Image provided by: University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
About East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, OR) 1888-current | View Entire Issue (Jan. 2, 1904)
..help u',n the
Eastern Oregon Weather
Tonight and Sunday clouify
PKNTDIjETOX, UMATILLA COUNTY, OTfEGOJs, SATlTTI)AY, JAiNUAliY2. MUM.
d cv Mflr
"Twinnn ii iir m
j is Ordering
at Naaasaka Has
jnfsred to Korea-China Has
Another Demand That
Evicuate Manchuria Busl-
Circle! In America Mircauy
i h. Meantime the Ciar
"Nothing Has Happened."
Jin. 2. Threo car loans ci
mm vtre shinned from nere
1 mryA InTPPP nilAtltltlOS
IDUSJ, w ... . n . .
Miles Predicts War.
S u interview today predicts
nr between Russia and Ja-
tMcks the I'nltcd States will
use Squadron to Korea.
& cruisers, now near Nagasa-
i - r.A r...A It fe rf.rinrtfiH
Kii u.uc.u, i " c . ......
I (wnnrmir tn Knreil- It IS
tilt It ioienus 10 seize jw
Makei Another Demand.
T. 9 Thd f7hlm.an nfiv-
issli evacuate Manchuria.
Chicago Stocks Affected.
. n t I. nnA..i ..r
iji open but a short time to-
ICCTOBl 01 U UC1UK UlUUrillUS
The prospect of war In the Ori-
Kilning Has Happened."
Fttersburg, Jan. 2. It Is le-
tie czar and minister of for-
sZairs. Lansdorff have lioth Ie ,
ud that Russia will not tie-
nr at matte'- stand at ir
4 4i4.i. 4.
president Burt Resigns.
Omaha, Jan. 2. President
Burt, of the Union Pacific, has
tendered his resignation. He
Rives no reasons, but the com
pany has Issued an announce
ment saying the resignation
will he acted upon in the near
future. Burt has been In act
ive service 30 years without
rest or recreation.
TOTAL NUMBER OF Dtl
RUjK 91 MIMED
Proprietors and Managers olthb Iroquois Are UnderArrest,
and Many Othcrwrests. Arc Coming.
CLASS OF SIX BEING
TAUGHT AT M. E. CHURCH.
Members of the Church Divide Their
Time In Teaching Class, Which
Meets Three Times a Week Most
of Them Understood English Before
Beginning Here Will Become
A class of six Japanese Is being
taught the English language at ihe
M, E. church, by members of ihe
church, who divide the time with the
class on different evenings of the
Those who are active In teaching
the boys to read, write and speak
Kngnsn are u
Ray Jones. C
Stupid Recklessness of Ushers Afte the panic Begun Many Children
Thought the Fire Was Part of he Spectacle Five Hundred, and Fifty
Eight Bodies Have Been identjfied A, pall of Grief Has Settled Over
the Entire City and All Business, Is Suspended Two Hundred and
Fifty Funerals Today.
The Scrlpps-McRae news bureau j yet .theie are u few places of monot
inrnishes the following supplemental ""'"k1 activity: Ihe morgues and pro-
wrlte-up following the' Chicago dlsasH '?n8rhlcl' "? ,hlB1t!", v?m'
t,,,. h , ,. . antloJir4 f haggard men and tearless
tei from the p,.n of R. E. Nurton: jvomeii, keep up the weary round ot
Universal Sorrow. Iseareit, thus lollowlng nn instinct
Chicago, Jan. 2.-Bcnoath a gloomjfi 'fsh ";' nor civilization cf
sky, in oppressive silence and In nn ,, 'h,nt lm,pln,? ,0 w 11L s
uZSVXU Cnlcago iZoH - " bear
stieets which are usually resonant! i , l.!3.1? l",n't " . I.0I1 Jows ,of
With tne Clan- of rnnimmvl.,)!,,, 3 V ",s '""hen um U) - BUIiri SUUH
whose navpnienta nro wmit tn linX
Torpedo Boat Rammed.
Washington, Jan. 2, Roar
Admlrnl Sands telcgrnphs the
navy department that the tor-
pedo boat I nwrwro hn. boon
rammed off tho coast of riar-
Ida by the steamer Ollvel-,
which plies between Tampa
and Havana, and Is now ut
anchor. Ho does not state
the amount of damage,
JOHN A. BENSON UNDER
HEAVY BONDS FOR BRIBERY.
