Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, October 08, 1886, Page 4, Image 4

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lamicd every Week by tin
On year, (PoetMfe pW), In advance t i.00
Hz months, (1'oaURO paid), In nil unci) 1.2ft
Um than six monthi Mill be, per month t
Advertisement wltl lie Iniorted, providing th are
etpecUble. at the following table ol rate t
On Inch of inace Mr month .
nM Inehee of mace tier montli 00
I De-half column per month 15.00
On column per month.., ...... 30.00
VikSample eoplee lent free on application.
fifteen yours without its cvor being re
newed in nil thnt time. Wlien wo ob
jected to pasturing meadow land in wot
weather and quoted tho fact thnt timothy
lias a bulb at tho surface that is liabln
to Ijo crushed by ho.ivy stock, or eaten
by switio or sheen, ho explained thnt
when lienvy meadow was headed it loft
two tons of straw, or stubble, on tho
land, and this protected tho roots from
being injured; that ho did not allow
sheep or swino on tho meadow, but kept
ealtlo and horses there, nnd found that
such pasturago kopt bin meadow in
good condition, whilo tho meadows of
his neighbors detciioratcd. At the same
thno it is ovident that without tho pro
tection of tho heavy stubble left by tho
Salkm'u bridge across tho Willamette "cnuor " "u " ' "T, rc.il
will ivitlinllt I u" "u u"0"i "" uviuuiiujr iui, uiiiiiu
3' kAJ AVBJ.Bnl
I nnnl" In Philadelphia
nt tho Nowepnprr Ailver
tlilnir ARpncr 'it MPMra.
H. W. AVER AOON.uurttulhorlicd ngenta.
is progressing rapidly, and
doubt bo completed by December 1st.
Tin: Oregon Klato Agricultural Socie
ty has not yet niado its report of recolpts
nnd oxpondiluroa public. They nro
looked for with considerable interest.
rnurr GROWING.
October is tho month when you should
plant your trees, and you will tuu your
self first of all: "How shall I plant
them?" As tho time has arrived when
tho ground should be put in order, we
will loavo tho discussion of varieties, for
tho present, to consider what methods
for planting trees is to be preferred j nnd
horo, let us any, is tho most important
fact with regard to orcharding, next to
uavmg tno best vanotios. uoou vane
tics will not avail unless they arc prop
orly cared for.
If n man had the means to spond $50
to $100 an ncro in preparing his land,
it would bo tho truest economy to ex
pond whatever is necessary to put tho
land iu tho host condition. A yourg
did not. so treat tho portion of meadow frJCnil in Portland, n professional man,
Tin: ruriT ohoweiih of tho Northwest
country had n meeting in Portland, Oc
tober fi. An interesting address by 0.
Dickinson, of Hnlcm, upon tho best va
rieties of trees to plant, was delivered.
A committee was appointed to investi
gate tho codling moth, and to securo
tho necessary legislation to suppress
them. Fruit marketing was thoroughly
discussed by numorous growers present.
Wo shall hnvo n full report in our next
Many iti:o.ui:sis for copies of this pa
per containing Mr. Clarke's articles on
"Fruit Growing" aro received. Wo can
not supply back numbers. All who nro
Interested in this mibjoct should sub
scribe nt onco. 4'- ppr yem--
Wi: iiavi: been promised it series of
interesting articles on bees nnd how to
fowl them to keep them strong during
tho winter,!!) also tho necessity of giving
tho bees ail attonlion necessary to IIvo
this wintor, by Mir. KauMhian, of Needy,
Oregon. Tho well known experience of
tho gentleman will insure tho articles
being n timely ones.
that ho cut for hay
Timothy does not afford much pas
turago dining tho summer, ns it makes
no growth until fall rains come. It is
probiblo that pasturing it when tho soil
is dry nftor fall rains hnvo started tho
now grass may bo an actual benefit,
but as a general rulo it is snfo to say
that wet meadows should not bo pas
tured, and timothy should never havo
shcop or swine running on it. Thoro is
nn advantage in clover, becnuso it will
mako somo growth nil summer, nnd if
not cut for n second crop of hay, or
seed, will aflbrd pasturage for swino and
keep them growing.
