rebel leader saying that
he had taken Casas Grandes and de
Blanco’s force was entrapped, the
official report says, in a canyon north
of Casas Grandes. Aside from cap
turing many rifles and much ammuni
tion the rebels seized two cannon.
Details of the battles are lacking, but
Casas Grandes was taken easily,
Orozco wrote, as the federáis left only
200 men to protect the town.
By taking Casas Grandes, the scene
of a hard struggle in the Madero revo
lution, in which the rebels were re
pulsed, the Orozco revolutionists con
trol the Mexico Northwestern railroad,
which runs between Juarez, on the
border, and Chihuahua City, the state
capital, and territory covered by the
American railway, which includes the
TEST NEW WIRELESS FOR
DISTANCE OF 3000 MILES
Washington. D. C.—The final test
of the new wireless station of the
Navy department at Arlington, which
is still in the hands of the contractors,
will be made next month when an
effort will be made to exchange mes
sages between the station and the
scout cruiser Salem, at a distance of
Orders have been issued by the
Navy department for the Salem to fill
up her crew so as to be in readiness
for the test on January 15.
put out into the Atlantic and in mak
ing the tests will describe a circle, the
radius of which will be 3000 miles,
the distance called for in the govern
The Salem, with
as powerful wireless apparatus as any
in the navy, will be able to respond to
any message flashed from the giant
towers on the Potomac.
SHIP BRINGS BODY
Ijitt* Ambassador to England Re
ceives High Honora,
MUTUAL AID FARMERS’ AIM¡TEACH VEGETABLE GROWING
Meeting at Oregon City Results in Short Course at (). A. C. Has Work
In Home Gardening.
Plan to Regulate Market.
Oregon City—-In the parlors of the
Oregon City commercial clubc ongre-
gated Saturday more farmers than
ordinarily get together,
era’ Society of Equity, an interstate
organization of agriculturists, has had
an organiser in this district for some
time, and the meeting was a result of
Nearly four-score bona fide farmers
came together to see if it is not possi
ble by means of this society to estab
lish a closer connection between the
producer and the consumer.
are to be regulated so as to avoid
waste energy and'a glutted market;
farmers being notified from headquar
ters just what price to demand for
Locals are to be organized through
out the county, which will be con
trolled by the county local. The state
committee will report to the National
PORTLAND FOURTH ON LIST
Wheat Export Exceeded Only By
New York and Two Others.
Washington, D. C. — Portland's
wheat exports thus far reported by the
department of commerce and labor
have been lighter this year than last,
but are still considerably above the to
tal export of Puget Sound.
monthly statement of the department
shows that during the last 11 months
Portland exported 5,238,139 bushels of
wheat, as against 6,244,833 bushels in
the same first 11 months of last year.
Puget Sound’s total exports this
year have been 4,322,707 bushels, an
increase from 2,870,087 bushels over
same months of 1911.
now fourth on the list of wheat ex
porting customs districts. New York
being far in the lead, with 4,500,000
bushels and Galveston and New Or
leans following with more than 6,000,-
GAME LAW CHANGE URGED
Umatilla County Association In
dorses Proposal of Commission.
Oregon Agricultural College, Cor
vallis Four courses in vegetable grow
ing are to be given in the short course
at the Oregon Agricultural college
which opens its four weeks' session
For the past few years Oregon, un
surpassed for opportunities for the
production of vegetables, has seen a
large increase in vegetable growing.
Hundreds of carloads of vegetables
that might easily be raised within the
state, however, are now being shipped
“The state should be an exporter of
vegetables, rather than an importer,"
says Prof. (’. I. Lewis, discussing the
situation. “At the present time, with
the exception of onions and potatoes,
a large per cent of the vegetables we
consume art* imported. In order to
meet the demands for information on
vegetable gardening four courses are
beng offered this year.”