Leader of the California and Oregon
Ring of School and Lieu Land
Thieves Spends the Night in Jail
Under $10,000 Bonds in New York
and Will Be Brought to Justice,
as father, mother, sister, friend or
1,rrjr.' T.,.V.Lwo".1.,. ' '? brother reaches out the trembling
. ici, xmc unu em ... ...... si-aeun Willi IIIUHJ-J ,..,,..,,1..,, ,h ,,f .),.,,
U H. le. Miss Boyce 'he makers, whose sky towerins buildings X whote symbolism Is
r the church, Professor E. are accustomed to tho cheer of throM'J ',S?' J h" ' J? .1
C. U French. . Miss Rosine Un? artlvlty. an- so silent that the 1 . nil Uort. Then the visit of the
Epplo and Roland Oliver The class rattle of funeral Mappings bears with ! r' n,inmini-Pii
meets turee times a week, and con-1 "t a sharp and sudden shock. : The weary attendnntK 11 the
Hmi 0B8rln1i;Ii,,,er8 at ,h "rofpnt, neral after funeral, until the rlt 1 morgues today hegau to look for the
time, as follows. buildings themselves seem forming an.cloM-, realizing that In that great ni-
Ulll Akiyama, cook; K. Okatakl. alley like gnardways to visit the gales ray of charred bodies aro but few who
qook; K. Nomura, S. Maylboni and S. f 'leathj pavements cither deserted will ever aga'ln be known by name.
Ohmnura, section men, and H. figul, or habited only by those who stand'l Identification comes more slowly, and'
cook. The Japanese are all bright, 'In an expression of hopeless, oppress J s neaily at an end. But tho grief
Intelligent boys, some of whom have i -ive, pathetic grief have changed the ' joes not diminish, nor tho offaeemunt
studied English before, having reach-: scene to one of funeral solemnity, off0f horror. The sackcloth Is heavy
ed the fourth grade before lieglnning universal woe. No sound of ringing land ashes heaped high.
in mis class. ivi6Jiut-n, uu huuui ui mirm, no giaa
They are taught to write, Fpeak and' exchange J holiday greetings; but p.
read the English language, with a I lence. awful In desolation or biOKeu
Silence of Desolation.
The street gamin has forgotten In
this environment (jti!lqom !ocal hit
wareSth cable' 'ca'rsTglve"no"t'ongin
New Yotk, Jan. 2. John A. Benson,
the California und Otogon laud swind
ler, who was placed under bonds last
week for uttctupted bribery, In tho
land olllcu dei.mtmcnt at Washington,
wiih arrested In this city yesterday,
uu an additional charge of bribery by
United Slates ttcciet service men, and
In default of $)0.fl00 ball, spent last
night In the l.udlow street jail, await
ing tho completion of his bond which
was given this morning,
Benson und Frederick A. Hyde, ,tf
San Francisco, aro accused nf whole
Looting of the Interstate Com
merce Commission's Funds
AN EXAMINATION OF ITS
ACCOUNTS IS ORDERED.
Special Experts Go to Start an Ex
amination and Finds the Necessary
Books Locked In a Safe, and the
Underlings In Charge Refuio to
Talk The Department Handles
Over a Quarter of a Million Dollars
Per Year It Is Unexpected.
Washington, Jan. 2. Tho Interstate
commerce commissioners luivo oritur
ed u full examination of tho accounts
of the commission, on tho strength of
Information that the books are In Ir
Thy tiejsury department today, by
request of tho commissioners, sonl
Special Experts Chaso, Ambruso und
Taylor to where tho examination of
tho nccounts will bo made. 1'lioro
they found the nccounts In 11 scaled
view to becoming missionary teachers
among their countrymen In this coun
try, and are apt cholarh and all
Dead Wilt Reach 600.
The revised list of Iroquois fatull
ties as given out by officials this after
ii'qun hhows 53S Identified, 28 uuldsn
tilled. Total death list. Including
tboso who died at their homes from
OPEN WINTER IN IDAHO.
Most Favorable Weather for Stock
That Has Been Experienced in Ten 1
ttct a Building of Nearly 30,000
wai, Jan. 2, Plans tar tho
taUIana Purchase exnobltlon
w own received by mrecirr
mj iui i iie iiubnian im ii
ft k-. . i .
