Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, October 19, 1883, Page 4, Image 4

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    issued eyery Week by the
-rrriLLAnerrE farmer rnBLisHiNC co,
One year, (Postage paid). In advance I J.00
III montiis, irosiage paia,, id m -
Let than MX months will be, per month Jo
Advertisements wBI be Inserted, proyldlngtn are
Ona Inch of space per month.... I 8.M
fare wcnee 01 ipFei- muuwi .Taa
i ns-half column per month IJ.00
D oolmnnper month --SO.0O
VAJfampie oopiee sen iree oo apuuwuuu.
rublleatlon Offlee: No. 6 Washington Street. Up
lain, room! No. 6 and H
Notice to Subscribers.
Omci or WLiuiiim F.rmsi, )
February 28, 1885. J
To on Rmbiu :
We publish only a sufficient Dumber of the Fim
t supply actual prepaid subscriber ana we cannot sup
ply back number.
If it U deelred by subscribers to sscure all luuea they
Bust arrange to tend in their rencwali In ample time
to reach tnla offlee before eipiraUon.
aWAll subscribers can tell by the printed tag on"
HTthelr paper exactly when their time will eiplreM
Another Important point: ALL COMMUNICATIONS
Drawer IS, Portland, Oregon.
Correspondence on nil farming topic'
as well as on all matters of genoraUn
tercsl is always acceptable, and we are re-
. . ... .1 - LI 1
ceiving moro ol man came so iiuim
diirini? summer and harvest We invito
all our readers to freely discuss matters
of common interest and to aid the Far
mer, the people's newspaper.
In Ohio th? Legislature submitted a
constitutional amendmont prohibiting
ealo of liquor which was voted on at tho
late election. It was somo time before
the returns were counted bo it could bo
ascertained if tho amendment was adopt
ed or defeated. It seems, at last, thnt it
was defeated, though by a small majori
ty,' only 7,000 out of a hundred times
that number of votes. It looks well for
tho temperunco causo when Ohio comos
so near passing a prohibition clause to
hor State Constitution.
That teruiiilk and infinitesimal
scourge, tho aphis, seems to bo spreading
everywhere. This insect dies out of lo
xnliitaii. lint turns ut elsewhere. Somo
friend told us the other day that with
him they demolished the apple and peur
nnd then turned looso on tho plum. Wo
have not heard of their eating plums
before. Tho only consolation wo cuu
givo to thoso who are sutlbring from
apple louse, or aphis, is that after three
or four years they go away again, it is
not much consolation to think that they
will stay four years, but that is about tho
way of it.
The wheat farms, plan tod inside tho
llluloclc Company's enclosure at the
mouth of John Day, on the Columbia,
in Wasco county, turned off fairly whim
tho nature of tho season nnd circtun
t rnces nro considered. Tho yield aver
aged 20 bushels per acre, some going ns
high as 21! to tho acre, and some n littlo
below '20 bushels. It was mostly bx!
land and part of it was put to barloy,
bunging fair crops. Thut land will do
much better in a good average year
when the sod iH thoroughly subdued.
Corn and all sortH of vegetables, evor
grtmn millet, or Johnson grans, and al
falfa do well there. Probably there is
n, better farming land East of tho Cas
cades than much of the upland along
tho Columbia in Wasco county.
The cod ijn moth is becoming domes
ticated in all our gardens ami orchards.
Ynn will know it without over seeing it
if unci! you catch a glimpso of apple or
jhmt that it has visited. It botes a black
hole through tho fruit, eats the seed in
p.irt, cats its way out, and leaves a black
p nil to mnrk its coming and going, Tho
otfior day wo were picking somo choieo
p ','irs and found tho mark of the worm of
thfi moth in a number of them. It seems
U) 'hi all through the country. Perhaps
some natural destroyer will come along
aii I devour it, but that would lie too
much good luck. Klsewhero they go to
great expense to destroy the insert but
it will not bo easy to accomplish any
thing here unless we pass a stringent
law for the puriwso, and organize thor
oughly to eradicate them.
