Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, February 01, 1884, Image 1

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orreonJcnc CI
Prineville, Or., Jan. 4, 1884.
Editor WilUmette Farmer.
In the Pacific Christian Advocate of
December 13th, the editor gives a criti
cism on Oregon by William Barrows.
Although I make no claim to "great
literary ability," yet I wish to notice a
few points inBro. Hihes' article.
In the first place he seems to think
there has "not feecn prominence enough
given to'the Methodist Mission, founded
by Jusou Lee. Now, while I would give
all honor due to the worthy members of
that mission, I unhesitatingly aver that
up to the time ,'of the immigration of
3842-3-4 they never entert'ained au idea
jof American colonization on the North
Pacific Coaet. The evidence of this is
Jie fact that Mr. Leo was a Canadian
md had no interest in the country be
'ond his missionary enterprise; that he
nade no attempt to bring; families across
he mountains, but brought all his sup-
Jiea and reinforcements by water.
.Vhen Rev. Saml Parker visited 'the
(mission in 1835 he said of it: 'This
mission may lay the foundation for ex-
tensive usefulness.- Yet there is one
important desideratum these mission-
aries have no wives. Christian women
are very much needed to exert a Chris-..
tian influence over the native women
Here was lacking the very elements of
permanent American colonization. Now
observe the thorough American mission
ary who is goingto a distant part of his
country: Dr. Whitman, a New Yorker,
come out, ho looks at the country, takes
in tho possibilities of the future, lays his
plans, returns and brings out his family,
stock and a wagon not around the
Horn but across the continent thus
blazing the rouse for others to follow.
Again, ho says : 'The first plow that
broke the 'crust of tho old barbarism
came out of the hold of the May Dacre
in October, 1834, and Jacon Lee walked
between.the handles as it cleft asunder
the .soil of the Willamette prairie for
the handful of corn that was to givo
bread to civilization." This maybe true
of barbarism, but not of the sod of the
WilUmette prairie." In the year 1815
John Minto and Henry Williamson har
vested for Joseph Gervais, on his farm
about two miles below the old Methodist
misaion,.and, he told that this was the
'(wenty fifth croj) that he had gathered
f rom"hfaTntrand , that ho had never
known the wheat crop to fail." Now
this certainly antedates the breaking of
the soil by Jason Lee in 1834. Dr. Mc
Laughlin in' 1826 sowed wheat, oats and
barley at Fort Vancouver, and lie say;
In 1828 the aupply was sufficient so that
wo were able to dispense with imported
flour. (Report Pioneer Society for 1SS0.)
An old pioneer, who came in 1843, in
speaking of the Methodist'mission says :
"Sly observation was that they were not
the sort of people who explore and de-
velope the resources of a country. From
my own acquaintance with them I can
Bay that coming from the extreme fcast
they were sectional in their sentiments
and had' no sympathy for the rough,
warmhearted element that com poed tho
early immigration. In fact, had a decid
ed aversion to anything western. They
came here as missionaries, just as they
would have gone to any foreign country.
They did not realize that they wero still
under the ' stars and stripes.' "
Again, Bra Hines says : "These influ
ences, without doubt, did more to save
Oregon than any other influence that
was or could be exerted. This is evident
from tho fact that Oregon was saved
long before Dr. Whitman reached Wash
ington." I am astonished that a man
as well informed aa Bro. Hines ought to
be, should make such an assertion, but
like many others he is laboring under
thedslason that the Oregon question
was aettUd ihsn the Ashburton treaty
was'rstified. Now the facts in the raw I
v t
are these: The Ashburton troaty settled
the boundary lino between Maino and
Canada, but said nothing about Oregon
Benton, in Vol. 2, chapter 101, page 421,
of Thirty Years in United States Senate,
says: "Oregon was in dispute. The
United States wished it settled. Great
Britain wished that question to remain
as it was; as she had possession and
every day was ripening her title. Or
egon was adjourned." This, remember,
was in 1842. Gov. Simpson, being fully
alive to the interests of his government,
went to Washington that ho might by
his personal efforts have the Oregon
question settled in Great Britains favor.
Dr. Whitman on the other hand being
on tho alert for tho United States and
being in constant communication with
members, of the Hudson Bay Company,
was fully aware of tho plans of this
corporation, and in order to checkmate
Gov. Simpson, undeitook his puilous
trip across the continent in tho . inter
of 1842-3. "In September, lSt2, Dr.