7 kv uiuua ana uruwings
x u will add much to the
ivuc2 s oi Tiip KPfimn (tr tnr.
Ulllinn 1C tn ln ut nnl i-n
iuir mm win tuvlt
i wcttiir ii.uuii kniinrn tnpi.
TU liA fn Iac rhnn tli..
HiidiDr la rnmlillnc- In rl.sl?n
f'HC IIIHIII Kirill'Ill rH
win ue oi amerent ae-
ft nlghest one. fiurmnnntlns
"uiiuing. wni confilat of an
. - x.M'.MlVU I.VI tl V-V
" oexagonal tower.
OSEPH'S DREAM ENDS.
Will Not Pav Ennenses
umr t a.
h w wasningion
lrMi i ... .
nuuman, of the Nex
ire hnmn frnm Q.vntfnno
to ""e ueeu In confereuc-ft
Hue chief ii-
wag lntcnilntl t vial
that the covern
lt . . r lno eJtiienso of
-.Mm 7 . ... ..
- 0'-.fa ui iuih iiiue.
fs It has been the
l Uflln ln.....l. i
ftae U'.M """aln oil tne ncn
"a. " " ue pre .idt-i In vo-
viv m a Uu 'it'lUl' t-
Wtii??lan'1 lolIev.l that
y ., "-'sui im.-1 ...-t.
-,lln ' 'n Gieaivi
Htt, nP deferred for n
to.;. H.r ..ri'l Flve Hundrcd SMy.two .dentlfied
toll with monotonous regularity and ' , r,v'' lmndre' ,aD'l sixty-two bodies
muffled sfroko In unwonted usage. hav" ,)",'n Wentlfled up to nocii.
This Is almost a city of dead. Chi- Charged With Manslaughter,
cago is today In the blackest and rr.ot Chicago. Jan. 2. Davis und Powers.
I lirofOUnil irrlef. nnr l9n ilR Vltnl lm:.rt. f Mr.uirl,.lrii-a nn,l mnnnpnra nt lltf. lrt.
Richard Stecn arrived In the city ' ..irob be more plainly told than In thi ipiols theater, and (leorgo Williams,
yesterday from his Snake liver sheep words most fiequeutly heard, per- , city building Inhpeclor, who wero nr
ranch. .Mr Steen is feeding 2,300 haps from one who lost neither kin ' rested last night on the criminal
bean of sheep at Tammany for the I nor friend: Jly God, the little child-, charge of manslaughter on complaint
later market and ins work requires rep." Fbr n this mournful retinue. . or Arthur Hull, who lost his wife,
frequent visits here, says the Lewis-, this seemingly endless procession, de-j thief ehlldien and their maid In tho
ton Tribune. J void of even that customary pageantr' i holocaust, appeared before a justice
air. Sieeu states mat tne pasi win- f death, almost all those silent pas- this morning ami gae bonds ror fl.
ter, from the standpoint of a sheep- sengers are encased In email, oven 000 eacu.
man, Is one of the rno'H favorable of diminutive coffins, telling again but I A new onler tor additional ariests
tho past ten jears. It has not et too plainly of (hat plteously futile I was made this morning, which will bo
been necessary for the sheepmen to!, Btruggle made by little hands and feet , used providing the Investigation now
engage in winter leeaing ami puis- for lite only 1IR anil mercy; mercy
pects now Indicate, an open winter. from the fear maddened tbiong that
The statement is perbai j a sur-1 crushed them to death with cruel feet
prise to many l.ewlston residents, jflco cast-off blossoms, or dying flow
i ufiff. Tim plnrl.-v nml nrrnntitiiiitu rn.
saie irnuii in ODianmig uue 10 hchuoi , flBOl ,0 (Is(,ga t,0 nffalr.
lands In Oregon and California. 1 . he i-, Tho ,epartinent handled between
practices have resulted In tho thclt j250,00O und $300,000 nnnually. This
or thousands of acres of school land )s , llrsl tlmQ , tbo hiory of tho
In these stnles, within the past Ivc c0n,mtsalcm that clmrKoa nUoRlriK nny
years, and tho government secret worW) tlmn nK ,,,nllm for 1Ul.
service ngents have been following Iicqi.88ilry mileage, and for Junkfltlng
their methods in hopes of getting L, , ox)ong( of ti, government,
. ., ,havo been made.
