tflfe(y ( rFiyiiX'TVTltf'ip iKJvijR0 "Wl0?55. ' VX)L. XVIII. OREGON PIONEER HISTORY. SKETCHES OP EARLY DAYS. MEN AN TIMES IN TUE FORTIES I1V S. A CLARKE. CoprUhUppllsii br. All rljhti reserved. NUMBER XXXVI. Reminiscences or William Martin, Sheriff of Umatilla County. DR. m'louohlin's liberality. Whon tho immigrants reached Wnlln Walla thoy loft thoir cattlo there, mak ing a trado with tho Hudson Hay com pany in chnrgo of tho fort to tako their worn-out stock and exchango thorn good Spanish cattlo in plnco of it. Tho Amorican cattlo were, of course, much moro valuable Tito next year the Applegatcs and others wcro going up tho Columbia aftor their cattle. Wlion Dr. McLoughlin lnarncd of tho ex chango ho refused to sanction it. "Tut, tut, tut," said ho. "You can't do any thing with my cattlo; they aro as wild as doer. Tako your own cattlo." This is an exnmplo of his great liberality and of his unafl'ectod way of showing it. So tho Applcgatos, Hurnctt, Ford and others took thoir clioico American stock down to tho Willamottc. Tho good doctor was not willing to tako from them tho stock thoy had brought so far, though tho oxchango was greatly to his own advantage Martin tells amusing stories of tho effect of ovoroating on tho half starved emigrants when thoy camo to get hotter food. Tho first instanco was on reaching tho American falls, whero tho Indians traded them dried salmon. Thoy gavo two shirts for a sack of pomican. This was a pleasant chango and (hoy ato so much of it that it swelled and mado somo of them quite ill. At Tho Dallos, Waldo traded with A. F. Waller, in chargo of tho Methodist mission thcro, giviug thrco poor cattlo for two fat ones. Thoy jerked tho meat for future use, and Joo Black, who crossed with Waldo, bocamo ill from partaking too freely of tho fresh meat. Ho ato no moro tho balance of tho journoy. At Vancouver thoy got salt salmon and potatoes and all got sick from ovoroating. After n long journoy whoro food had been Bcarco and thoy had lived for months on jerked meat and bacon, any chango was a luxury and tho temptation toovcr eat irresistible When thoy camo down tho Columbia mm inou 10 lorn H near iiooti rivor, somo animals woro lost. Thoy finally got Indians and canoes, and whilo tho Indian paddled across, ono man held ropes that buoyod up four cattlo or horses and in tin's manner all crossed safoly. FUN FOR TI1K EMIGRANTS. Wm. Hill, who now lives in Washing ton county, had a pair of olkskin pants, tho leather of which was not smoked or tanned. After a rainy day nnd con siderable work in wator on tho trip down tho Columbia, Hill went to bleep with his wet pants on, and thoy dried on him as nny rawhido naturally does. When ho awoko ho was in a tight place, sure enough. So far as his lowor limbs wero concorned ho couldn't move They finally slid him into tho rivor and lot him stay there long onough to soften las lower garment Then thoy drew him out and took offhia trousers. After wards tho boys rigged them astride of a mule. All those things mado fun, and good humored jokes kept tho train alivo and in a pleasant tpmpor. Tho vnluo of a joko depends greatly on tho attend ant circumstances. This reminds tho author of another story of those times where a young man and his sister wore making the journey, and wero draped in tho mountains near the river. He had spread his blankets under a groat fir, and tho drippings of rain had fallen on his bod and frozen tho blankets together and he in them. SALEM, Ico makes n warm covoring when properly applied, and ho slept soundly to nwakoimpri8onod. Hj could noithor stir hand or foot, and calling to his mind tho stories told of Oregon back in Mis souri ho called out : "Jane, Jane, como hero and help mo up. Horo I am, in this hind of eternal summor, porpclual flowers and sunshine, frozen down stiff and solid." Jano camo with an nx and cut him loose, and tho young man was himself again. VARIOUS .MATTERS. Aftor Waldo got sottlcd and his houso built, ho went to Vancouver for winter supplies nnd had transported thorn to tho falls and was loading n boat nbovo tho falls to mako tho trip in tho upper W illamctto, wlion tno boat got looso nnd wont over tho falls with nil his loading. Ifo was obliged to return for a second outfit. When thoy wcro at last settled in tho hills, tho" Waldo's looked up nil sorts of supplies. Somo ono said that roasted acorns mado a good substitute forcoffoo, but tho ncom soason was over. Thoy