Orchard-graBS is Mr. Smith's favorite
grass lor pasturago, uccnueo u tunes in
so easily on upland. Of this wo havo
proof in tho fact that it is thick enough
for hay and grows high and rank on the
borders of our orchard, which is red hill
land, and tho liordors wcro novor plowed
or oven jjruoDcd. urcnaru-grass win
too, hnB securod ton or twolvo ncrcs
tho hills n few milos back of that city
for his future home, nnd wishes to be
como a fruit grower. Ho asked us for
information, described the lay of his
land, nnd wants to know how to go to
work. We looked at his vigorous youth
nnd said : "Tho first thing you should
do will bo to put your ground in order,
and wo say, positively, never plant n
troo until you do so." Ho looked disap
pointed; ho is an enthusiast nbout fruit
growing, nnd said ho would rather bo n
successful producer of what tho world
needed than hold the highest oflico in
tho land.
Wo cannot do bettor tlinn repent, for
our lendors, tho advice wo gavo him.
It was: "Tncro will no nn immense
summer nnd winter, disintegrating tho
bed-rock of ninrl, thnt constitutes tho
8ubtnnco of tho Itcd Hills of Oregon,
and that crumbles to good soil on ex
posure. Lotting air into it causes it to
slack and .it loosens and becomes soil,
and the trees send down tholr roots into
it and thrive. Without subdrninngo
they could not thrive, oven if thoy man
aged to livoat all.
It is possible that trees grow well un
til n very dry senson comes, when they
show weakness. Hero, too. sub-drain-
ago is n saving power, for it makes tho
ground moist In summer nnd winter.
Drainngo for orchards is not so expen
sive as for gardening, as it is not neces
sary to put tho drains so close. Wo ox
poct, when able, to consult Mr. Drown
about our own ground. Wo shall
adopt his plan whon flnnnciallv able.
"',!... . . .."
j noau not nositnto to nuviso tlioso w.io
man iu iiiiiKu uiuiuuuiug u success, iu
nt least get him to see tho land and ex
plain its needs. Near Snlom tho sub
soil of tho Hod Hills is n species of
mnrl thnt soon becomes soil on expos-
uro; other localities havo clny hard
pan ; different localities havo different
conditions. It is tho business of n -farm
ing cngincor to know how each soil
shall be treated, if ho makes agricultur
al work his business. But supposing
that you cannot afford to uiuler-drain,
and wish to plant orchards. You must
mako your plow do as much work ns
possible towards accomplishing what
drainngo does. Plow deep nnd fallow
with, n sub-soiler. Go down, down,
down. If you can by any mentis Hcrnno
profit iu fnvor of doing good work ovor ftWn' another inch at tho liottom of tho
doing poor work.
roots down to tho
must prepare thnt lowor toil for their
rPtn.u en tul tlmir
sub-Koil, nnd you
or inun KruuuLii. uiuraiu-yi ""1180. TJlO Wliy to (10 tlllS IS to llior-
keep stock fat and growing, but thoy . ouglily ttndcrdrnin " Ho interrupted
will any timo lcnvo it for growing tim
othy if they can got at it. Timothy ev
idently has attractions for cattle and
horses greater than almost any other
with, "Why, my ground is a hlllsido,"
and was astonished to learn that this
did not mako drainngo the less but tho
i more necessary, as tno olinncos nro Hint
October is tho most delightful month
in tho year iu Oregon, for tho fruition
of tho year has then boon accomplished
and tho farmer enjoys his sense of iks
cession with full granary and lipeuod
gnnlcn ami orchard. And now thero is
work to ho done of the most imperative
need. If not already done ho must put
iu Ills slimmer-fallowed laud, must plow
and seed for wintor wheat, must turn
tnor land that he expects to cow in the
cpriug, becnuso two plowings aro almost
as good us n cummer-fallow. Thou thoro
is hardly a farmer who hint not grass
cectl to sow, and Octolwr is tho fall
month for such work. In somo lucidities,
and with come varieties of grasses, it is
advisable to bow iu February, or as coon
as winter breaks, but the best way is to
sow grasH-ceod early in tho fall if it will
do to sow in tho fall at all. However,
that is it point which each must de
termine for himself.
Wo have lately shown, in logard to
tieo planting, that thero is great advan
tage in Hotting out nil trees iu tho fall,
because they become firmly cet nudsond
out rootlets in tho wintor from four to
cix inches iu length, that mako tho
cpriufr growth double what it can ho if
planted any time after January. Wo
urgo again that October in tho mouth to
plant orchards, nnd with ground iu or
tier you nro sure to ieali.e it good growth
for your trees.