The Hut cluu agents found wan the. .
offer of $20(1 by Uonson to a clerk In
the general land office last week, for
the privilege ot reading tho proceed
Ings of the land Investigations, In the
olllcu of the secretary of tho Interior,
In cases lu which ho was Interested.
This Bccond arrest of Bonson Is on
furiher changes of bribery flf the, same
Tiatn're. Biuison s "opcrationS'nlrcVwitil
to be extensive and fraudulent In
LOUI8 M. HUSON DEAD.
An Old Settler, Progressive and Pros
perous and With a Large Family.
l.ou!a M. Hiijoii, ono of tho old ruBl
dents of this county, wlicrq he has rtn
ijlded Jor. tnaiiy.) oars, (died at nlij
"hoiilo'-h-Ml6!lx -Oils ruornlnc -ut X.
o'clock, after a short illness. Mr. Ha-
I lln I....1. .. .
I r, uiu -ti riri
H0 "tlro". Mlcb., .uid
but the statement Is a fact, neverihe- j ers. probably it Is this which makes
less, that tho Lewlston valley in the j cold-blooded busluoss menand olllceis
past experienced many severe win- familiar with scenes of violent death,
ters. Inese winters are ancient his-1 and careless the one who laughs, and
lory, but old-tlmeis tell It this way: ' tD(. hardened outcast, stand spell
There were periods when the Snake , ijouud for the nonce In one common
river for the period of weeks was 1 1 (j,, that or grler.
solid mass of Ice onabllug footmin yesterday's iiapers contained
to pass over the stream with !afetv. ia()s of jpan, Bts alld columns of
while the thermometer reglsteied ; l, n i-i a I notices. Today's tell yet of
many degrees below zero. ' moie. Yesterday, faces of pcdestrl-!
During the past slx yeais the low-' ang uorP ti. dazed look of ti- unit-
est temperature recorded has been 4 , ulstlne. Today, with comprehension
degrees ubove zero, but the cold win- vlvljjcd by the funeral panorama
ters of the past existed, and the wthout those same faces aro scor"d
sheepmen always figure on a repi-.i ( un, 8tarej with sorrow's brand
t!(n. " All Business Suspended.
Z7. .,TTr.u Obedient to .Mayor Harrison's pioc
TO PRESS DEATH BUTTON. iamatIon that thls"be a day of mourn
Inn. even those business houses which
Prison Guards Don't Know Who win bpar n(J crapp ,n), f)f ,eath ur0uglit
Drop Death Trap. home, have closed ihulr doors, mat
.t n-i.iw, tin. Am mur- maelstrom of inarKei, me noaru oi
scaffold, utes uncovered. Ttamc was sioppcu
When John Reynolds, tbo first mur-1 maelstrom n narhei, .,,e .
derer to ham: at the state penlteati-; Trade. Is silent.
try swings ouf Info eternity, If the Hut a short time ago Chica,
sentence of death Is executed. It will at the stroke of noon-for two I
sentinco oi atdu' i v . uncovered. Traffic was
, Ti .i, .null exercise court, and silence relgneu wnuo me iovuu
8S n . ,"1 i mer walls and martyred president was In a ills-
Only a few I'erhaps 0 outsiders, tant city Jpwercd into the grave To
rn i Hfl Thls is left to the day. at the same hour. Chicago stood
JiiiJlfi Warden A. Dryden. I In winter's wlr,d hatless. Immovable
t,. .,7; Z, or the execution. Mr., and bowed ror live mint ie wm u
Dryden ould not disclose yesterday.
None will have tho pleasure, or pain
of knowing who springs the trap. It
11I be done by one of a riojzen or
more guards, each of wnom n.
. . , T-iio ii-irpfl cuu-
n ieciric uuiiuu. 7
hundreds of Its own 'were laid uway.
