Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, July 17, 1885, Image 1

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NO. .XI.
Cditor Willamotto Farmer :
I mentioned in my,, last tho fnet
(learned inoro than n your nftcr getting
to Oregon) of Clmtnbor's Fdinburg
Journal for Scptombor, 1811, calling tho
attention of tho British publio to tho
imporitivo necessity of n Bclf-dirccting,
self-reliant class of emigrants from
Britain, if Oregon was to bo saved to
that nation. ,
Hut thia was too Into by moro tbnn
ton years, as tho Oregoninn, published
at Boston, Mass., in 1833-4, hail sounded
tho sumo kind of a call on tho Eastern
sea-board of tho United States, and Sen
ator Bonton and others had been doing
tho stimo thing b'iuco 1810. It was in
largo part owing to these Hcparnto in
iluoncos that in 1813-1 men from Maino,
Massachusetts and Now York, liko Petty
grove, Brooks, Holderncss, Holdcn, Hub
bartl, Kllbourui Parrish, Smith, Gale,
Woods, Couch, 'dishing nnd Wilson
met in tho valloy of tho Oregon tho
Applegntcs, Burnetts, Gilliams, Fords,
Looneys and Waldos, supported and as
sisted by men liko Olark, Crockott,
Rcosc, Ncimitli, Owens and others.
Tho occupation of Oregon, or so much
of it as was occupied prior to tho settle
ment of tho boundary question, was
not a mcro accident, Tho men so gath
ered hero from widoly ecpnrato portions
of a common country, impelled by di
verso viowa perhiipr, imd mostly somo
previous knowledge of Oregon and tliu
question of its povdblo destiny. And
tho men who won in that grand racofor
empire did so because thoy wero moro
free from tho forms, special privileges
and prerogatives of tho oldor govern
mental powevn used for such purposos
by Britain.
Nor was it un accident which brought
Commodore Wilko into tho Columbia
river at tho timo f his arrival. That
expedition was the result of tho long
continued and eloquent appeals to tho
U. S. Congress to do something becom
ing to its public spirit towards donning
and placing upon charts in aid of navi
gation tho numorous islands and shoro
lines of tho Pud fie Ocean (thou littlo
Nor wa9 it an accident that a fow
yoars later nnothor raco for empire was
won when Commodore- Sloat of tho
Amoricnn navy, upon information quiol
ly received, sailed out of tho harbor of
Mazatlan, leaving Commodore Seymour
of tho British navy at anchor there, and
starting out as though bound for tho
Sandwich Islands. Ho suddenly tacked
when out of sight of tho British fleet,
and stood for tho California coast; ar
riving thoro in timo to place tho Ameri
can Hag over tho town of Monterey
thus supporting Capt. Fremont, who,
liko himself, was successfully extending
tho dominion of the flog of his country,
without tho formal orders of his govern
ment, but simply in tho spirit and un
der tho responsibility of American citi
zenship. This spirit of citizenship, as I
havo indicated, was now pushing its
way up both sides of tho Willamette,
had already began to speculate on tho
growth of commercial towns on the
Willometto and near tho mouth of tho
Columbia as two or three points both
on theso rivers and near tho ocean had
already been looked at for such pur
poses. Tho writer feeling himself still
under obligations to Captain Morrison
did not think his duty done till tho lat
ter was sottled, and as ho now returned
from Clatsop Plains below Astoria
having leased tho milch cows and farm
of Solomon Smith, who had como to
Oregon in tho employ of Nathaniel
Wyetb, we started immediately from
Linton in a large Chinook canoo to tuko
tho Morrison family and their offects
tho last hundred miles of their journey
from thoir homo in Andrew county, Mo.,
to theiAiow location, washed by tho
waves oftho Pacific as tho westorn
boundary j)f their claim. It will bo un
dcrstoodthnt this was over six years be
fore stoaniboats wore seen on tho Colum
bia river and when tho beautiful and
graceful canoo used by tho Indians of
this northwest coast was by far tho
most commonly used craft. Capt. Mor
rison, his wife and six children, K. V.