found many nests of wood rats, built among hazel thickots, so thoy hunted thcro and robbod tho rats of thoir storo of acorns; but acorns don't mako any substitute for coffee, and thoy wont back to parched grain or bonus ngnin. Gen uine coffeo wa, nbovo pioneer means in thoso days. When tho Cayuso war camo, Mnrtin was in English's company as orderly sorgcant. Aftor Col. Clilliam'B acci dental death, it was necessary to send to Tho Dallos nflor supplios. Captain English wished to go down, but Major Maxar insislod on his right as tho senior ofllcor. Tins inconscd English, who returned homo, having disbanded his company. About half wont and tho rost remained, and a now company was organized, Wm. Martin being oloctcd captain. Thoy remained nlno months in tho field, until nil emigrants of that yenr woro safely in. rich mnai.VGs in California. In tho spring of 1819 Martin wont to tho mines. Thoro wcro six in company and thoy had agreed that if thrco bo camo ill tho rest should bring them home Thrco bocamo ill and tho others curao back with thorn. Martin returned in October, M9, mid remained until may, 1850. That winter was sovoro in north ern California nnd miners thoro could not reach tho lowor Saoromonto for supplios. Food was $3 a pound, much stock diod and many killed and nto their mules. It cost an avcraco of 10 a day to live It took nn ounco ($10) to buy' a pair of brogans. When tho camp got out of moat Mnrtin quit his rockor, that averaged over $50 a day and mnny days yielded 5100, and evon $200, to go hunting. Ho was tho best hunter in camp nnd in sixteen days' tinio sold venison at 75 cents per pound ,to tho valuo of $1112, though others sold for $1.25 a pound. Only that thoy made enormous wages for thoir mining they could not havo lived, and as it was living was costly. "I'LL B-ll-lH'Y m'louuiili.n's mill." Ono of tho successful Oregon minors was Samuel Chaco of Oregon City, who still lives. Chaco had an impediment in his speech, nnd tho moro excited ho was tho worso ho stammered. In thoso days tho greatest thing in Oregon was McLoughlin's mill, at Oregon City. Probably if any man's ambition of wealth could havo found expression iu words it would havo rison no higher than to own McLoughlin's mill. Chaco had cleaned off his top dirt and was pnnning tho bedrock and its crevices when ho found there was more weight of gold than dirt. Ho had S1000 to the pan, nnd went ns high ns $3000 to a single pan of that crovico dirt. Ho was washing off his first rich panful, ond whon ho saw tho gold grow thick and thicker his emotions at last found utter- anco in stammering forth : "By gosh, b-b-boye, I'll bb-buy Mc- OREGON, FRIDAY, L-Loughlin's m-nwnill, I'll bb-buy Mo-L-Louglilin'a mill." Tho ambition of an Orcgoninn could climb no higher than that. Clmco nftcrwards struck a rich silvor lodo, and it was considered his property, but ho would not claim it, nnd Ills excuse, or rather explanation, for not locating on it was : "S-s-silvcr won't p-p-pay for trans-p-p-portation." So the Chaco family aro not numbered among tho silver kings of America. In 1850 Dan Waldo and Martin wont with Joo Lano to mako a treaty with tho Itoguo Kivor IndiaiiB. In 1851 ho drovo cattlo to'Yroka and remained thcro olovon yoars in business, thon camo oacK io uregon mm locatoil on Granite creek, n mining region in Grant county. Ho remained thcro until 187!!, then moved to Umatilla county, and it would bo hard to say if thcro is another man in that county as popular as ho is. HEAVER COINAGE OF THE PIONEERS. Ono of tho oxlensivo acts of sover eignty in any nation was tho coinage of gold and silvor, nnd history will always rccito with Interest tho fact that tho provisional government of Oregon as sumed that prerogative When gold was discovered it found tho pcoplo who dug It almost destituto of monoy and unablo to do business conveniently. Tho gold found in ono initio differed in valuo from anothor, nnd whilo much of it was worth $18 nn ounco, tradors took advantngo of tho uncertainty to buy gold dust from $11 to flC. Tho legis lature of Oregon passed an net tho first wintor 1818-9 nftcr gold was discov ered, nnd boforo tho great rush to Cali fornia actually begnn, authorizing: "Tho assaying, molting and coining of gold," which was only provontod from being enforced by tho establishment of a territorial govornmont by Congress. Hut privnto onterpriso was nwako to tho importanco ns well ns tho profit in such work, and a company of old timors, lionoors who had proved oqual to what ovor omorgonoy had arison, organized to carry out tho schomo tho legislature had logulicd. Thoso men woro Kilburn, Magrudor, Tnylor, Smith, Abornethy, Wilson, Hector nnd Cnmpholl. Their respective initials circled around ono sido, tho central figure of which was a beaver, it was therefore callod "Heaver Monoy." On tho rovorso side was "Ore gon Exchango Company. 