Whitman was called to visit a patient at
Old Fort Wallula. While at dinner the
overland express front Canada arrived
bringing news that tho immigration
from the Bed river settlement was at
Fort Colville. This news excited unusu
al joy among the guests. Whitman
learned that these Red river English
came on to settlo in Oregon, and that at
same time Gov. Simpson was to go to
Washington and secure the settlement
of the question asto tho boundaries on
tho ground of tho most numerous and
perinanct settlement in tho country.
Dr. Whitman with his characteristic
shrewdness comprehended his ' intention
and'plainly saw that ho (Gov. S.) must
bo fought with his own weapons. In
order to do this an immigration of Amer-
cans must bo brought over tho Rocky
mouutains and the country represented
at Washington by some American resid
ing in it. Wiihout hesitation ho undcr
took the arduous task. The result is
well known. He had brought a wagon
through to Fort Boiso in,183G and had
carefully viewed the way to Tho Dalles
and was confident that teams and
families could make the trip. In 1841,
wagons had been brought across tho
Blue mountains from Fort Hall by Joe.
Meek and company to tho Columbia,
and Dr. Whitman knew that "what man
had done man could do." Tho fact of
Dr. Whitman's reaching Washington
has never been denied. As to what
passed between him and President Tyler
and Secretary Webster, we have the tes
timony of A. L. Lovejoy, W. H. Gray
and others, who received the account
from the Doctor's own lips. But his
main object in going East was to bring
an emigration. I have been personally
acquainted with persons who came in
1843 and they told me that it was the
circulars and information which Dr.
Whitman circulated that induced them
to come to Oregon. He marked the
route and guided them over. So well
known was this 'fact in tho Western
States that' Whitman and Oregon were
the watchwords of the emigration of
1844, the year in which the writer came.
These immigrants were not from the
East, but from Missouri and the border
States, whero tho influence, of the Meth
odist missionaries had never been felt
But the Doctor had repeatedly passed,
through this section and by his represen
tations roused the spirits of those hardy
pioneers who bravely followed him, and
planted the stars and stripes on tho
shores of the Pacific forover and aided in
crushing the great monopoly.. The
reader will bear in mind that the heads
of tho American government were indif
ferent to the Oregon question. To them
it possessed little if any importance as
Benton says in Chapter 113, vol. '2;
The great event of carrying the Anglo-
Saxon race to tho shores of the Pacific
ocean; and planting that 'race 'firmly on
that sea, took place at this time, begin
ning in 1842 and greatly increasing in
It was not the act of' the flovern-
trtent leading the
people and protecting
them, but like all the other emigration's
settlements on our continent, it was the
act of the peopjn going forward without
aid or countenance, establishing their
possession and compelling tho govern
ment to folhiw with its shield and spread
it over them. So far as tho action of
tho government was concerned, it ope
rated to endanger our title to the Colum
bia ; to prevent emigrants and incur the
loss of the country. Tho first groat step
in this unfortunate direction was the
treaty of joint occupation, as it was
called, in 1818."
If the brother will carefully read tho
above author he will find that-the heads
of the government opposed Mr. Linn's
bill as being impracticable, as the coun
tiy was too remote and inaccessible to
be of any benefit to the government and
that instead of Oregon being saved
before Dr. Whitman reached Washing
ton in 1843, the treaty was not signed
until June 15, 1816. What saved
Oiegon was tho vast emigration of
American citizens across tho Uqcky
Mountains. In view of thf-e facts we
can plainly see that the men of great lit
erary attainments might hivo written
until their pons dropped from their pal
sied fingers and not have affected any-
.thing. Theio was not a man in the
Methodist Mission that could have ac
complished what Dr. Whitman did, and
ho seems to have been raised up by God
for this especial purpose. Another tiling :
England did not ask for the Willamette
valley, she wanted the Columbia for her
southern boundary, claiming it by the
right of discovery. Rev. Samuel Parker
mentions this in his journal, chapter 18,
page 2G3. While Oregon owes the foun
dation of her educational interests to the
Methodist Mission, and we aro willing"
that thoy should bear tho palm inthat
respect, Brother Hines assumos"'a ''lcetle"
too much when he says they saved Ore
gon, and lie should npir let His sectarian
piquo blind him totne facts of history.