Twelve lectures, given Monday,
Tuesday and Wednesday of each week,
will be devoted to the problems con
nected with commercial vegetable
growing. dealing with such important
products as celery, tomatoes, aspara
gus. rhubarb, onions, cauliflower and
Special consideration will be given
the matter of soils for these crops,
blanching and storing.
"No matter how g/xxl a product we
can grow, unless it is marketed intel
ligently and unless it is properly
graded, we will often be unable to
realize the profit that we should be*
able to make,” says Prof. Lewis.
“One of the greatest problems before
the Oregon vegetable grower at the
present time is the proper marketing
The various markets
of the state will be considered in a
course given on the same days as the
commercial vegetable course. Special
attention will be given to grading,
packing and marketing the most im
portant vegetables raised in Oregon in
such a way as to realize the best re
Portsmouth, England The British
armored cruiser Natal sailed out of
Portsmouth harla/r Saturday afternoon
with the Isxly of Ambassador Reid
on board, amid u salute of 19 guna.
Full naval honors were paid to the
Isxiy of Ambassador Reid on its ar
rival at thia |s>rt from London.
Admiral Sir liedworth Meux, the
commander of the port, aiui all the
high naval officers stationed hen* wore
present at the station when the train
drew in. As it halted at the platform
Nelson's flagship, the Victory, final a
salute of 19 guna.
The coffin was borne across the jetty
on the shoulder» of eight petty officers
of the British navy and taken on ls>ard
the armored cruiser Natal, from the
mainmast of which vessel the United
States ensign was immediately broken.
All the ships in the harbor and at
Spithead raised the Stars and Stripes
to their mastheads ns the coffin was
taken on board the Natal and then
lowered them to half mast. The jetty
was carpeted with purple, while
guania of honor of marines and blue
jackets stood with reversed arms on
each side as the casket was taken
The petty officers bearing the casket
walked slowly to the mortuary chapel,
lined with purple, which had been
erected on the weather deck of the
Natal, and as they deposited it on the
catafalque, the ship'a bugler sounded
the “Last Post.” while the crews of
the warships lined the rails.
wreaths sent by President Taft ami
memliers of the royal family com-
pletcdly filled the little mortuary
chapel, which wns so placed that it
could be lowered in case of heavy
By a coincidence.
Maine, presented to England by Amer
ican women, was moored just outside
the cruiser Natal.
There was no service on board the
Natal, which left ;«>rt immediately on
schedule time, passing through the
lines of the other vessels, which all
had their flags at half mast, and their
crews standing at the salute.
SPEED WOULD BE ECONOMY
Engineer Recommends Rapid Work
Done On Celilo Canal.
Washington, D. C. How $100,000
in cash and more than a year in time
can be saved on the construction of
the Celilo canal is fully set forth in a
report by ,Captain H. H. Roberta, of
the Army Engineer corps, recently
transmitted to congress.
to be seen whether congress will be
willing to direct this economy by in
creasing the appropriations for the
canal, so the work can be completed
The report of
by January 1, 1915.
Captain Roberta, heretofore reviewed
briefly, summarizes the appropriation
to date, showing a total of $3,150;000,
“The amount required to be appro
priated for completion of the existing
project is $1,808,392.64.
“The delay incurred since January
1, 1912, as compared with what would
have been the rate of progress had
ample funds been available, is esti
mated as at least six months, there
having been necessary reservation
made of a portion of the then avail
able funds to provide for the possi
bility of no funds becoming available
by the last river and harl/or act. This
delay was made up of reduction of
force and partial suspension of work
for several months, total suspension of
work for about two months, together
with additional delays incident tp de
livery of materials, collection of force,
etc., necessarily incurred in starting
the work again.
“After careful consideration of
present conditions, it ¡8 believed that
in view of the above-mentioned delays
already incurred, the canal cannot be
completed to best advantage before
January 1, 1915, even with ample
funds available for the work.
canal can, however, with funds avaii-
able, be completed by that date, which
is one year and six months in advance
of June 25, 1916, the time orginally
proposed in the river and harbor act
of June 25, 1910.