As to grass-seed, it is a pleasure to
learn as wo do from Herdsmen that
tho .ales of grass-seed aro increasing
largely every year. The value of grass
as a crop is not ' matter of conjecture,
but of eoita'nty. Wo continually hold
up for consideration tho importance of
cupplanting wheat ciops with cultivated
pustuios, at least to some tutent, be
cause wo ceo constant evidence that
glass pays ly actual letuius mini stock
raised on it, and also brings tho laud
into good condition. Cropping to grain
exhausts, while pasturing with any
kind of ctock icstorcs soil to life and
bat week we met, at the s"od store
of Miller tiros, Portland, Mr. Darling
Smith, of Utislon, Washington county,
who believe iu stock nnd keeps good
herds of thoroughbred and grades. He
has K0 ncivs iu timothy, besides p-isturo
land in orchard gins. Ho doe not
have confidence iu clover, because it is
dangerous to let stock cat it too freely
iu a groou state, and is liable to winter
kill on tho bottom-land of Tualatin
river. He cuts hulf, nt least, of his
meadow for teed, using u heador, and
then pastures it through tho winter.
He lus had land in timothy for ten to
grass, hut that doesn't show thnt stock t,0 bu3t 8UrfllC0 BOj wj wash woyi un
won't thrive woll on other grasses,
Wo asked Mr. Smith, ns n man of cx
porienco with stock and grasses, what
ho considered tho best pasture-grass.
Ho grows limothy and orchard-grass al
most exclusively, because thoy suit his
location. From what wo havo gathered
by observation nnd tho oxperienco of
others, wo ngrco with him as to tho value
of those two grasses orchnid-grass and
timothy but wo bcliove that whorover
clover will do well farmers should tow it.
Sown with limothy.tho clover will ripen
a week or so in advance of tho timothy,
but orchard-grass and clover ripon to
gether and innko excellent mixed hay.
On tho island, so-called, ccarco moro
than n stone's throw from our Salem
homo, across n slough, Mr. Minto giows
cloter and alfalfa iu perfection. It is
certain that on sandy liver-bottom land
both will reach perfection. tHo feedi
his sheep on clover liny, and after years
of ho doing is satisfied with tho results.
Other grasses have attracted attention,
but up to this timo timothy, orchard
grans and clover are tho most reliable.
Hluc-graci is good to mix with other
seed. English rye-grass (porouninl) is
liked by some. What was known as
inccquito grass (hut really was volvot
grass) proved to bo tender and winter
killed, and stock did not always take
well to it. Lincoln grass, ns grown by
Mr. Win. Townsond, of tho Hod Hills, is
tt vnluablo grass with him, for it makes
art oarly hay crop and grows rapidly,
furnishing summer pasture. It is good
for n fair crop of hay in June, and then
grows until frost kills it down. It comes
up again late iu tho spring, and in a
month is fit to cut for hay. It bears
trampling, wet or thy, and holds its own
ngainst eery thing but it hard frost,
which only kills it down for tho winter.
J udging from M r. Towncond's experience
or se oral years, it is a valuable gns
and deconos to U extensively piopa
Anyone who can give us valuable ex
pc.ienco concerning pastuio-grases will
confer a public benefit. We hao hay-
graces that cannot be excelled in our
timothy, oichaul-gnihs and clover, but
tno wealth of agriculture iu Oregon
would be vastly increased, if not doubled,
could the stoekraicerdecidoupongrawes
for pasture as valuable for that ns the
oiIums named are for meadow.
To return to our text, this is October.
In t few weeks winter will bo upon us,
ami now i the time to do much impor
tant work. We know the vahio of some
things, but do not mmiu to carry into
practice that knowledge. Human na
turo is always "shutting tho bain door
after tho horse is stolen." Wo are nut
to bo "n day after tho fair." A benificont
providence gao us October to prepare
for tho winter and do much important
work, so let ns improve it and not look
back on it and wish we had done to.
less tho water from every rain-full enn
escnpo by undcr-drains ; but that is tho
Wo advised him to consult Mr. G. I).
Drown, civil engineer, who makes n
spocialty of till-drniuing, nnd who Inst
senson drained a similar piece of land
in tho Portland hills for dipt. Lamsou,
Clerk of tho U. S. District Court, with
woiuleriul results. Wo commend any
reader of tho Pakmcii to Mr. C. Ii.
Drown, Portland, who is reliable, and
wn think will give tho best ndvico as to
preparing the ground for troo-planting.