Small Farms Is there Hare Honey in Them ?
RosmiuKG.Jan. 24, 1884.
Editor Willamette Farmer:
I frequently see in the papore articles
setting forth the advantage of running
small farms and advising those who own
large tracts of land to sell off a portion
and try it on a small scale. These wri
ters propose a rulo for farming that
would apply to any other business. The
publisher of a big paper is not told to
reduce his sheet to a 7x9 size f the man
ufacturer of tho wagon or plow is not
told that he ean make one wagon or plow
at a less proportionate cost than a hun
dred ; for it is well known that the reverse
is the case. There is no product of tho
garden but that can Iks raised more
cheaply in large quantities than in small.
But before this question is discussed, the
advocates of small farms should agree,
which I fancy they never will do, what
is the proper size for a farm. My opinion
is that while five acres are too much for
some men, fivo hundred are not enough
for others. That success dejiends to
some extent on the size of the, farmer as
well as the farm. I am not opposed to
anyone owning a little piece of land if
he cannot get more ; for it is better to
take' almost any spot of ground that he
can call his own, and where he can em
ploy himself, than to rent land and work
for others as many do with frequent
wanderings from place to place without
aim or purpose. But I am writing
against the absurd notion that there is
more profit in a small farm than a largo
Some tell us that small farming works'
well in tho Eastern States, but tho Tea
sons given aro a little contradictory. For
instance, they use more sj stem and work
a great deal harder than wo do in Ore
gon. , More labor as the result of moro
system. That on small farina they raise
heavier crops, which double tho value of
land, and yet taxes are light. The truth
of the matter is that tho moro valuable
land or other property becomes the
heavier the tax.
Now the fact is the small farmer, (sup
posing tho farm to be ten or twelvo
acres) has to woik under many disad
vantages. He cannot afford to keep tho
improved machinery to raise most crops
successfully. He cannot afford to keep
a self-binder and thresher to harvest five
acres of grain, yet he must have bread.
He cannot afford to keep a mower and
horse-rake to mow and rako two acres
of grass, yet his stock must have hay,
and consequently he is compelled to de
pend on the slow and tedious process of
hand labor. He cannot give stoady work
to his team, yet he is forced to keep one.
Ho' loses time in buying and selling
things by small quantities. He must
hayo moro rods of fence in proportion to
tho number of acres owned, and moro
grotind used by roads,buildings and other
fixtures ; and has more nooks and cor
ners for weeds to grow. He has to donear
ly all his work by hand and has a hard
row to hoe. These objections, and more,
I have heard expressed by small farmers
in tho Eastern States. The idea is ad
vanced by some that the haid labor and
closo economy incident to small fanning
tend to physical and moral development;
that leisure tends to discontent and law
lessness. Such ideas may do for tho
theorist and' non-worker, who are about
as likejy to practice what they preach as
the doctor is to take his own prescrip
tion; and aie striving to make their path
way more smooth and pleasant.
It "has been proposed by others that
land should bo held in small tracts in
order that all porsons may-bo nblo to
sharo, which they couldnot othorwiso
do, and our country is advised to adopt
the plan Russia, whore it is said tho
land ie"distributed among tho peasantry
as their supposed needs require, tho gov
ernment retaining the title. That plan
may Ik) serfdom, but I trut tho great
American Union will never have occa
sion to borrow its laws from despotic
'Rnssi.i. Xn limitod nwiiprsliir nf lqnl
As Old Pioneer. Jjld satisfy tho freo citlzcn Ho mUBt
Njnow just what is his, havo full control
of the same, and then ho would havo
full scope for all his energies, lhero
was tho same complaint of land twenty
years ago ns we hear now ; yet every man
of sense knows that thcro was plonty of
good government land then, and thcro
is plonty even now. But everyone don't
want land. It is not land that keeps tho
hundreds of men 'hanging areund bar
rooms and billiard tables in Portland.
No indeed. Land is something they
don't want while they can enjoy the al
luring dissipations of the town. They
are not hankering after a bit of prairie
land in Eastern Washington, whero long
years hence they may reap tho reward
of present self-denial and deprivation.
Then if one man is ready to take the
chances of hunger and rags in his old
age, for present gratification, who shall
say that another, who is willing to go
out into the wilderness and mako it blos
som as the rose,' shall not have all the
land he can pay lor, as the roward of his
induet'y and patience. C. W. Smith.