Kvcrman and myself (with tho bedding,
household effects, etc, brought across
tho plains) mado n leisurely passage
down. A. M. McCusic was also of tho
party. Nin, as wo called Kvormnn for
short, was already well up in tho uso of
tho Chinook jargon and had also picked
up a great deal of information relativo
to tho Indians. Tho first landing wo
mado after leaving Linton was on tho
north sido of Sauvies' Island, two or
threo miles bolow tho uppor mouth of
tho Willamotto. Tho ploco scorned
and up to a fow years previously I sub
Boquontly learned had been a popu
lous village Bite, there was at that timo
no dwellings standing. It was in fact
tho last habitation of tho unco powerful
Multuomahs; and back from tho river
a short distanco was a burial place,
larger than any I havo over seen or
heard of in connection with Indian lifo
with tho exception of tho burial place
then known as Mount Collin, below tho
mouth of tho Cowlitz, on tho north sido
of tho Columbia. But a fow months
previous to tho timo of which I write
during tho last days of tho vory dry
season of 181!) a firo had spread from
tho shore of tho river to tho canoes in
which the Indian dead were placed on
tho steep conical hill, and to tho horrid
cation of tho living Indians, hundreds
of memalooso canoes (canotw of the
dead) wcic consumod almost in a (lash,
overything being dry as tinder. For
years nftoiwnrd tho Indians would not
willingly go on shoro there. This city
of the dead on Sauvics Island was a dif
ferent a flair. Canoes wore not used,
but largo slabs of split cedar were set
in tho ground upright, nnd into them
tho ends of similar slabs or planks were
secured by a groove cut across tho in
sido of tho upright pieces and fastened
in their position by ropes, mado from
tho inner bnrk of tho cedar, passed
through holes in both tho upright and
horizontal planks. On tho latter tho
dead wero laid enraptod in cedar bark
with Mich an amount of caro and labor
as proved that tho burial of tho do.ul re
ceived a great deal of attoution from tho
Indians who had lived thcro. Tho cem
etery was laid off in narrow streets
about parallel with tho courso of tho
river, east and west. Somo of tho verti
cal planks had as many as three tier of
dead, but mnny of them only ono. Somo
of them wero or had been covered with
cedar bark. From tho many usos tho
Lower Columbia Indians mado of thorn
at this timo the cedar trco and its bark
must havo filled many uses to tho In
dians before tho trade of tho whito man
reached thorn, for as lato as 1811 it was
used considerably for clothing and
mats us well as ropes and net making.
Of tho two kinds of material used for
woman's wearing, still very common in
1811, ono was native or wild llax and
the other tho inner bark of tho cedar.
Tho garment mado of them may be
called a petticoat. It was simply a
broad, strong belt, fastened round tho
waist, to which was fastened a mass of
strings or cords thicker Bomewhat than
netting-twino and of a length to reach
to about tho knees, and when worn, not
unlike tho kilts of tho Scotch Highland
costume. I saw an old woman, tho
mother of tho chief man of the Catha
lamots, havo on a robo of badger skins
once. It was a lino garment and gavo
her a stately appearance. Tho llax gar
ment of their mako was tho best and tho
least common, tho material being tin
articlo of trade botweon tho Indians of
tho coast or lower river awl thoso cast of
tho Cascades. Tho former, I presume,
giving salmon in oxchango for it. It
was of courso also better for seines and
I havo seen nets of native flax, tho lines
and floats of which wore of cedar bark
and wood. On our war down on this
trip wo pnsscd ono night at Hunt'H
Mill. This was tho lin-t lumbering en
terprise startod on J tho Columbia.
Henry Harrison Hunt, of Indiana, Bcnj.
Wood of Now York-, and A. 1!. Wilson
of Massachusetts, wero tho Hint owners j
joined subsequently by Junes Birnie, a
retired 11. B. Co. man, who Bottled at
Cathlnnict, I worked nt tho mill at in
tervals in 18 15-0-7. It wiw a good day's
work to cut 3,000 feet of lumber, and
tho logs wero cut and rolled into tho
mill yard by men only for moro than a
year.. When gold was discovored in
California, over 100,000 foot of lumber
was on hand which suddenly roso in
valuo from ?12 to S100 per M. Tho
proceeds of thot lumber was invested in
tho steamer Columbia, ami sho was tho
first steamor brought into tho Columbia
river. Wo also stopped at tho block
houre of A. 13. Wilson, who had taken
tho claim known as Upper Astoria;. I.
M. Shivcly claiming next below him,
nnd Col. John M. Cluro next below that,
Tho O'Brion brothorH had located claims
for a town on tho wost side of tho en
trance to Young's Bay. homo 1 miles
cast of tho present filto jf Fort Slovens.
Tho plains was then "ijfuhod.by tho
present route acioss Young's Boy anil
up tho Skipnnon to whoro a half fin
ished block homo had commenced tho
town of Lexington, since becomo tho
"Lunding." Clatsop Plains was then
nearly all taken up, Solomon Smith and
Tibbits ropiorcnting tho pioneer hottlori1.
Both had come with Captain Wycth,
and both had married Indian wives.