The com tens atio.nh in farming life
are illustrated by the fact that while
orchard foil to produce well this year
vineyards generally yield heavily and
grab's nave ripened better than usual.
A K. rtiiiplcy, of Oswego, planted a vine
yard of sovoral acres, and this year has
giXKlj-ctuniH of fruit. His grapes, of
fory varieties, are show nut the Mechan
ics' Fair, Wo met him, last Friday, un
liMiliui; ii wagon load of 20-Huud boxes
of thi't'liiH'ioua fruit. Wo learned from
him that h had already marketed $00
Iwnch and the loys my as many more
Kiukfttii bring to.o)Miv Ho sells them
rvuddxiUa dollar n K. He will this
year have 1.&00 boxes, or 110,000 ihiuimU
of fruit off of four acres of vineyard.
Last year he bold l.)0 boxes, and the
year before only ISO. This year is pay
ing up for p.ibt deficiencies.
A daily taper stated last week that
a steamer brought 350 boxes of fruit
from San Francitco for Helena, Mon
tana. That was ono steamer and Helena
was a single town far in the intorior. It
is probable that this lot of fruit included
grapes and peaches largely, but the fact
illustrates the certain demand that will
come from the lino of tho Northern Pa
cific Railroad for fruits of all kinds and
the profit that will attend those who are
able to supply tho demand. We do not
hoar that fruit growing is gone into ex
tensively hero, nnd yet it looks as though
there was every encouragement for
planting orchards. In California great
orchards and fruit farms exist on all sides
and seem to fully repay the outlay. In
Oregon we know of few now orchards
that cover ten acres of ground, and can
count on ono hand all those that cover
twenty-five acres. People seem to be
blind to the groat value of fruit trees.
For a week past the Mechanics' Fair
has been hem ana has attracted more or
less attention. As UBual, the different
stalls are filled with representations of
the business of Portland. Something
of this sort is nccossury in a new coun
try and iiossessos interest to the masses,
for, at this distance from the world's
great centers, wo cannot show tho pro
ficiency in mechanical matters and
artistic things that they have in older
countries. Tho enterprise that gave
being to the Mechanics' Fair is com
mendable, and no doubt the managers
havo brought together in their spacious
pavilion as good and varied a collection
as can jwssibly be gathered in this city,
one, too, that is creditable to tho culture
and progress of our citizens and of our
State. The building is large, covering
two hundred feet square, a whole city
block, witk a wido galleiy around the
main jiortion that increases the space
and adds to tho general effect Tho
northern wing is devotod to machinery
which is in constant operation. The
main pavilion is filled with miscollan
oous exhibits that are handsomely dis
played. Tho southern annex is n
charming garden of .flowers and shrub
bery, with a waterfall dashing over a
rocky wall at the cabt end and many
pretty, strange and quaint effects pro
duced among the plnuU and shrubbery.
Tho contemplative man will find enjoy
ment in watching the throng of specta
tors; in seeing tho wares and merchan
dise placed on exhibition; in witnessing
the machinery at work and invcbtigat
iug the various claims to ingenuity and
originality made for different articles
and inventions. Thero is always a
crowd around tho pottery worker. Pot
tery has been mado ever since man
learned that clay was plastic und could
bo used to hold water. Tho fair is inter
esting for as many reasons as there nro
persons to attend nnd articles to exhibit
Up in tho gullory you find tho inevitable
sewing machine man and other matters
of interest In the west end is a casenf
insocts, a case of arrow heads and In
dian curiosities, also birds' nests and
eggs, a good collection. At tho wist end
is tho picture gallery, which contains a
lino lot of meritorious work, many of
tliom lent by private citizens. Porlnud's
wealthy citizens are, many of them,
lovers and patrons of art Noodle work
and knit work and embroidery are to le
seen there and art work from homo
To our mind, tho greatest attraction
of the fair was offered by the gathoring
of agricultural products shown in tho
west end of tho southern annex, off
from tho flower garden. Hero A. J. Dn
fur, tho veteran who made Oregon known
to the world at Philadelphia in 1870, and
who won so many prizes for our pro
duets, hud gathered together and hand
sonioly displayed products from all
parts of our Statu east and west of tho
Cascade mountains. Pomona nnd Ceres
ate rivals for fame here; hugo squashes
contended for your admirntiou in con
trast with rod and golden-checked
apples or luscious grapes. Thero was a
world of opportunity for contrast. Ono
side of the not too largo room was alio
occupied by that other iHiinologist, 1).
