Capital journal. (Salem, Or.) 1919-1980, November 21, 1919, Image 1

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    Make It Your "Pet" Pastime
To Kick When You Don't
Get Your Jou rnal Proper ly
Weafter Forecast
Tonight and Saturday fair.
Maximum 43. .
Minimum 22. ,
Trace rainfall.
Circslalisa Yesterday
5 44 O
Only Salem Member Audit Bureau
of Circulation.
For The Journal
carrier's whistle
If yon dont get
your Journal by
S:30 o'clock tn
the evening - "'
I In! It
Wilson Says He Can and Will
: Turn Down Concurrent Res
olution DecHring War At
i End; Constiif -tion Is Cited.
. S; v:
- Washington, Nov. 21.-1 s Lodge concurrent resolu
tion which declares the y ' at an end can and will be
vetoed by President Wilso r ti case it is passed by both
house and senate, in the o lion of high administration
officials today. They cited constitution to prove that
the president has this power.
Tills on 1110 ns an evident sur
prise to supporters of 'the Lodge
resolution which was introduced in
congress just before adjournment.
. They believe the executive hnd no
authority to Interfere? with acon
current resolution and that the
Iiodge measure could be passed by
both houses, thus ending the war
without adoption of the peace
treuly. Discovery of the constitu
tional authority which hitherto
has seldom, if ever, been exer
cised by a President, was consid
ered a blow to their plans.
Tho administration supporters cited
trticle one, section seven, paragraph
three of the constitution as their au
thority. It reads as follows:
. Constitution Cited.
"Every order, resolution or vote to
which the concurrence of the senate
and. house of representatives may be
necessary (except on a question of ad
journment) shall be presented to the
president of the United States and be
fore the same shall, take effect snail
be approved by him or being disap
proved by him, shall be repassed by
tvo-thirds of the senate and the house
of representatives, according to the
rules and limitations prescribed in
case f a bill."
This, ! the administration contends.
undoubtedly gives Wilson authority to
veto the Lodge measure.
Veto Is Certain.
The president apparently Is deter
mined to veto Lodge's proposal, con
fident that two-third vote cannot be
. marshalled in congress to pass it over
his head. Thus he plans to prevent
the war being officially ended until
the peace treaty has been adopted.
At Speaker Gillette's office it was
stated that it was not customary to
Bond concurrent resolutions to the
.president, but that in this case n
would undoubtedly be necessary under
the constitution, his opinion was ex
pressed after the constitutional pro
vision had been scanned. Before that,
the impression was that it was not nec
essary to send such resolutions to the
While House.
Senator Lodge, author of the resolu
tion, was in Boston, it was said at his
Old Opinions Support.
Administration officials also declar
ed that in an opinion rendered in 185-S
by Attorney General Cushing, stated
that congress could not pass any law
whicji in effect "coerces the discretion
of the president except with his appro
bation, unless by a concurrent vote of
two thirds of both houses upon his
previous refusal to sign a bill."
Another opinion, on this question,
cited by the administration, is con
tained in a report by the senate judi
ciary committee, made January 26;
1S97, as the result of an investigation
of the question as to whether a con
current resolution required the presi
dent's signature.
"Whether concurrent resolutions are
required to be sent to the president of
tho United States must depend not up
on their mere form but unon the fact
whether they contain matter which in sioner."
properly to be regarded as legislative' The facts3 in the eaae- he sala' must
In its character and effect," the report be determined by the United States dis
stated "If they do they mus.t be pre- triet C0lIrt- .
sented for his approval. Otherwise'
rLr:af reuttorand nrof-
f o rm controls the question of Its dis
Ssnator Underwood conferred with
Secretary Tumulty at the White House
today on the democratic program. Sen
ators Hitchcock and Underwood will
leave Washington immediately for a
brief lest before the recovening of con
St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 21.
John C. Pollock, in the federal courf
here today granted a temporary in-
junction restraining District Attorney
Walter Hensley and the collector of
internal revenue from interfering
with brewers in the manufacture and
. sale of beer.
Judge Pollock declared he was not
ruling on the constitutionality of the
war time prohibition act, but that "a
reasonable doubt existed."
The result of the ruling is that the
manufacture and sale of 2.75 beer
here Is permitted. The court ruling
does not affect the sale of whiskey or
its release from bond, the decision
The decision was in the case of the
Grieaedieck Brewing company of St.