130 grains Nativo Gold, 5d." Ton dollar pieces corresponded. Tho dios wero mado by Hamilton Campboll, who was for somo timo con nected with tho Methodist mission and ono of tho most onorgotio andontcrpris- ing uion of that tiuio,butHincedoccasod. Tho press and rolling mill woro mado by W. H. Hector, who removed to Cali fornia many yoars later Tho work was remarkably well dono, considering tho circumstances, nnd tho monoy circulated freely for somo years. As "dust" could bo exchanged for tho coin and was currently sold nt much less than its value, it must havo boon a prolitablo venture, but whon United States coin wns abundant our provisionnlspociowns quickly retired. Tho "oxchango com pnny" very honestly mado thoir coin 8 percent, better than pur, and "beavor monoy" went rapidly to tho melting pot, when othor coin camo into use At tho prosont timo such coins command a high valuo as relics of tho old time, and only n few are in existonco in privato collections. In California $50 slugs, hexagon in shnpc, woro mado nnd passed current. Tho writor had a pay ment of some thousands mado in such coin iu Oregon as late as 185!), Shortness or Bream. Dr. Flint's Heart Hkmkdv should bo taken at once when Blight exertion or a hearty meal produces shortness of breath or pain iu tho region of tho hoart. At all druggists, or J. J. Mack it Co., 9 nnd 11 Front st., 8. F. Scrofula and all forms of scrofulous diseases, aro rapidly purged away by tho uw jxjvro orujumiu. OCTOBER 8, 1880. Weathor Report ror September, 1880. Fola, Oct. 2, 18S0. Editor Wlllamolto Farmers During Soptcmbcr, 1880, thero woro 7 days during which rain foil, and" an aggrogato of 1.08 inches of water; thcro wcro 15 clear, 0 fair nnd 2 cloudy days, other thnn which rain fell. Tho mean temperature for tho month was 02.10 deg. Highest daily moan tciiipcnitura foi tho month, 77 deg. on tho 11th. Lowest daily mean temperature for tho month, 53 deg. on tho 20th. Mean temperature for tho month at 2 o'clock p. m., 72.53 deg. Highest temperature for tho mouth, 91 at 2 p. m. on tho 10th and 11th. Lowest temperature for tho month, 17 deg. at 7 a. m. on tho 20th. Tho prevailing winds for tho month wcro from tho north during 17 days, Houlli 9 days, southwest l days. During Sopiombor, 1885, thcro woro 9 rainy days and 2.07 in, water; thero woro tt clear, 0 fair, 2 cloudy and 7 smoky days. Mean tcmicrnturo for the mouth 01.03 deg. Highest daily mean temperature for tho month, 07 dog., on tho 1st nnd 22d. Lowest daily mean tcmicrnttira for tho month 51 deg. on 10th. T. l'KARCK. David Cole & Co , 8tovos and Tinware. Messrs. Colo it Co. havo n largor etook than ovor and aro doing n great trado. Thoy kcop in store ovory varioty of stovo suited to our country and climate, for cooking and heating, nnd nil house keeping articles nnd fixtures possible to think of. You could supposing n lady reads spend half a day, as if in u mu seum, examining tho various impiovo mouts and articles in uho for house keeping. Hut ho can furnish a full out fit for n large dairy as well as for tho kitchen ; ho deals in heating apparatus for all uses, nnd what ho has not in hand he can make Probably the most important item of his great business is tho steam generator ho is interested in, which proves to bo valuable for all mo tivo powers. Ono of these will bo in oporatiou noxt week at tho Mechanics Fair, ond thoso who attend must not fail to notico it carefully. Miller Bros-FIonU and Beeds. Our old frionds, Millor Hros, are on hand again with a livo ndvertisoment, nnd wo can safely commend them as worthy of patronage, reliable, sure to havo tho best goods procurabloand anx ious to suit. You want grass-seed alwut now and should sow as much as you can find place for. "Grass pays hotter thnn wheat" is a text that wo havo written upon repeatedly for somo years- back, and timo has thoroughly proved it to bo so. Millor Ilros. can fill nil ordors for seeds, plants and trees, and by square dealing havo worked into a safo and paying