1). lTvttymnu, mid between the two and
the magnificent-1 displays made by S.
l.uelling and A. H. Shipley, chielly of
grapes from their own vineyards the
agricultural corner of the Mechanics'
Fair was a very nttnirtio feature of the
annual exposition.
When it is nil said, the fact remains
that if Oiogon has especial emu-o for
pride it comes from the product, of our
fertile soil. We can eoiniH'to with all
the world and need not fear failure when
wo depend on the farm. .There we are
supremo, and it was well that. tho man
agers of the Mechanics' Fair called on
Mother Earth to lend hor forces to aid
the exposition.
Around the wide room was u chevenux
do frie of sheaves of grain and grasses
that beautifully presented to tho be
holder a summary of what Oregon
bpeadstufls resemble when the golden
grain is ripo and waiting for tho harvest.
On shelves were plethoric sacks of grain
in the berry. On the walls were hung
grasses and grapes. Ono exhibitor, Mr.
A. It. Shipley, of Oswego, showed forty
varieties well ripened, of all colors and
sizes and yielding an aroma that could
discount all the perfumes over mado.
Certainly, if you add the fragraucc from
the piles of apples and pears that chal
lenged admiration all around, thero was
a succession of aromas that defy com
petition. Qroat stalks of corn stood by,
monster squashes and pumpkins of gold
and green, chestnuts in tho bur and out
of it, tubers and roots of all kinds, dairy
products from Sandy and elsewhere,
everything, in fact, worth producing
was crowded into that corner of the
grpat pavilion, and wo think we do not
err when wo claim that more interest
contered thero than in any spot of equal
Wo felt proud that agriculture proves
itself so vitally important in every con
nection. In reality Oregon would cut a
poor fignre in tho world without her
unequalled soil and its generous and
abundant products. We doubt if so
good a display of farm production was
evor before mado on this coast and con
gratulate the association on its success
in obtaining it
Tho timo has como again, when tree
planting should bo dono, both f orthado
and ornamental trees and for orchards.
Fall planting insures a more reliable
growth and is often wortheverything
to a tree. Ono year wo planted out a
large number of treos and November
rains sot in so that we woro compelled
to dosibt So tho trees on hand wo
buried, "or heeled down" and left them
until spring. In March, when wo took
thorn up to permanently eet them we
noticed many tendrils from the roots,
two or thioe inches long. Thoso root
lets had btu ted out during the winter,
but the taking up and replanting was
very dobtructivo to them. We notice
tho difference in the growth of the fall
planted trees and those pluntod in early
spring and oould peiceivo a great deal
more progress in those planted in the
fall. It is the common oxperienco of
all orcharuists that loll planting pro
duces tho best results.
A tree that has grown well in tho nurs
ery has many claims upon you if you pro
pose to set it out und depend on it for
future production. The seed was plant
e d and the young plant carefully tended.
The next season it was budded or graft
ed and tonded in the nursery with all
possiblo care so as to be in thrifty,
growing condition for a year. Whon
you buy tho tree you pay for all this
euro and can well afford to pay well for
it if you propose to give it equal caro
when set out in the orchard rows. So
many, however, purchase trees and throw
tho money away when they do. We
havo seen fco much waste and neglect
that wo feel like taking tho matter in
hand for a special topio now. Thoro is
nothing tho farm can uso to more profit
than excellent fruit, therefore it is a
topic that deserves full attention.