Smith's wifo was a widow ot tho timo
ho married, I mi first husband being n
Canadian. Sho was "tyco chief' of a
branch of tho Clatsop tribe, and a elavo
ownor. Amongst hor property of that
kind was a flat-headed- dwarf, who was
gonorally called upon to perform a fccrics
of songs nnd war dances for tho enter
tainment of visitors. Smith himself was
an intelligent man, and was tho first
school teacher at Fort Vancouver, and,
consequently, the first on tho northwost
coast. Ho was living Hurrounucu uy a
rough plenty, and I think likely a pic
ture of his establishment would give a
fair sample of F.uropcun lifo during
what is called tho Dark Ages, and a
littlo of tho lifo of tho "Dark Continent"
thrown in. What would tho reader
think of two families inhabiting (ono at
either end) a treble log house, built
without nails or iron in any form. In
ono end is a family of tho pure whito
raco; in tho other is ono half and half,
and tho middlo is occupied by Indian
slaves and tho poor relatives, or tillicum
(peoplo), of tho slave owner. In a cor
ner of this room is a section of a treo
about four feet long and nearly threo
feet in diamotor, with a holo burnt
down into tho end of it in ordor to form
a largo woodon mortar. Tho postlo to
uso in this is a section of a smaller treo
attached to a spring pole. Now imagino
ono or two stalwart Indians standing on
the edgo of that mortar and working
that pcstlo up and down and you havo
tho best substituto for a grist mill thcro
was within 100 miles of Astoria in 1811.
I am not going to test tho reader's at
tention by telling how tho Indians
who furnished tho power to work tho
mill wero dressed ; ho or slm may lot
tho imagination havo perfect liberty as
to that. The amount of clothing, had
it fallen into tho hopper, would not
havo stopped tho grinding. On tho floor
might froquently bo seen as many as
n doon Indians wjuatted around largo
pans of milk.
Returning to Hunt's Mill about tho
middlo of January, 18 IS, I worked
there till about tho fiit of March
when W. II. Itcese, who had been down
to Clatsop Plains, brought up with him
a. small understriking rillo and a flvo
dollar pieco in gold, with the word that
cither ho or I was to go up to Tho
Dalles and bring tho cnttlo from thoro
to tho mouth of tho Washougal. As tho
reader may bo interested in tho cost of
trnvol and living in thoso days, I will
givo what I remember of this trip. I
dnu't recollect what it cost mo to get to
Vancouver from Hunt's Mill, somo sixty
miles. I do remember gelling to tho
Fort in tho early morning, a littlo before
tho gates wero opened. A group of
men wero engaged in pistol practice,
amongst whom, 1 think, wore Mr. Gra
ham, a clerk, and Mr. Boborts, who I
think had oversight of tho cattle, and
David Mclaughlin. Tho latter camo
to nit tho others going insido as tho
gales wore opened and began a con
versation alnrnt Alderman, who wuh
making an attempt to jump Dr. Mc
Loughlin's claim at Oregon City at that
timo. I did not tnko any stock in Al
derman's courso and did not lcnw of
anv American settler who did, and so
told David McLoughliu at tho timo ; ho
soon loft mc, but not with tho opinion
that tho pistol practico was a prepara
tion for war with Alderman, if to give
mo that was David's design in speaking
of him.
Letter Inn the Bound.
WooiKXVii.u:,W.T., Juno 22, 1885,
Kditor WilUmetto Farmer:
I.liko to load your paper; it is a wor-
thyoho. 1 liko to road of tho success and
management of your orchard. It is Hear
ing pudding timo and I would liko to ask
for information, that if tho growth of
coedling apples, cherries, pears, loaches
and plums are all vigorous and similarly
alike if tho proper budding season of
each are at samo time. I bud apples
well, and was a good success, but at samo
timo inserted cherry buds in sc'dling
cherries and in liko good condition, and
all failed ; it is something I do not un
Please givo us a good articlo on bud
ding of different varieties, and oblige,
C. W. ICsrAiiiionk.
Immigration is rattling in fast and of
a nice selection i people, ami many
more of everybody friends are antici
pating coming.
Your advico to mo to got east of Seat
tle, and somo streams running into Lnko
Washington as near hh I could, 1 fol
lowed, and shall over be grateful; it suits
better ai I got moro acquainted. Wo are
near enough civilization to attend Halt
bath school each Sabbath and havo
preaching nnco a mouth ; it is handy to
school, and postoflico ono and a half
miles away. 0. W. 13.
From tho Orange Droves of California.
A friend and old Orcgonian, who is
now settled near Is Angeles, Culifoi
nin, wiites on Juno 20th, and though not
intended for publication, still thcro mo
ideas and conclusions that havo interest.
"If peoplo could only live on climato
California would lo tho Utopia of tho
most extravagant dreamer, but alas,
Alack, men and women havo to earn
thoir bread and butter horo as elsewhere,
and I think five dollars ran lio moro
easily mado i airing cattle in Fastem
Oregon than ono dollar in fruit raising
hero. It takes a fortuno, almost, to mako
a Ijcgiwiing, and thou poojilo must wait
so long for returns, especially in tho
citrous fruits. Docidioiu fruit roHpond
somewhat quicker. Many Mart out with
high hopes, go on for a while, got dis
couraged, cull out and go elsewhere.