Pendleton—At one of the largest OREGON IN TIMBER COLUMN
Prince Taro Katsura, new premier
meetings ever held here the Umatilla
of Japan, promises to save that coun
county Fish and Game association May Soon Occupy Third Place as
try $25,000,000 during the coming
heartily indorsed, by resolutions, the
Lumber Producing State.
proposed change by the State Game
— Declaring that Oregon stands
A 45-mile blizzard swept the prair
law, which provides that the season pre-eminent among the states in forest
ies of North Dakota.
for hunting both will be from Septem wealth; that of the total amount of
President Taft denies any intention MEN'S “EMOLUMENTS” MIXED ber 1 to November 1.
timber in the United States, this state
of playng politics in his civil service
Besides warmly indorsing th» excel has one-fifth, and that it now stands
Court Deems Servants and Feed lent work generally done by the State fourth among the states in its lumber
Fish and Game commission since its cut, the preface of the report of the
It is reported that Turks have mas
for Horses Proper.
the matter of removing State Board of Forestry further de
sacred all the Christians at Mitylene.
Washington, D. C.—“Emoluments,” protection from female deer was also clarer that this state probably will ad
A Greek vessel reports that part of or allowances for army officers, in fully discussed, the majority present vance to the third place next year.
“It is extremely difficult to convey
the Turkish fleet was forced to run clude forage for riding and carriage being opposed to the change.
Another proposal receiving favora- any idea of the magnitude of Oregon’s
ashore by the Greeks, and the Turkish horses and the hire of household serv
ble consideration was cutting the deer forest resources by quoting figures in
admiral was killed.
Supreme court of the United States. limit from five to three, while a good- terms of ls>ard feet or acres of timber
The proposed inter-state bridge be The decision was announced in the ly number stood for even greater re land,” states the report. “This point
tween Vancouver, Wash., and Port suit of Mrs. Sarah K. McLean, the duction.
can, however, be brought out empha
land, Or., is given renewed impetus widow of Nathaniel H. McLean, of
tically by comparison with the forest
Fisher Is Noncommital.
"by big meeting in Seattle.
resources in the other timbered re
army in 1864, to be reinstated in 1875.
Washington, D. C.— Representative gions of the United States. Statistics
Turkeys are a drug on the market in
In 1905 congress’passed an act giv Hawley and National Committeman prove that Oregon has almost twice as
San Francisco at 18 to 20 cents per ing him the pay and all the “emolu
Williams called on Secretary Fisher much timber as is found in all New
pound, though chickens and other ments” of a major during the years he
and entered a protest against the re England,
poultry are higher than ever.
was out of the army.
cent cancellation of 17 Siletz entries Wisconsin and Minnesota, a territory
Mrs. McLean sued the government that came w’ithin the provisions of the commonly known as the great northern
because the controller of the currency | Hawley act, pointingout that the en forest region. “The central forest re
! would not allow, under the head of tries held for cancellation were among gion, extending from Southern Michi-
Wheat—Track prices: Club, 79c; I “emoluments,” forage for two horses those before the department when it ! gan to Southern Tennessee, and from
bluestem, 823/83c; 40-fold, 803/81c: ' used by Major McLean for riding and drew the Hawley bill and, inasmuch i the west slope of the Appalachian
I driving, and for two household serv as that bill had been drawn in the de I mountains westward to the prairies,
red Russian. 77c; valley, 80c.
The partment to facilitate the patenting of i has long been famous as a source of
Barley—Feed, $33 per ton; brew ants, hired during these years.
Court of Claims decided against the these identical entries, it was unjust our hardwood, yet it contains only
ing, nominal; rolled, $26.503/ 27.50.
Corn—Whole, $36; cracked, $37 per claim, but the Supreme court held now to read into the law requirements .half the amount of standing timber as
that they should have been allowed.
as to cultivation and residence that does Oregon. ”
were not in the law when it was writ
Millstuffs — Bran, $23 ton; shorts,
Red Hair Frightens Seal.
ten by the department and passed by
$25: middlings, $30.