In tho first place choose carefully tho
trees you plant Consult neighbors to
learn what fruit succeeds best thero and
bo guided by cxixsrioncc. If you wish
to have a home orchard only, purchase
100 treos for an aero and sot them a rod
apart You can alternate stone fruits
with apples and pears to advantage.
For a homo orchard choose n variory and
suit your tasto u well as consult tho
nature of tho locality. Wo give no ad
vice now about selecting varieties.
If you wish to plant out for a crop to
put on tho market, learn tho varieties
that succeed best in your locality and
select from these a few of tho very best
Don't select many varieties, but in pref
erence plant out many tree of tho
choicest and most leliable varieties.
Thnt is the way to plant an orchard for
Don't end out of tho State for trees
for you may import poisonous insects
by so doing. Already wo have the eod
liu moth. We found them last week
when picking pears in our garden.
They are spreading through the State.
Wo miit hao a statute for protection
of orchards from jHts. Our nursey
ineu try e erything worth having. They
don't adertifC liberally and wo don't
owe them much for their patronage, but
we truly belioo you can trust them more
reliably than ) on can send abroad for
trees and plants except it bo some sort
of flowers and shrubs. Oregon has been
. . ;.. 11 . 1 l.i. ,i i, .1
so oiieu swiuouM yireo jXKiiuors uini
if timt we let MU'li ttomiln iklono nTui
tuiight them to let us alone. t
Sot your trees out iu land that has
been plowed deep and well. Don't fail
to stir tho ground ten inche, and a foot
is better. Wc venture to say that deep
plowing and thorough cultivation will
be the makimr of your orchard. You
can plant out furrows to plant the tree
in, for it needs to bo planted an inch or
so higher than it stood in the nursery.
Plow out iurrows, and a good man will
plant 250 trees a day. We again repeat,
plow deeply and stir thoroughly.
When you plant your tree cut off the
top about three and a half or four feet
from the ground, gnd make tho tree
throw out branches not over three feet
high for the lower ones. Don't plant
trees to have high and sprangling tops,
but see to it that tho top comes out
evenly all a.ound the tree so that branches
make a handsome, well proportioned
During the season go over the orchard
with a sharp knife or pruning shears and
keep the top trimmed in, cutting back
some that are too vigorous to keep a good
shaped head. A little work will keep a
thousand trees beautifully trimmed and
proportioned. A little care will keep a
tree in such shape that with strong limbs
it can bear heavily without breaking
down. Every year it must be cut back
some; thinned out where limbs cross
each other or interfere or are too many.
Orcharding is an easy art if a person
has a little taste for it. It is a very en
joyable labor to keep an orchard in good
shape and train all the trees to be obedi-
' ent to your will.
r f1,iltivo vmir trfnunrt liv nlnwrintF in
April and then cultivate in May and
June. Don't do any stirring of tho
ground after the first week in July.
Trim tho growing limbs any time.
"Piune when vour knife is sharp," is a
common saying, but we believe it is good
work to trim the orchard in June.
If you caro enough for your orchard
to keep it in good heartyou will have
no sprouts or suckers; no moss or dead
tops, but will havo beautiful and healthy
trees, well proportioned and prepared to
hold up a heavy weight of fruit. Every
tree will have the beauty of n friendly
face and you will walk among them with
pleasure and a justifiable pride.
If you neglect them they will be a
living, and perhaps only half living, ac
cusation of that neglect Not only will
they refuse to reward you for cost and
misspent labor but they will bo a re
proach as long they and you live.