A young man cannot afford to hurry
such work. Wo hnvo seen tho need of
it in our own orchard, where in different
places tioes dio, b!x or eight together,
and where in come parts thoy thrive
much hotter than in others. Wo nro
satisfied thnt, with good undor-drnlungc,
tho whole tract would bocqunllyhcnlthy
for trees, and that we should now have
hundreds of thrifty trees whoro vncitn
cics hnvo occurred. Not only so, but wo
fully believe that tho wholo orchard (con
Hidorcd vory healthy nnd fine as It is)
would bo iu much better condition nnd
in much heavier bearing, and would
have borne much oarlior and much
moro, had it good systom of under-
draining been practiced iu the begin
This year we in common with tho
majority of fruit-growers had n light
crop, not a quarter of a crop, iu fact,
kvauso tho cold rains thnt enmo from
tho fth to the 15th of May, for ten
days, blighted tho fruit. This resulted
from the roots being Hooded, causing
snp-fiow to diminish, so that tho fruit
was not cupplied with food, and far tho
want of it, blighted, as if a cow should
dry up its milk, and the calf dio for
want of it. Tho roots stood in cold water,
probably, but sitpposo their lnud had
been cub-drained to tho depth of four
feet, so that tho surfneo water could
cink to the drains and pass off, and tho
ground hino remained warm and coin
paratively dry, then we could hnvo real
ized $i!,000 more from tho crop. This
cum would have drained the land in the
beginning, and it would have paid for
itcelf over and ovor iu tho six years tho
trees have been bearing. We givo this
personal fact Ixvaiuo we consider it to
bo the fact, and that it illustrates practi
cally what wo wish to show.
In places where trees dio in bunches,
six or eight together, it is generally be
cause tho sub-soil is dishing and holds
water, to that tho roots remain too wet
in winter nnd too dry in eummor.
Draining will obviate that, as it breaks
through tho rim of tho bowl and ntfonls
an outlet. In another place it mny be
that the soil is too thin, to that tho sub
soil, or bod-rock, comes too near the sur
faco. Here, also, sub-drainage comes to
tho rescue, for it lets the air into tho
sub-soil, and it works night and day,
nirrows, uo so. 11 you enn possibly go
down eighteen inches, do so. Thero is
much to bo nccomplishcd by good nnd
deep plowing nnd thorough pulverizing.
When you havo plowod nnd tub-soiled
ns doep ns possible you can mark off
your land by heavy doublo furrows,
llun as tlcep ns possible nt tho exact
distance say 1(J feet, or ono rod that
you wish to plant your trees. Tho
ground should bo thoroughly harrowed
at every plowing and turning of tho
soil; then inn your dead-furrows accu
rately and plant your tieos iu them, and
you will savo much digging. Set tho
trcos nt least ono inch moiiiai than they
grow in tho nursory, and thoy will sottlo
to tho propor level. Wo havo planted
thousands of trees in this way and thoy
Btnnd, nt ten years old, as well ns possi-
bio nnd hnvo always grown woll. A
good hand can plant 2."0 in a day. Ho
should pulvcrizo tho soil under nnd
nround the roots and tho tree will do
admirably. Wo tried this way of plant
ing on tho very summit of a high and
dry hill nnd it succeeded woll. Apples
nnd pears will uo doubt bo profitable in
n fow yenrs, and as they need abundant
room to grow in, wo suggest tho follow
ing as a good plan to try for a perma
nent orchard : Plant your trees aimlcs
and penrs '28 feet npnrt, nnd sot ponchos,
apricots, plums nnd prunes botween
them, each way, 11 feet apart; then you
will have ."," apple trees and 10,") other
varieties on an acre. As timo passes
your other tiecs, being comparatively
short lived, will disappear, and your
apples nnd penrs, nt 20 to 25 yenrs old,
will need all tho room thoy occupy.
Fourteen feet is room enough for your
other treos, if you keep thorn cut back
nnd don't let them sprend out too much.
In this way you will havo n permanent
orchard planted that will last for gener
ations, containing tho best variotios of
winter apples and pears. You can socd
it to clover grass nnd innko it productive
of grass ns well ns big apples.
A UoberU-Clothins
About this timo of tho year tho young
men and boys, at woll ns their elders,
provido good winter outfits and fix up
for cold weather. At this timo clothing
dealers fill their drawers nnd sholvcs
with now goods. Wo recognio that
October has done its best nnd gives us
tho fruitage of tho passing year. Mr.
Amhew Hoberts, on the corner of First
and Alder streets, Portland, is tho oldest
nnd most icspected of dealers in Ore
gon nnd keeps a supply thnt cannot bo
excelled. Mr. Doberts has everything a
man needs 4o wear and ho certainly
takes tho lead in tradoatour metropolis,
where no cuts and tits to order tlioso
who are particular, and fits from his
stock in hand thooo who nro not more
uico than wise. He can put you in
shape to bravo rain nnd cold, nnd whilo
you aro at the Mechanics' Fair you will
easily find whero you can trade to tho
best advantage.
What Baking PowdorBhaU We Use.