Louis against District Attorney Hens
ley and George H. Moore, collector of
internal revenue.
Four other breweries here joined
in the suit.
Washington, Nov. 21. To mjDet the
sugar shortage throughout the United
Statcj, President Wilson today issued a
proclamation transferring to the de
partment of Justice the powers of the
food administration.
Assistant Attorney General II. E.
Figg will be placed in charge 'xt the
department's work dealing with sugar.
lmb Angeies, uai., jnov. ai evidence
that 400,000 sacks of sugar, totalling
u,w,uuu pounas, are now stored in
southern California sugar refining een-
ters nas oeen gatnerea Dy agents or
the Los Angeles Retail Grocers asso
ciation, Secretary B. C. Shurtleff do
clared today. , ... .
Despite this stock, he' declared, gro
cers cannot buy sugar.
Seattle, Wash., Nov. 21.United
States Commissioner R. W. McClelland
handed down a decision in the Union
Record casetoday, which seemed to
pass to the United States district court
t'.e responsibility for future develop
ments, and apparently leaves it to that
court to deciue wnether or not the
Union Record plant shall remain In
the hands of the government or be re-
sedition Charges. .
. a.u '
viu,u. no a, u,.nCU wi " "
mtssioner to say wnetner or not we
?nioa Record plant is being illegal
"jVlj- understand of the testimony of
Dt puly United States Marshal Tobey,"
McClelland says In his decision, "is
th:it he took the properties of the Un
ion Record on November 13, and later
the tame day gave them up. If that
is true, the writ of seizure is dead. If
it is not true, the writ still stands and
the defendants maxv bring in a motion
to quash the writ. If Tobey seized the
Union Record on November 14, he did
BO without authority from the COmmia-
wJ-e reposal Is
Gaining Favor Says Jordan
Portland, Or., Nov. 21. The pro
posal that the Chinese exclusion law
be amended so that coolies can be ad
mitted and employed as laborers on
western farms is meeting with much
favor, according to Frank C. Jordan,
California secretary pf state, who Is
in Portland today.
Jordan is sounding out public sen
timent in western states regarding the
movement. He says he has found very
little opposition to the plan so far.
Leavenworth Authorities
Probe Prison Fire Cause
Leavenworth, Kan., Nov. 21 Prison
authorities today were investigating ft
fire of "undetermined origin" which
early today destroyed - the Exchange
building and six temporary wooden
'structures within the confines of Fort
Leavenworth here.
The blaze broke out in the Exchange
building. Surrounding structures wer
dynamited to prevent the fire reach
ing the older and permanent buildings
of thf dicipltnary ba:.racks.
$50,000 Retirement Fund
For T' Workers Announced
Detroit, Mich., Nov. 21. Announce
ment of a gift of $50,000 for a retirt
ment fund for T. M. C. A. workers was
made in today's meeting of the "T"
convention here. The donor was un
named. i no plan provides that secretaries
rr.ay retire after reaching the age of
60 lino receive half pay from then un
U ooath.
Leaders Of Beth Parties Look
For Next Presidential Race
To Be Decided On Grounds
Of Peace Fight.
By Raymond Clapper
(Umted Press Staff Correspondent.) ,
Washington, Nov. 21. Ratification
of the peace treaty appeared today to
be shaping itself into the big issue Of
the 1920 presidential election. Many
prominent men of both parties here
look for a finish fight before the coun
try wth the -voters deciding whether
the United States shall enter the
league of nations and, if so, with what
reservations. In this struggle party
lines may be broken down.
. Should the senate fail to ratify be
fore the 1920 fight gets under way
there will be a clear cut issue, with
President Wilson possibly again forced
to take the stump in support of the
treaty, it was predicted.
Wilson Opens Fight.