More Tax Loclc
Polk. Co., Or., Jan, 24, 1881.
KJllor WilUmette Farmer i
Wo aro glad to see tho improvement
of the Farmer. Its columns aie well
fillfnl up with correspondence, especially
on tho famous "-Mortgage Tux question"
now before tho peoplo for consideration.
We will remark, that tho fanners of
this county aro forming clubs, whero the
abovo law, and all other jolitical ques
tions, will receive a thorough ventila
tion by tho farmors themselves. In our
view, most of the .writers on tho tax
question, only write of tho effects of the
law and say nothing of tho principle of
taxation. The principle of taxation is
tho power of sovereignty, hence if wo as
n State or Nation, cannot tax foreign
corporations wo aro not a sovereign
power, and wo are inclined to think that,
no court in the United States, will assert
that we have not the power to tax for
eign corporations. Allow us to remark
here, that a writer in the Faruck of the
11th of January, has some strange ideas
1, 1884.
on the principle of taxation, but as ho
signs witli-tliKc -tniiJ, I presume ho is a
capitalist instead of a farmer. Brother
farmers what am wo laboring ior? Is
not tho ultimate design of our lnbor,
money? Do not notes and accounts
represent monoy, and is money not tho
best of property a man can have ? Then
why do peoplo talk of not taxing invisi
ble property? Because they .lesiro to
lay tho burden of taxation on tho farm
el's. Another idea is sot forth by thoso
writers, that is thib. trying to tax notes
and accounts causes peoplo to commit
perjury. Oh, yes 1 Moses mado a great
blunder, no doubt, when ho promulga
ted that h.;v at Mount Stiai, "thou shalt
not commit poiji'y," at least somo men
soem to think so. But peihops a way
might bo found yet, to keep those men
from committing perjury,' and still tax
notes and accounts. Some time back, a
wiitor in tho Dallas Itemizer, suggosted
that the present laws ought to bo amend
ed, so as to compel such porsons assessed,
to sign his name, in full, io tho printed
oath or affirmation of his asbCbsmcnt
list, because, as he says, a man who will
tell a ho will not hesitato to swear to it,
but ho will hardly sign his namo.to a
iiuscliooil, tor it wouiu bo toodangorous.
There is evidently n wido difforonco
between the Assessor shearing a person
to his list cf- assessment, or tho person
signing his name to the oath of his as
sessment list.
, As to tho talk, of not takiffg ouW a
person's indebtedness, it is all nonsonso,
for we remember that tho supremo court
of this State, decided that all indebted
ness must bo taken out, by tho assessor,
of the list of assessment. So, I believe
that bottles that question.
Very Bospectfully,
Gi.o. II. EiM.li.
Mtke our Rivers Navlgable-An Interesting
Letter from an Old steambyitman.
Cajjhy, Or., Jan. 27, 1881.
Eittor Willamette Farmer s.
Having of late years Locoino a farmer
and still later a subscriber to your valu
able paper, I feel that I would like to,
say something, if perchance it might in
any way tend to bring about or be tho
means of helping to bring about, somo
competition in tho transportation busi
ness of tho Willamette valley in particu
lar. I will preface what I would say on tho
subject, by stating that I havo been a
steamboatman for the last thirty years,
twenty-three of which was on tho Ohio,
Mississippi and their tributaries, the re
maining seven on the Willamette and
Columbia rivers. In all my experience
I have never known or heard of a com
pany being allowed to place a tax of
fifty cents per ton on all freights and
ten cents per head on all passengers pass
ing a given point on a navigablo river
till I camo to Oregon and found it to bo
the case on tho Willumctto river.
Now, this is virtually laying an em
bargo on tho business of tho rivar from
Eugcno to Portland, by tho companies
tax imposed at the locks, all independ
ent bouts are virtually shut out of tho
river and tho bulk of tho businons driven
to tho railroads of said companies. Tho
company by tho aid of the tax at tho
locks aro enabled, and such was tho cuso
whon I canto to Oregon, iu 1877, to put
tho ruto on freights and passengers so
low that independent boats could not
muko a living after paying said tax, and
they contlnuod the above policy till all in
dependent bouts woro drivon off tho rher,
now what do wo find to bo tho case,
Freights aro put up to over one hundred
per cent, especially on tho majority of
people who do not havo ten tons or over
to ship at one time. Who !h to blame
for this state of affairs, tho people's rep
resentatives in Congress or tho people
themselves? I think if our lloprcqvnta
tiyes had properly brought this matter'
before Congress the difficulty would
long since havo been remedied by tho
government condemning, and paying
for and making free said locks for the
proper uso of transportation on the
NO. 51.