This plnin question comes homo to
ovory housekeeper. Wo nil desire pure
nnd wholesome food, nnd this ennnot bo
had with tho nee of impure or poisonous
baking powder. Thero can bo no longer
a question thnt all tho cheaper, lower
grade of baking powders contain oithor
alum, lime or phosphntic acid. As loth
as wo may bo to admit so much against
what may havo bcon somo of our house
hold gods, thoro ran bo no gainsaying
the unanimous testimony of tho official
chemists. Indeed, analysts eeem to
find no baking poudor entirely froo
from somo ono of theso objectionable
ingrodicnt8 except tho Itoynt, nnd thnt
thoy report ns chomicnlly pure. Wo
find somo of tho baking powders nd
vertiscd its puro, to contn'in, under tho
tests of Profs. Chandler, Habirshaw and
others, nearly twelve porccnUof lime,
whilo others nro made from alum with
no cream of tartar. This, wo prcsumo
accounts for their lnck of lenvoning
powor ns sometimes complained of by
tho cook, nnd for tho bittor tnsto found
in tho biscuits so frequently complained
of by oursclvos.
But nsido from tho inferiority of tho
work dono bv theso tiowilnrs. Hin ulivsi.
ologists nssuro us that limo nnd nlum
taken into tho system In audi quantities
ns this nro injurious. Thoy nro not
decomposed by boat nor dinsolved in
mixing or baking. Thoy go with tho
broad, therefore, into tho stomach, whoro
their physiological efiecls nro indiges
tion, dyspepsia, or worso ovils.
Tho question naturally arises, why do
theso cheap baking powder nuikcis uso
thoso thiiiKS? Alum is threo cents a
pound, limo still cheaper, whilo cronm
of tnrtnr costs thirty-five or forty. Tho
rensons lor tno ciicnucal purity of tho
Itoynl Baking Powder wcro recently
given in tho Now York Times in nn
Interesting description of n now method
for refining nrgols, or rudo cream of
tnrtnr. It acorns that it is only under
this process that cronm of tnrtnr can bo
freed from the limo natural to it nnd
rendered chemically puro; thnt tho
patents nnd plant for this cost the Itoynl
Baking Powder Company about half n
million dollnrs, nnd that thoy maintain
exclusive control ol the riglits.
Prof. McMurtric, Into chief chemist
of tho Dopartmont of Agriculture nt
Washington, D. C, in tho interests of
commerce, mado nn examination of
this process, nnd reportod upon tho
results attained iu tho refined cream of
tartnr. Tho following extract from bin
report would seem to answer tho quos
tion ropoated at tho head of this nrticlo,
nnd which Is so frequently propounded
by tho housekeeper:
"I hnvo examined tho crenm of tartnr
used by tho Itoynl Baking Powdor Com
puny in tho mnnufaoturo of thoir baking
powdor, and find it to bo perfectly puro,
and free from limo in any form". Tho
chemical tosts to which I havo submitted
tho Hoyal Baking Powder provo it per
fectly healthful, and frco from ovory
deleterious substance."
One teiieupful of oxtractcd honey, ono
teacupfiil of vinegar (niado also from
honey), a toaspoonful of ground ginger
and half a gallon of water. It can bo
used immediately, or will bo good nil
day. I havo never had a man or boy
who did not prefer this to water. The
condimonts can be varied to suit tho
tasto. Tho ginger is a good tonic, and
tho stomach is notlikoly to got "sick" as
when water alone is drank. Thoy nro
not to linblo to overload tho stomach.
When tnkon into tho field for hulf n day
wnter gets wnrm and sickish not so
this drink. It is good all day. Kugeno
Sccor, in Deo Gleanings.
in a (if fie
mil cure
Bm-klco't Arnica Salic
The llest Satire in the worU for Cuts,
Bruite, Sort., Ulcere, Salt ltheuru, Ketrer
Sore, Tetter, Cupped HaaJi, ChilblaJoe
Corn, and all Skin Kruption. and routivtlv
carve Pile, or no ju required. It tiguaran-
iea to give jxrlrct tatutaction, or money re
funded. Priced cents per U,
For .ale by Pott Sou.
"Vhifc vSl'crmcuck, or
TorSile eVev.hcr tyiVugjtil
FRIER n ftoodUld'e CitO Poder Co. will
a3, vrnj bv null In. ailaibl patkteaot
their tamoua Catll lilr to cry Farmer vhoaiv
PllK. It a.vMT)-ouhBBdre4asrlllar. Ail
Jr.3 IMIImjtm siren, fklUdclpaU, rem.
. IU
" "J
. rsK
ls IS