President Wilson throw rim K
gauntlet when h -t. tn
Hitchcock on the eve of the vote that
the Ledge reservations would nullify
.the treaty. This charge, aicording to
republican senators todav. forced th
entire majority party to rally around
Lodge, This is the explanation of the
unbroken front which Lodge put up
during the battle in the fkial hours of
the extra session. It was known that
"mild reservationists" on the republi
can side were ready to support Hitch
cock in certain compromise proposals.
tut when the president attacked Lodge
an tne republicans resolved to stick
with their leader, although in some
previous stages of the figbt they had
opposed him. ' -H -Hot
Session ForMn.
v Indications today were -that, a bitter-
contesi will start ' when the treaty
comes up again next session. . By its
action in refusing to ratify, the senate
wiped the slate clean and will have to
begin all over again. The treaty will
go to the foreign relations committee
The crucial struggle will come with
in tho committee this time, according
to present plans. The treaty will not
be reported out until reservations have
been agreed upon, which will meet the
approva, ot two.tuird8 of th9 Bat
Proceedings on the senate floor will
1"-"" "'' "Be cut and dried, it is expected. With
in tho committee republicans of the
Johnscn-Borah-Moses-Knox group will
try to shelve the pact.
Thn . (,, ,, ,.
. auuuv. in. ,uc i,i,e, Ullltf
to the outlook today, will be whether
the treaty is to be reported out of the
committe or permitted to lie there for
ever. Candidates will stand for one or
the oiher of these courses, it was pre-
aictea and the people must decide,
Meanwhile the nation faces the pro
Diem ot a technical state of war with
By Hugh Ballllc
( United Press Staff Correspondent.)
ushington, Nov. 21. President
Wilson within ten days, will make his
supreme effort to end inroads of the
bolshevikl into America's social struc
ture p.nd at the same time, make the
United States a member of the league
of rations.
J ne president today was working
vigorously on . two state documents
which he intends shall be the most
compelling of his administration. One
of these is a message to congress, to
be delivered December 1 and the oth
er the message to the- new industrial
commission, called to bring about
peace between labor and capital, which
probably will convene here the same
day congress meets.
Wilson Is writing a strong appeal to
congress to take up again and ratify
me peace treaty. He Is preparing an
argument which tho administration
tiopes will bring about a compromise
and speedy ratification. If it doesn
then the president is ready to see the
fight carried into the 1920 national
election in which, however, he will not
participate beyond urging voters re
gardltss of party affiliations to dem
onstrate they want the United States to
join the league.
Wilson is anxious to go before con
gress and deliver his message in per
son. This is opposed by his physl
Milwaukee, Wis., Nov. 21. Six men
said to be former soldiers, late today
raided a building used as headquarters
ny 1. . w. and other radicals. Lit
erature was piled in the street and
New Proposal to
End Strike Will
Be Made by Union
Washington, Nov. 21. A proposal
for settlement of the coal strike will
be made to operators by miners late
today. President John Lewis of the
miners' unionr announced. -, ''"'
While Lewis refused to say what de
mands will be made by the miners, it
is understood their, proposal will be
for an increase, of about .25 cents a
ton or -ten centsmore a ton than op
erators offered yesterday.
Lewis made his announcement just
before opening ef the afternoon ses
sion of the scale committee and after
talk with Secretary, of Labor Wilson.
By Thomas Nelson Page
(Former ambassador to Italy)
(Written for the United Press)
Washington, Nov., 21. I consider
defeat of the peace treaty as an im
measurable misfortune. Those who
defeated it have' assumed the most
terrible responsibility which any men
have assumed In oui" time. Its effect
must be to plunge Europe into even
deeper chaos, from hlch America
can hardly escape entirely. Those who
were most against the treaty and
the league of nations were the Ger
mans, the extreme Sinn Felners, the
W. W. and the bolshevlsts. Those
who have just killed the treaty, how
ever sincere their mqtlves, have given
these cause for great rejoicing..
. Treaty Not Perfect
None -maintain that the treaty or
the league was perfect. But everyone
knows in his heart that it was a bet
ter treaty and sanction titan was hop
ed for one year ago' . J
Just one year ago and a little more.
America and the world were holding
their breath--at what was happening
in France. We were, vowing to God
that if peace were vouchsafed us,
that thing which was destroying the
world and had swept away so many
millions of men should never come
again. The ruins of France and Italy'
stilt were smoking. Our men were dy
ing by thousands in the Argonne and
along the other fronts to save the
world and it was saved.
.No Kxcuhc for V. 8.
I was present when David Lloyd-
George laid the treaty of peace on
the table of the house of commons
and declared that the league of na
tions was the only means of future
safety In sight and that he could not
imagine how any sensible man could
oppose it being fully tried out. Since
that time tho treaty has been approv
ed by all the allies.