Oregon Has Woman Mayor.
Los Angeles—Womep with red hair congress.
Hay—Timothy, choice, $173/18 per
Warrenton, Or.—By 16 votes lead
Representative Hawley said after Miss Clara C. Munson, daughter of a
ton; mixed. Eastern Oregon, timothy, will have to be barred from the Venice
$123/15; oat and vetch, $12; alfalfa, Aquarium, or the latter will have to the conference that he had hoped Sec survivor of the Whitman massace,
retary Fisher would reverse the re graduate of St. Helen’s Hall, Portland,
$11.50; clover, $10; straw, $63/7.
dispense with “Old Hundred,” a re
Oats—No. 1 white, $253/25.50 ton. cently captured seal. “Old Hundred,” cent adverse action in the 17 cases, but and one of the best known Rebecca
Fresh Fruits — Apples, 50c3/$1.50 is extremely docile in ordinary cir the secretary made no promises.
lodge women of Oregon, was elected
box; pears, 75c3/$1.50; grapes, $1.60 cumstances, but the moment a woman
mayor of Warrenton over J. W. Det-
Poultry Association Organized.
box; Malagas, $8 barrel; cranberries, appears whose hair has even a touch
Beggar Proves Slugger.
rich and thereby became the first wo
$10.503/12 barrel; casabas, $2.50 of sunburn he seemingly becomes
Eugene—-The Oregon branch of the man mayor in Oregon. Also it estab
Kansas City — When a young man
Dr. P. S. Barnhart, American Poultry association was or lishes a precedent for equal suffrage met E. W. Andrews on the street here
Potatoes — Jobbing prices: Bur instructor of biology at the University
states, as it is but little more than a
banks, 603/ 65c per hundred; sweet po of Southern California, who was at ganized here by the adoption of a con month that the women have had the and asked for something to eat, he
was surprised at Andrews’ willingness
tatoes, 2jc pound.
tracted by reports of the seal’s behav nation of a set of officers.
As there ballot in Oregon.
to comply. “Yes, I will buy you some
Onions^—Oregon, 90c3/$l sack.
Miss Munson, who is about 30 years
ior, is unable to explain the matter.
was but a single nominee for each
thing to eat,” Andrews said, as he led
Vegetables— Artichokes, $13/1.25
old, headed the Citizens’ ticket, nomi
the way to a restaurant.
Fort Wright To Pass.
officers: E. J. McClanahan, Eugene,
drews summoned an officer. Andrews
pound; cauliflower, $2.25 crate; cel
Spokane—Fort George Wright, near president; H. Ringhouse, Clackamas,
had recognized him as one of two men
ery, $3 per crate; cucumbers, 503/60c
who slugged and robbed him a few
dozen; eggplants, 10c pound; head Spokane, practically will be aban vice president; B. F. Keeney, Eu
second vice president; Ed
nights before. “I hope 1 have secured
lettuce, $1.503/2 per crate; peas, 12|c doned, according to unofficial informa gene,
free board for you for a long time,”
pound; peppers, 10c; radishes, 153/ tion received here Wednesday. The Shearer, Estacada, secretary; B. Lee
Hood River With the Hood River Andrews said as he gave him over to
20c dozen; sprouts, 7c; tomatoes, two battalions of the Twenty-fifth In Paget, Portland, treasurer.
gradually rising for the past week, a the policeman.
$1.353/1.75 box; garlic, 53/6c pound; fantry now garrisoning the fort will quet closed the meeting.
crew of men changing the course of
pumpkins, lie; turnips, 75c per sack; leave for Hawaii in the near future.
Health Resort Planned.