Willamette river, as was done in theca:e
of the Leuisvillo and Portland canal
around tho falls of tho Ohio river at
Louisville, Kcntuckoy. Whon I first
steamboated, tho tax at the last named
locks was twnnty-five cents per ton, pas
sengers freo. Tho govornmont con
demned them and put tho tax at ten
cents per ton for n year or two, but
finally mado them fice, and so thoy re
main. So tho locks around tho rapids
on tho.Mississippi rivor aro freo also, en
abling oil men, who feel so disposod.to
put on boats and compcto for honorable
business ; wliy not on tho Willamette?
Echo answers, why? Bccauso a corpo
ration wishes to monopolize not only tho
carrying business of .tho Willamette
river and vnlloy, but tho wholo north
west coast, also, why not let them
soil all tno dry goods and groceries
ono is just as fair as tho other. In
ingotcr an aitlclo in tho is.suo
25th, entitled "A Pleasant Mooting of
tho Salem Grange," I notice the matter
of co-oporation was. pleasantly, and I
hopo profitably, discussod. Though not
a Granger myself, yot I fcol ft growing
iiitorcst in all their proceedings as far
as I understand thorn, for I am sure
thoy aro driving at honorable ends, and
havo tho good of tho .holo country at
heart. Now, whilo on tho btibject of co
oporation and transportation, do n6t lcU.
tho matter drop with n passing notice,
but keep tho ball rolling, compel our
Representatives to do their duty by
urging tho government to tako notice of
tho matter and eiio that all navigublo
rivers uro mado freo to tho peoplo. Lot
petitions bo circulated by every Grange
through ovoiy neighborhood till all the
people sign it, and send it'to our agents
or Itcpic-cntativos in Congress; and see
that corporations as woll as individuals
aro kept within their own proper sphere.
Do not sit with folded hands and soo de
signing men bind you hand and foot as
has boon going on foi suveiul yeais past.
Let corporations build railroads and
slcamboutH and run them, but do not
pci mil them to prohibit others from do
ing bo likowjso. This is a supposed free
country, and let us sco to it that it is ono
in deed as well as nutno. Thcro is much
moio that might bo said, but till somo
ono elso takes up tho cue I will drop tho
Whilo tho mortgage tax law is being so
extensively discussed lot all our interests
rccoivo a liko notice This is n particu
larly favorablo timo to bring tho matter
before Congress, whilo tho rovcmiesare
so much in excoss of tho country's needs,
and Congressmen aro worrying as to
what shall be tlono with tho surplus. Do
not let them suy us ono of old, that thoy
will have to build greater barns wherein
to stow their goods till this matter is
attended to, till tho beautiful W.illumotto
is mado a freo navigablo river as tho
lovers of tho country say it shall be.
And that no State or individual shall lay
un embargo on tho business of any navi
gable river within tho United States.
J.so. P. Coulter.
Fir and ledar FoiU.
Saiem, Or., Jan. 21, 1881.
Krijtur Willamette Ririnor!
In tho full of 1881. I built n pioco of
post and h-iid fence on tho flat sixty
rods nest of tho I jhuiio asylum, tho posts
aro lir, tlio Imico still stumls tliero al
though tho wind blow a part of it over
this weok, tho johts being rotted off. I
noticed somo of tho post wero rotted oft'
twoyoarsugo. Jn tho year 1871 having
occasion to build a considerable board
fenco on my own place, and having born
told that cedar osts would !at "forever''
I though), it would bo best to get cedar,
so went to Cedar Camp, thirty miles
from hore, cut and split thorn myself
that I might get uono but what wero
good, and drew them home. Set thorn
in tho ground that summer, fall and
winter. Now, afUr standing in tho
ground ntno years, quite a number of
them aro rotted completely oil", and
some thus rotted aro from tho heart of
true, having no sap in thero.
Djsxtxr Field.
them H
icerios U QV 1 1
rend- piTl U
of the "fi I-