But the senate of the United States
has rejected alike the treaty and the
league . of nations. Thus the United
States and China stand out alone
against the treaty and league. China
may have a defensible reason, but
what reason have we? If the treaty
did not protect America then human
intelligence has no sound basis.
F.uronc Hard Hit
Europe is in a condition bordering
on chaos and this is not likely to
bring order there. The first thing will
be Germany's relief from the exact
ions of the treaty. Can it be that she
now will put forth her efforts to pay
the great reparation amount imposed
upon her unless Indeed she recognizes
that the present situation offers the
unexpected chance for her to con
quer the world once more commer
cially? . If not this, then the result
must and probably will bo in any
event re-establlshment of great arm
aments. Means Big Arnuimcnts
The league of nations, having been
repudiated by us, the result to us is
clear. It means we must Inaugurate
here a great armament. We, Germany
and China alone stand outside of the
league, which at present constitutes
a sort of inchoate alliance, of. those
who have entered It. The present sit
uatlon as 1 see it is that , we have
had a chance to escape from being
overwhelmed in what threatened to
be a universal deluge and the senate
has thrown it away. We must now
find some other ark of safety.
The chief builder of the ark that
promised us rescue worked himself
nearly to death to save us. And it
looks as if those who were not called
in to help build the ark have sunk
it. What will they give us in its
Fatal Accidents During
Week Number Only One
Douglas Kelly, a logger of Selah,
Wash., was the only workman to lost
his life in an accident in Oregon Mi
duatrifs during tbep(ist week accord
ing to reports made to the state l.i
d tint via I accident commission. Of a to
tal vi 471 accidents 4,5 4 were subject
to the provisions of the compensation
act, 15 were from firms and corpora-
tions that have rejected the provis
ions of the act and two were fron
public utility corporations not subject
to. tne provisions of the act. .
Carranza Government Expect
ed To Comply With Demand
: For Release Of Jenkins And
'Avert "Crisis.''
Washington, Nov. 21. The United
States regarding the Mexican situation
as delicate, will proceed with the great
est caution in the. case of William O.
Jenkins, American consular agent Im
prisoned ftt Puebla, it was learned to
day at the state department.
Responsible officials-would not pre
dict possible action in event the Mexi
cans refused to release Jenkins, as de
manded by this government in a sharp
note. Nothing has happened to change
the belief that Mexico. will comply with
America's demands that a crisis wUl
vanish, it was stated. '
"Crisis" Is Denied.
"There Is no crises and there will be
none," Mexican .Ambassador Bonillas
told the United Press today. ."I trust
to the good judgment and good sense
of American; authortiy and the Ameri
can people. It is just a case of the
Jingoistic press trying to inflame' tho
people. When the true information is
known, this case will be like so many
others, in which crisis were supposed
to exist." - . .
At the-'Mexican embassy It was pre
dicted that Mexico's reply probably
would be a recital of the reasons for
Jenkins 'arrest, if he was arrested, with
an explanation that whatever -action I
was tt ken was based on law.
'" So Talk of Action. ,
"As fiir'ns we know there has been
no arrest of Jenkins," an. embassy of
ficial said; J'He was merely called be
fore court to make a declaration."
The state department information Is
that Jenkins wai.Dut In the peniten
tiary, nt Pueblo. ' ' -. -;' ... ' . ' X.. .
As tor punitive action In case Mex
ico remains defiant, there Was no talk
today , of a military- expedition. It
would lake 450;000 troops three years
to "pacify" Mexico, according to war
department estimates. A battleship
might be sent to the Tampico district
to make a demonstration, it was sug
gested, but ho official steps in this di
rection have been taken.
v , By Ralph Turner
(United Press staff correspondent)
Mexico City, Nov. 20. News that
the American state department had
sent the Mexican government a note
declaring further detention of William
u. Jenkins. United States consular
agent at Puebla, would "seriously af
fect relations between the United
States and Mexico," created a stir in
. . ... .
TJt I T ;t" ?l8patch 01
v-itl 4 y?' bee" beCme g0"'
A dispatch from Puebla stated that
Jenkins, whose second arrest on a
charge of collusion in connection with
the recent kidnaping took place after
ne had been released from detention
on similar charges, still was In custo
dy. It was said the Judge at Puebla
had not considered his caso because
today was a holiday.