Death May Free Suspect.
the channel of the mouth of the river,
carrots, 75c; beets, 75c; parsnips, A half company is expected from Van
couver barracks to act as prisoners’
Bandon—A modern sanitarium is to under the supervision of the state
New Westminster, B. C. On Jan-
Eggs—Fresh ranch locals, candled, guard and to police the grounds, but be erected at Bandon by H. C. Dippie. game and fish commission has been uary 7 next Charles Dean, the only
no other troops are expected to re The sanitarium will contain one of the battling to make the funds available Bank of Montreal robbery suspect now
303/ 32Jc dozen.
largest covered swimming pools on the for the work go as far as possible held in this city, may regain his free
Butter — Oregon creamery, cubes, place the Twenty-fifth.
before the waters pour over the dom.
37Jc pound; prints, 38J3/39c.
The prisoner’s solicitor was
Railway Officials Blamed.
Every summer a large number visit coffer dam that has been constructed. granted an order calling upon the at
Poultry—Hens, 123/13c per pound;
Zanesville, Ohio—Coroner Walters Bandon-by-the-Sea to recuperate. The Not only is the commission interested torney genera) to show cause why the
broilers, 123/13c; turkeys, live, 20c;
dressed, choice, 23c; ducks, 123/, 14c; held officials of the Pennsylvania rail climate is mild, never hot, the air in the work, but local sportsmen, who prisoner should not be discharged.
road responsible for the wreck at bracing and the scenery beautiful. desire to see a return of the game Since the preliminary trial one of the
geese, 123/ 13c.
Dresden on December 3, when a train The erection of a sanitarium with a steelhead salmon to the pools.
Pork—Fancy, 9J3/10c per pound.
principal witnesses, who claims to
on the Cleveland, Akron and Columbus swimming-tank open to the public will
Veal—Fancy, 13J3/44c. per pound.
have seen the accused in the automo
Decide Against Jute Bag.
Cattle— Choice steers, $73/7.30; division collided with a Cincinnati & no doubt do much to increase the pop
bile with four other men, has died.
-goody- $63/6.75; medium, $63/6.25; Muskingum Valley division train and ularity of Bandon as a seaside resort.
Pendleton The days of the jute bag
choice cows, $63/6.50; good $5.503/ 11 persons were killed.
Destroyer Balch Launched.
in Umatilla county and Eastern Ore
Boy Scouts to Organize.
$5.75; medium, $4.503/5.25; choice
gon are practically numbered, accord
Philadelphia The torpedo boat de
Sail for Treasure Island.
Albany—Albany will soon have an ing to prominent local growers of stroyer Balch was launched Saturday
Panama—A party of treasure hunt organization of Boy Scouts.
More grain. Believing the price of the jute from the Cramp shipyard. Miss Grace
calves, 63/7; bulls, $33/5;
ers, headed by Miss Barry Tillies and than 20 boys of this city -met and bag is kept up by the trust, members Balch, of Washington, a descendant of
Hogs—Light, $7.253/7.35; heavy, Genevieve Davis, left here Wednes formed a troop and permanent organ of the Farmers’ Educational and Co Commodore Balch, christened the ves
day for Cocos island. The island lies ization will be effected in January. operative union have decided either to sel. The destroyer is a sister ship to
Sheep—Yearling wethers, $4.253/ in the Pacific about 550 miles south Professor Hans Flo, of Albany col purchase cotton bags of Southern man the Aylwin, launched from Cramps’ a
5.35; ewes, $3.253/4.35; lambs, $531 west of Panama and for years has lege, will be in charge of the organiz ufacture or erect elevators and handle month ago.
The vessel is 300 feet
been the lure of treasure seekers.
their grain in bulk.
long and has 37 feet beam.
HIGH IN MILLIONS
Financier Confirms Figures of
Investigating Com mitte« G um Deep
Into Secrete of Big Banking
Institutions of World.
Washington, D. C. — J. Pierpont
Morgan occupied the center of the
stage Thursday before the so-cal led
money trust investigating committee
of the house of representatives.
noted financier reached Washington in
res|s>nso to a sub|x>ena from the com
mittee. but it was mit until 2:49 In
the aftermsm that the way was
cleans! for hla testimony to begin.