Cal'fornia peoplo uro migratory fiom one
end of tho State to tho other. Of courso
thcro are exceptions which compriso
largely of tho pioneers and who are iden
tified with its groat nnd grand improve
ment!1. You see "For Sale" posted on
many pretty nomes, itotn in ortueru
and Southern California, posted on the
front gatoor un tho trunk of some shade
Tho monotony of tho climato proves
irksomo to these reared in tho Fast, and
are accustomed to tho sharp extremes of
NO. 23
Now England winters and summors.
Timo passes so slowly hero. Why, had
I always lived hero I should now bo ono
hundred years old. Tho past winter wan
very dry ; no rain foil between Christ
mas and the last of March ; tho mercury
went up somo days to DO degrees. Tho
weather for tho last three mouths has
been charming, ripo poaches, blackber
ries and raspberries arc in market.
Oranges nro very abundant, selling from
wagoim at 15 to 85 cents per 100, as per
quality; lemons onn cent each.
Grasshoppers aro appearing; thoy
mako havoc with overything that grows,
they eat tho leaves and fruit, then girdlo
tho trunks and limbs, all over tho
State, and threaten a Kansas plague ;
Some cover orange trees with mmquito
bars. Babbits aro troublesome) and havo
to bo fenced out. Gophers porfointu tho
ground and often kill trees. Wo had three
largo orango trees destroyed by them.
Cayotos catch chickens in day time and
como into tho chicken house at night if
not woll closed. This is in the ouskirts
of tho settlement,
I never saw trees grow as rapidly as
horo; our apricots, two years old, havo
great spreading tops, and prunes also.
Tho eucalyptus along tho main avoiiuo
of the town of Ontario nro twenty feet
high and only two years old.
Wo went to a plcnio at Etlwnnda
canyon, n raviuo in tho Sierra Nevada
mountains, whero a stream comos loop
ing down irrigating this tract of land.
Bivcrs and streams aro not allowed to
go at random, but tho sparkling stud i'h
llumcd and made to fertilize the other
wise wasto places and multiply our
orango groves. The Ontario Laud Com
pany nro tunnoling under tho bed of
San Autonla creek, which furnishes our
water, and aro developing water which
seeps through tho soil and is loit. When
thoy reach uou rock thoy oxjcct to se
cure enough water to irrigato several
thousand moro aero, and tho land is
waiting for it, Thoy will comont tho
tunnel and save it all."
The abovo communication has value,
coming from ono who was long identi
fied with Oregon, and who left for the
lienollt of a mildor climato. Our friend
has Knight several ten aero lots of tho
Ontario Laud Company, planting in
oranges, lemons, grapes for raisins, olc.
God's Acre.
We fear wo havo hesitated too lonr in
expressing an opinion about tho im
provements now lieiug mado ut our hoau
tiftil cemetery. Wo had hoped that
hoiiiu other lovers of uaturo would peak
of the rather too full destruction of thoso
picturesquo young oaks that were scat
tered through the ground. It is a com
fort to many to go and sit there these
summer days, and now thoro is scarce
one shade treo loft to mako such a stay
comfortable. Of courso tho ax has been
laid by older, yet o think it lias bcon
used to indiscriminately. There were
angles and corners in the plan of laying
out tho grounds, whoro trees might have
Ix-on loft. Our oaks grow ho slowly that
wo may vonturo to leave it to tho noxt
two generations to thin out the foliage.
Threo growths of generations cannot re
place those taken nway this summer.
A Hai.km Pioxr.Kii.
The Walla Walla 1'air.
The tenth annual exhibition of the
Walla Walla agricultural society will be
held on tho society's ground near Walla
Walla, W. T., beginning September 8th
and continuing llvo days. Thoy ofl'er
liberal purses for speed and agricultural
products. Writoto Mr. Lo. V, A. Shuw,
secretary, for a premium list.
Chas. J. Dean, of Walla Walla, W. T.,
sends us his catalogue of Pecherou
horses for 1885. It contains 18pagoB,
illustrated. It contains a history of the
1'ercheron race together with extracts
by known uuthors, and a list of horses
now owned by him,
Mr. S. A. Itaudall, of Dallas, Oregon,
honds us the pros)cctus of a monthly
journal to be called tho Willamette
Valley Kducator, and, as its namo indi
cates, it i to be dovoted to hohool mat
ters Tonus tl a year. Saiuplo copy
ireo to an uppiying.
Wo want specimens of grain, hay, etc.,
and will see that they are proporly
labeled and sent whero thoy will help
advertise Oregon. Bring them along,
and that, too, nt once.
Port A Son, the diuggit.