London, Nov. 21. Despite Ameri
ca's failure to ratify the covenant,
Great Britain will deal in Its power
to make the league of nations effect
ive, Andrew Bonar Law, spokesman
for the government, intimated in the
house of commons this afternoon.
During discusMon of the American
senate's action, Sir McLean asked as
surances that . Great Britain would
"not luck determination to do all In
Its power to take the lead in making
the league effective."
"There ls no- need to doubt It," Bo
nar Law replied, "but it is a mistake
to asHume that all help from Ameri
ca Is gone."
Bonar Law was bombarded . with
questions regarding the situation re
suiting from the United States senate
action. He indicated it would not da
ter the other nations ratifying the
treaty from carrying out Its provis
ions. Sir Samuel Hoare asked whether
the situation would have any effect
on the AngIo-FranccAmcrlcan treaty
"Our undertaking in this was con
tingent upon It being carried out by
the United States." said Bonar Law.
"The senate has not yet ratified this
itreaty." -
Car svstkm von iucnt
Walla Walla, Wash., Nov. 21. Wul
la Walla will lease her car system for
$12,000 a year from the traction com
pany, if recommendations of the pub
lic service commission are followed.
The company Is scheduled to quit,
claiming it cannot operate at a profit.
: i
October Exports
I Far In Excess of
J September Mark
Washington, Nov. 21. Exports dur
ing October totalled $632,000,000, an
increase of (35,000,000 over Septem
ber and 3130,000,000 over October,
118, according to a statement issued
by the department of commerce to
day. Imports totalled $416,000,000, a "de
crease of $20,000,000 from September,
but an increase of $169,000,000 over
October of last year. "- :
Exports for the ten months ending
with October totalled $6,601,000,000,
an increase of $1,440,000,000 as com
pared with the same period in 1918.
For the ten months this year imports
amounted to $3,130,000,000, a gain of
$643,000,000 over the similar period
last year. -
(Capital Journal Special Service.) .
'. Sllverton, Or., Nov. 21. Sllverton to
day was the soene of a silent battle be-
tween organizers for the Timber Work-
ers Union, the I. W, W. and the Four
Ls' with the state looking on ready to
act as arbitrator. Following a meet
ing In the opera house here lost night
when Otto Hartwig, president of the
State Federation of Labor, and Philip
Holden, organizer for the Timber
Workers, spoke to an audience of 100
loggers frbm the surrounding camps,
discussion was rife of the affair on the
street corners, in pool halls and the
Preparatory to meet any similar ac
tion that was reported to have occur
red here to disrupt Mr. Holden'a work
when lie spoke several days ago, a
truckload of Timber Workers came
from Suleirl to the meeting last night.
Whatever action was manifest at that
meeting to block the plans of organiza
tion of tho Timber Workers did not
show Itself last night, add Hartwig and
Holden coifflucted the meeting unlutcp-
rupteo,- -. .-.. -h . - t.
Investigation Reports.
The report that officials of the saw
mills and camps here are discharging
men If- they don't join the- Four L's
and discharging them if they Join tlu
Timbei Workers is being investigated
by the state, . Following a conference
yesterday at Salem between Holden
and State Labor Commissioner Gram
it was announced that the Btate wr-uld
take a hand if affidavits proving that
the men were being discharged could
be obtained.
When Holden spoke here several
days ago the streets, following his de
parture after a heated debato at the
opera house, were littered with I. W.
W. literature, it is reported. Mill men
viuu ncia unci bc, . c . i , di,
they saw none of the literature; but
do say that they heard I. W. W. threat-
who were interviewed, however, say
en to "get" Holden or any Four L
Opinion here today among the log
gers and mill men runs in favor of the
Timber W'orkers, who have assured
them, they say, a "square deal." They
claim that tho Four L leaders have
failed to keep their assurance with the
men in the matter of advancing the
wage scale when the price of lumber
. . Protests Organization.
In Ms talk last night Mr. Hartwig
protested the necessity of organiza
tion. He defined the radicals who are
now working havoc In all parts of the
country as "new members, of unions
who have come to feel what they can
do, and are trying to turn the world
over in 20 minutes." He cautioned con
servation on the part of every union
man, urging this as "Americanism."