Mayor Harrison! proclamation ,0
this effect was not necessary to bring
the tragedy home, although It'was is
sued Ihls morriliR' For as Dr. Hlrsch
said In an address last night,
"Thiough the walls of 1,000 homes in
1.1. II... tr-in
ncctlng hos c unoas .u . uu - , dt 8ol8 ,.cg,)lln,i
will be twisted and knotted lofeUhtr tuu morcC38 wnrt
and covered, and all but on lJ tbat the voices of the bereav-
,be trap. Thus m one v.ill know u . M
Wtn?Reyno'dsCTa be,e.Two.Hundred Funeral. Today.
from KJnc county Deccmuer . iy xwb lnindiod funerals in, one nay,
murder In the first degree. Alter -.m
dcaih sentence was P-"'"":
new alleged facts cme up whl'
was e aimed might have saved h
1 f it Is nosBlble, thereforo. that rte
may not hang at all.
RIDING SCHOOL BURNED.
beiug made shows facts sufficient to
warrant. They are operative against
ushers who are charged by persons
scaping from the theater that nt
every exit ushers barred the way and
ordered the crowd to remain seated.
One witness this morning, who was
In Ihe gallery. ja-H children mistook
Liie tiny tlamc-s cn-cplng along Ihe
scenery as part of tho display und
laughed and clapped their hands in
Ushers on that floor are said lo
have run on discovering the fire with
out making an effort to get the child-l.-ii
mil and down stairs. Survivors
say men were compelled to knock
every detail, its he is the leader ofiSOn wOS 67 year8 o ag0 at ti10 time
the ring1 or school land thieves in tho ot n death, which was caused y
West and has defiauded tho states ,aralysls. Some tlcio aso ho wan
and government out of millions ufslrIckon with tho disease arid since
acres and has succoHsfulIy eluded the (hat tmo llU3 ltvcn growlug worse,
secret service agents until his offer I ulluj govern! days ago hopo for his ro
of tho bribe to the clerk In tho land COvury was given up.
office nt Washington. Mr. Hitson was born In Now York.
I and bus been a resident ot this coun-
WlLL DIG FOR BURIED CITIES. iv lor over 20 years. Ho has engaged
- 1 . In tho funning business In Helix, ahu
nesearcnes in tne Crimea ana west-j was one of the prosperous and pro-
giessivu citizens 01 iiih uomo city,
lie has a large family, and all lire
well known throughout tho county.
Mr. IliiBOn was a well known music
Ian, nnd nt one time had n hand com
posed entirely of the inomlierH of hta
At nun time ho was considered lo
be II111 best violinist In thu county,
nnd his presenrn wns much sought for
tho dunros of tho pioneer days,'
Tho arrangements for t.m funeral
luivo not been made, though A. Hit
son, one or his sons, Is In Ihe city
rnuMiig preparations for thai sad
WILL GROW SUGAR BEETS.
em Afghanistan American Sclen
tlsts Worklnq In Russian Territory
Under Gpc-lal Permits from Rus
Boston, Mass., Jan. 2.- -The expedi
tion headed by .Mr, I'unipelly, the
archaeologist, and bucked by Alldie.v
Carnegie, starts from lloston today to
search among thu burled cities lu
western Afghanistan and Ihe Crimea.
The expedition is ono which has long
been under consideration. Lust year
Mr. Piinipeiiy went to Russia win,
Professor DaviH of Hnrvaid for Ihe
purpose of looking over Ihe ground
und to obtain permission from It"
Russian government to conduct ill.
desired Investigations In her terri
tory, Mr, Purnpclly started this year In
advance of tho expedition lo complelo
ushers down befoie the doors could , thu relations with thu Russian illplo
Twenty poisons' detailed wero ar
raigned this morning and cases reset
for arter the Inquest. Four aro mem
bers of the company and are the prin
cipal .witnesses, Their bond has been
reduced, from $5,000 to $1,000 each
Twenty chorus girls aro under survoll
lance to prevent their doarturo from
Condolence From the Cxar,
Washington, Jan. 2. Tho president
has received the following cablegram
from the kaiser
"Berlin, jan. 1 I am aghast at thu
newb of the terr.ble catastrophe
which bus befallen tho people of Chi
cago, The empress and myself wish
to convey to yon how deeply we feel
for the American people who have
been so cruelly visited lu a week of
Joy. Please convey expiesslons of
our slncercsl sympathy to tho citi
zens of Chicago. May providence in
tho coming year shield you and Amer
lea from such accldeuts."