Meantime Mr. Morgan sat for nearly
an hour listening to the mass of sta
tistics which Mr. Untermyer and the
committee were piling up concerning
the colossal financial o|>erationa of
leading New York, Chicago and Bos
ton institution», through so-called in
Mr. Morgan heard his own name and
that of his firm referred to many
times as tables were presented show
ing the affiliations of that concern
with many banka, trust companies,
transportation and industrial cor|a>ra-
tiona. He apm-ared unmoved through
out it all.
Mr. Mogan's testimony lasted barely
20 minutes and was largely prelimi
The chief point made was that he
favored allowing interstate cor|»ra-
tiona to deposit their funds In tho
hands of private bankers without re
stricting them to institutions under
government supervision. He said this
was a matter to be left to the discre
tion of tho board of directors of the
corporations in question.
Mr. Morgan confirmed data prepared
by members of the Morgan house
showing that 66 accounts with the
Morgan firm in January last had de
posits of $68,113,000 and that 78 ac
counts on November 1 had deposits of
$81,968,000. The total capital, sur
plus and funded debt of these deposi
tors, Mr. Untermyer said, was $9.-
Mr. Morgan agreed to
Prior to Mr. Morgan's examination
the committee heurd testimony bear-
ing ujsin the socalhsl concentration of
money nnd credits. Thia was present
ed in the form of charts prepared by
Philip J. Scudder, which were placed
in the records.
showed that the charts dealt with tho
affiliation of 180 directors in 18 banks
ami trust companies in New York,
Chicago and Boston. It sohwed that
"these 180 men held directorships In
134 banka and trust companies, trans
portation and industrial corporations
having total resource?) or capitaliza
tion of $25,325,000,000.”
AIRMEN FOUND OCEAN GRAVE
Biplane Seen to Lurch and Disap
pear Wreckage Identified.
Loa Angeles A section of a biplane,
a life preserver and a gauntlet, fur
ther evidence of the fate of the avia
tor, Horace Kearney and his passen
ger. Chester Lawrence, were found
on the beach about nine miles south of
Two boys discovered the
articles entangled in a heavy mass of
kelp, part of which had been cast on
plunged into the ocean soon after it
had passed out of sight beyond Point
Firmin was indicated by the discovery
of the wreckage, and this th<*ory was
strengthened by the story of R. J.
Kinney, a ranch hand on the Palo»
Verdes ranch near Point Vicente, who
may have seen the fatal fall of the
Kinney reported that he
was working some distance from the
ocean Saturday aftern/sin and caught,
sight of the aeroplane as it rounded
He saw the machine sud
denly lurch as if caught in a changing
current of wind and then drop down
behind a high bluff which intervened.
Elk Will CroMs Oregon.
Washington, D. C. Representative
Raker recently secured permission
from the department of the interior
for the transfer of 50 elk from the
Yellowstone national park to the
Shasta forest reserve, at the request
of the Redding Game association.
Raker was notified that the game war
den of Oregon would not permit the
transportation of the animals through
Raker protested to the
United States biological survey, which
has telegraphed the Oregon authorities
to permit the passage of the elk.
Guile Denied By Russia.
St. Petersburg -"There is no ground
for suspecting Russia of selfish de
signs in the Balkans,” was the state
ment of Premier Kokovosoff in the
Douma in the course of a speech on
the policy of the Russian government.
He said that as the great Slavonic and
orthodox power, Russia could not be
indifferent as to “whether the Bal
kan peoples obtain better conditions of
existence and thus avert dangerous
complications in the future."
Cananea Miners Strike.
Cananea, Sonora, Mex. —One thou
sand Mexican miners have struck for
more pay and shorter hours at the
mines of the Cananea and Democrats
They demand a 25-cent
increase in daily wages and an eight-