trade. Bee Reports. Mr. J. D. Husk, of Milwaukio, proprie tor of tho Hanner Apiary, writes us that his bees this season brought him 1 per colony, spring count; incroaso, 20 per cent. This is tho only report that wo havo heard of that shows any surplus worth mentioning. Mr. Kauffman, of Needy, anil Mr. Hrooks, of Silverton, Mr. I'allis, of Melmma, and others, all report that thoy will bo obliged to feed to kcop their bees alivo during tho win ter. Thoy havo no surplus. Largost stock putent medicines, pure drugs and medicines ot Port's. StaUloa Wonted. Wo hnvo n customer for a two or thrco year old English druftor Clovveland Hay stud. Apply at onco, giving price Wm. J. Clarke, Salem, Or. Wo advise you to havo all prescrip tions filled at Port's drne store. 100 State street. NO. 35, Fackluu Fruit and Vegetables tor Market. Many farmeia would market their fruit if they could procure packagos to puck it in and know how to handlo tho various kinds. Wo publish today tho business card of tho "Standard llox Factory," J. Moser it Sons, whoso ofUco in Portland is No. 11)2 Front strcot, up stairs. This firm has a factory in Fast Portland, adjoining tho Stark street ferry. Thoy havo a largo run of trado with Portland fruit doalors, for thoy uso tho most improved machinory for that work, nnd tho host of lumber. We huvo bought of thorn cherry boxes, penr nnd plum nnd prune boxes, ns woll as boxes for dried fruits, and think any fruit grower will bo Hafo in ordering, and need only specify their wish for fir or spruco l3xos. Tho difference iu tho pricu is not great, nnd nlco goods should havo nico packnges. Hoxcs tiro soiit nlrcady sot up, or, if dosirod, nro "knocked down." Tho chargo forsctling them up (or putting togothcr) is small, nnd unless a poison U prepared to do tho work it might bo best to buy them set up, especially if only n fow nro re quired. Cornors nnd bottoms should bo jointed with n piano nnd tho comers rounded n trillo. If you send tho shipper good fruit, carefully packed, it will pay you better than to ship looso or in untidy boxes that require repack ing. 1 ruit suffers from improper hand ling. Learn how to handlo your fruit nnd tlolivor it in good order, and you will rocoive a hotter price Mosor & Sons havo mado us this season tho best and cheapest boxes wo ovor used. Spruce holds n nail well, docs not split, has a fitio grain, weighs lens thnn fir and is n lcautlfiil wood. Garden products often go to wasto becauso thoy don't know what to do with them. Cab bago should bo packed in crates mado of slats. Onions and potatoes nro usu ally sacked ; ovory vegetable has its own package, nnd Mosor it Sons know ex actly what you want if you say what uso it is for. Wo tako pains to clnlorato on this subject becauso wo sco n need that farmers should understand tho pocking and shipping of fruits and vegetables. Timos nro changing, and such work will incroaso. Grapes should bo nicely packed to soil well; so with nil fruits nnd many vegetables. Melons aro sometimes shinned iu bulk and Hcmctimcs packed iu crates. Nursery stock. Mr, Settlomior, of Taugont, ns well as his brothor, of Woodburn, are in our columns ns nurscrymon. Now is tho timo to plant out orchards, as wo preva il! this isnuo, so it is scarcely necessary to expand on tho matter of who to buy of. Thoso who are convouiont to either will bo apt to patronlo tho brother that ho is noarost to. Wo my, and repeat it strongly, sot orchards! Hot them now and don't dofor, for "delays are danger ous" is a truo old piovorb. Medlcatod Neit-Ecgs. An exchango says : Cut a holo in ono ond of an egg, in big as this capital O. In tho other put a phi hole Now blow out tho contents, and you have tho empty shell. Next mix plaster of Paris and wator together, to tho consistency of cream, and add n fow drops of car Iwlia acid. Pour this into tho shell un til it is filled, and in 21 hours it will bo dry, and you will havo a medicated nost-egg. Fivo cents worth of plaster of Paris will mako n dozen, and tho sumo amount of carbolic acid is suffi cient to scout a hundred. The scheme, though novel, has the merit of boing practical. It is well known that car bolic aoid is an insecticide, ns well as a Kmcrful disinfectant. In baking thin cakes to bo placed ono ou the othor, to havo thorn como out nicely, lowcn tho edgo with a knlfo, turn tho cako down on a cloth, then lay a wet cloth all over tho bottom of tho pan Tho cako will drop out.