Must Observe the Laws,
Chicago, Jan. 2. Tho mayor, at tho
icquest or the oulldlug commissioners
will this evening order all theaters of
the city closed Indefinitely, until the
laws are fully complied with,
Twelve-Year-Old Boy Meets
Very Serious Accident
Yesterday a'ten.oen the 12-J'ear-i,d
sou of u Mr. Moore, who lives nejr
the Slniiihon-Perrlnger ince track,
. DurM.H tO 1 1. 1.. l.l.,lt In litxintn.' frflfTI U
One Man and Four nor uium- m . b. ... j......-. p
snn Kranclsco, Jari,
knee. Dr. Henderson was called and
; set tho bone and tho little sufferer
With , Is now resting as easily as could be
bank to I ho bottom of a ditch.
No Shortest Day in 1903.
Tbeio was no shortest day In l'JOJ,
In the Northern hemisphere, as the
sun attained Its greatest southern
'.'. "i i..,V.,0,i this
ruling sen.". . f horMB
James Burns, porter, ami wi
in makliiK the Jump In Ilay bo was ! declination at midnight on December
caught In a ( Jump of bushes, break-. 22, tho 22d and 23d being or equal
lug the bono In his loft thigh about length and slightly exceeded by the
midway between the hip and tho 21st and 24th
mats. Tho expedition starting today
will meet Mr, Pumpelly in Cairo.
Egypt. Thorn tho nicmliurH expect
to complete, the acquirement of
data need 1 ill lur tuelr work, 1111I
thence will proceed to the vicinity
whom tlioy will begin excavations.
This section has.uevor before been
thus searched by scientists, nnd the
work of the party Is awallod with
widespread Interest 011, this account.
Tho party expects that its efforts will
bo rewarded by the finding of many
traces of the early tribes who peo
pled this portion of Ihe continent,
Tho return trip to America will bo
made In tho early Hprlng,
Quebec Drug House Burned.
Quebec, Jan. 2. The Mnrln whole
sale drug house burned this morning.
VOTERS MUST REOI3TER,
La Grande Sugar Factory People Will
Grow a Test Crop In Umatilla
F. V. Brumwull, ono of Ihe princi
pal owners and the field superintend
ent of the I. a (Irunde Beet Sugar fac
tory, Is In thu city today on huslunHH
connected with that Institution, The
sugar factory people duslro lo secure
nu amount of land in Umatilla county,
for lm purposo of growing a test crop
of beets, and will give thu mutter .1
thorough nnd practical Investigation,
Tho sell of this county Ih thought
lu bo fully as well adapted tn Ilia
sugar licet as that of Union county,
nnd If tho crop proves to be 11 suc
cess, a factory will surely bo built
In this county In the near future
Anyone- desiring to furnish a tract of
land for the purpose of testing n crop
of heels, ran vet the particulars (rum
Mr. Bramwell ut I.a Orando.
C. L. MARTIN RELEASED,
Preliminary Necessary to Qualify a
a Voter Next Fall.
Tin. 'i-cidstratlon blanks for the
general and presidential election have , ho hat) been for MevernI months, on
Charged With Obtaining Money Under
False Pretenses From Maple Bros.
Upon mot Ion of tho distiict attor
ney, a, U Martin wus this afternoon
released from tho county Jail, whew
reached tho counly clerk'x office .mil
on Monday next thu force of the of
fice will commence thu registration if
all of tho voteis of th " iifi'y who
have Interest enough lu the coining
elections to come to Ihe 'line anil
go through that rorimtllty. This let;
a charge or obtaining money uiiuur
false pretenses, from the firm of Ma
ple Brothers, of this city.
Martin represented himself us thn
agent of an electrical supply house la
the East, and had thu local firm caqh
a check ror him fur $20, He has nlvi
Islrallon Is for thu county uui' covuim done the samu thing lu Ui Qruiidu,
running uue i:ii:i-ii 111 u b.iiuuii mm
one more In u business house, Ono
of theso bo settled, but tho other is
tat 11 ugalnut III ni.
Tho charge wns dismissed owing to
tho fact that It would cost too much
to secure thu witnesses against him.
the state and national election!-
A bath house that will cost 51WI Wt
will bo erected at Ocean Park, uear
Uerinauy has secured an o'ltdoor
space of 000x125 feet for a "trt.ns oi'
tation exhibit" at the Hi. ji'i exposition,
Japan has formally recognised tb
republic of Panama.
were burned u