He emphatically declared that no
member of the I. W. W. would be ad
mitted to any A. F. of L. organiza
tion. President L. J. Slmeral, of the Sa
lem Central Trades & Labor council,
presided, at the meeting last night. He
ead a long list of war activities Mr.
Hartwig had been connected with,
tending to refute the accusation made
at the last meeting here that the Tim
ber Workers was an I. W, W. move
Daring Wyoming Bandit
Still Free; Pokes Fun At
Officers Pursuing Him
Cheyenne, Wyo., Nov. 21. (United
Prcsii.) William Carlisle, elusive train
robber, has the whole western country
guessing today. He dropped into the
Casper telegraph office Thursday,' left
a message "thanking the Union Pa
cific for the "haul" he made on the
Los Angeles Limited last Tuesday,
poked fun at the road's detective force,
and then disappeared.
Tho posses, United States cavalry
and railroad officers are helplessly
waiting for his next appearance, hold
ing trains with full steam up at sev
eral points in Wyoming to dash quickly
to the scene.
Carlisle's daring has so gripped the
Nation Facing Fuel Famine As
Miners And Operators Vie
la Wonry Wrangle To Settle
Wage Diff erenee.
(By United Press.) r ' -v
While coal miners and operators ao
bated in Washington on a wage .seals
several sections of the country, par
ticularly middle west and southwest. .
were facing an increasingly serious sit
uation today as a result of the fuel
Curtailment of train service, apan
donment of non-essential Industries,
rationing of reserve supplies and re
establishment of "lightlesa nights"
were being reported in an effort to
conserve the diminishing coal supply.
In many places: only a few days ro-
servo remained.! Above all was danger
jef a ntitiontwide freight embargo, ad-
mltted by Rail Director flines to be a
possibility should the situation show
.no improvement within a month.
Hunting's Proposal Discussed.
Meanwhile tho proposal of Governor
Hard'ng of Iowa that the chief execu
tives of bituminous producing states '
seize and pperate the mines in an ef
fort to bring about normal production
was meeting with varied rosponsea ;
Governor Cox of Ohio, in a message
to the United Press, supported Har-
ing's plan while Governor Cornwell of
West Virginia believed it would be
playing Into the hands of the radicals
and Governor Sproul of Pennsylvania
regarded such action as unconstitu
tional. , , 4 ... .j.jj- .:
"It (he dispute affecting the mining
Industry ls not settled soon. It will be
necessary for governmental interfer
ence, to take tho shape of operation ot
the-i mines"-wire H.u'ding. '.. . -
. Plan Not l egal. ; . -'ft
wouid be -far better for the fed-"
ernl government to "doit, ut If it "
'tM hot, t hi le.ioi slbillty falls to-
thefi.tes.'' -: ;. . -
S)riul ni'-vcly declaiv! Harding's
(Continued on page eight)
San Francisco, Nov. 21. Shipyards
in the San Francisco bay district will
reopen next Monday, the California
Metul Trades Association and Foun-
drymeii's Association announced to
day. Unless nil the men who have
been on strike return to work others
will be imported to fill their places,
the announcement said. -
"Signed requests of more than H,
000 men make this a sacred obliga
tion," declared a statement Issued at
noon. .
The wages in effect prior to the
strike will remain in force and will
continue for a year.
The statement contlhues:
"All the yards and shops cannot op
erate at anything like capacity with -
the number of men that have applied
for work. It will be necessary to ob
tain the services of other men. No at
tempt will be made to bring in work
men for ten days from the data of
"This Is to provide opportunity for
men who have hesitated to report for -duty.
If on December 3 the places are
not alt filled we will announce in pa
pers throughout the northwest. In
southern California and the east that
places are open in the shipyards of
the. San Francisco bay district and
that all men will be permanently em
ployed in order of their application.
"We earnestly wish, however, to
avoid this action."
west's fancy that the public quite gen-
'trally hopes he makes good his escape,
The authorities, however, regarded
him as the greatest menace to gaf
travel in Wyoming history and are
determined to take him dead or alive.
Carlisle has never shed human
blood. His chivalrous refusal to rob
women passengers Is now matched by
the discovery that during his peniten
tiary term he was a wizard at orotchet
Ing doilies and weaving hair lariats,"
His pictures, spread broadcast over
this region, but more particularly his ,
enormous hands and feet, hive made
him i marked mau.