It was unfortunate for the farmers of
this region that tho early efforts of the
grange were attended with failure, which
was duo to inexperience and an effort to
accomplish too much. Business experi
ence comes slow, and is often costly. Tho
result of ten years experience has rem
edied the failures of early years and has
given the grange power and influenco,
where it has been successfully maintain
ed. In Linn county many leading farmers
belong to tho order and the Business
Council has resulted in saving hand
somely to those who are connected with
it. We venture to say that Linn county
farmers occupy a better position before
the world, aro more harmonious among
themselves, and better organized for
self protection than the farmers of any
other county in Oregon. This is because
the grange has brought them into
unison and made itself financially as
well as socially valuable to them. The
Business Council comes in as an adjunct
to tho grange itself, which is a social
aud educational organization. Tho bus
iness agent has managed well in secur
ing its members good terms for all sup
plies and in selling products. At the
beginning tho grange expected too
much. Small savings count up in timo
aud create independence. The merchant
does not make always an unreasonable
profit and bometimes is hampered by
debt and cannot do business to advant
age. Tho farmers' trade is worth moro
consolidated than detached; tho grange
business council makes a profit by cre
ating a wholesale feature both in selling
and buying. Linn county is the only
spot iu Oregon where the grange has
had a fair test, and it succeeds there
because it has been in hands of compe
tent and disinterested managers.
Wo learn from Judgo Boise, master
of tho Stato grange, that tho order is
now making headway in Yamhill county
on the same basis that has been success
ful in Linn county. It is to bo hoped
that tho movement will bo contagcous
and spread through tho whole north
west We confidently believe that no
one thing can happen to add moro to
the happiness and propirity of tho
farming people of the northwest than
to have tome such tocial and educational
organization well established among
them. It creates iilentity of interest
and causes those who participate to feel
stronger am! actually to be
than when isolated and aetihireach for
I himself. It gives strength to meet all
pumic questions that may ane and con
duct mutters for their own cood that
else might go cry much agnirut them. I
III China whole families make a living
on less man two acres ui num. .. "
much of a living, perhaps, but they do
li e. The man w ith tw enty acres of good
land is able to live well. In France the
land is divided into small parcels and the
farmer with twenty to thirty acres is
kept busy cultivating several crops a year
from it. It would be a nice question to
. ., . f lnml Tf la itrt
discuss: What can be produced Irom
twenty acres of land in the Willamette
valley? Probably tho market gardeners
about Portland could answer that ques
tion as well as it can be answered. They
make a study of production and then
studv the wants of the customers they
have to supply. There is a great quan
tity of stuff brought from California by
ever' steamer but our home producers
are begining to meet the demand more
satisfactorily than they have been able to
in former years. The field calls for still
further enterprise in producing fruits
and vegetables that we have classed ai
beyond our reach but which, experience
shows that we can produce if we choose
to try.
The value of twenty acres around
Portland is increasing in bth the value
of land as property and the extent and
variety of the products the land can turn
off. Farmers and market gardeners
find for themselves the value of manure ;
experiments show that many things can
be done with enriched soil. The stables
of the city are gold mines for the workers
of surrounding soil. The man who wastes
his time trying to take harvests from a
section of land cau learn much from the
still more enterprising farmer who lends
his energies to make a few acres produce
luxuriant crops wo say crops, because
ho literally is not content with one crop
from a field and often secures two or
more crops during the calender year.
It is only by high feeding of the soil that
this can be successfully done but it is
accomplished and such men practically
make the farm yield to science as well
as labor.
It is a question woith constant refer
ence and deserving of continual study,
to decide whether the same labor nnd
cost expended on half the acres would
not bccuio as gieat returns. To put it
plaiuer : We believe it capable of perfect
demonstration that in a majority of in
stances the farmer can make as much
actual profit off of much less land if his
methods can bo perfectly systematized
and tho soil secure all the labor it can
respond to. In many cases soil needs
a deeper stirring than farmers give ; in
many more cases thorough pulverization
would veil repay tho effort
If farmers would givo their experience
through the Willamette Farmer the
result would be interesting as well as bene
ficial. There is not an item of product
that could not bo discussed with profit.
The growth of root crops, and especially
of small fruits will furnish topics for all
winter. We see the points presented and
try to draw out interesting discussion,
but try in vain. It seems to us that the
boys on the farm would feel moro in
terest in their work if there was some
thing to be learned in it. Draw them
on by argument for or against certain
modes of working the soil and let them
investigate for themselves. The agricul
tural journal could become a great aux
illiary in farm education if the farm
work was sharply discussed by farmers
in its columns.
To return to our first topic the valuo
of small farms well farmed tho time is
coming when homesteads and pre-emptions
will bj scarce. Government acres
will all be claimed, that are worth claim
ing, in the next ten years. The public
domain will no longer be a bonanza to
every man. Very soon that happy time
will bo gone, never to return, when
"Uncle Sum can give every man a farm."
When our continent gets settled up from
sea to sea, there will be a dividing up of
acres into smaller farms. For another
cpntury our Nation can prosper by doing
better work on fewer acres. The sugges
tion wo make is that sensible men will
take timo by the forelock and, accepting
tho inevitable, commence now to make
one acre do what two have done before.
Over at Chehalis we found a farmer
who had too mucli land. He owned
about 200 acres of that fertile valley and
thought he did not need so much. No
doubt he took a right view. Good work
on 100 acres of Chehalis bottom land
will show magnificent returns and make
any man very independent. But he
has not a monopoly that is dangerous.
He can put down his acres to grass and
spare himself the hard toil that farming
the land requires, and make more
money and realizo moro satisfaction
than ho can from hard work at growing
crops. Yet it is wonderful how much
a man can do with forty acres of land
at raising stock. It i astonishing how
much can bo dono with forty acres of
rich land in many lines of production.
it is also astonishing how little is ac
complished with forty acres of the
richest land imaginable tho way it is
often farmed in Oregon and tho whole
Northwest. Poets went into raptures
a century ago, over : i
"A little (arm well tllltd." i
If all tho good land in Oregon and -, J
Washington was subdivided, and hiehlv I
cultivated in small farms, wo should be
happy and prosperous people.
Since dairying is to become a business
of prime importance, those who wish to
take advantage of opportunities must
begin to raise dairy stock. For this pur
pose introduce a Jersey or Holstein male
into a neighborhood and breed good
grade milkers, and you will soon seo re
ults. Two years will bring good half
Jersey heifers, with their calves; and in
four years the successful breeder will
have a herd of three-quarter blood Jer
seys. For dairy purposes these are fully
as good as tho full blood Jersey. For
butter alone the Jersey may be tho best
cow, but if cheese is wanted any part of
the year, tho Holstein is the correct thing.
Holsteins will make excellent butter and
cheese and many say they are tho best
for tho average farmer to have. It is no
doubt true that either will answer the
purpose well and make extra choice but
ter. The farmer who will prepare him
self with grades of these breeds, can soon
have good milkers to sell for town cows
and will get well paid for his trouble.
At the present time a good milking cow
will sell to a townsman, who oxpects to
feed his cow all tho time, and wants
plenty of rich milk and cream, for $75
to $100. Cows have become important
members of the community and have the
say so in many respects, so tho breeder
of cows has a safe business.
A Portland grocery concern advertise
that they bring a thousand pounds a
week of the best of gilt edged Jersey but
ter, from Elgin, Ills. No doubt such
butter would sell by tens of thousands
every week. Thero aro ten thousand
persons in Oregon, living in cities, who
would gladly pay 50 cents per pound for
choieo Jersey butter the year round.
Such being thefactour farmers should lose
no timo in supplying that demand. It is
not uncertain but certain to double in
quantity within the next two years.
Good butter will always control the mar
The Oregon farmer must show enter
prise or he will be badly left. Tho rail
road has brought another em, a new set
of people, more extravagance if you
will call it so, or more appreciation of
excellence will be a better phrase. Peo
ple with particular tastes havo a right to
if able to support them. Tasto is expen
sive, but the prosperous worldlings who
eavo the means to gratify their appetites
are no disadvantage to the producer.
They create a market specially distin
guished for excellence and tho farmer
who can achieve excellence profits by the
exclusive demand. It becomes there
fore, a great point with producers to at
tain the excellence that commands a pre
mium. Every neighborhood has numbers of
good milking cows that impart some
thing of that excellence to their offspring.
Breed such cows to a male of good but
ter pedigree, and the result will be that
the impress of the long line of butter
making stock, through tho agency oi
tho male, will create a new race of dairy
cows very little short of the best known.
If our stock and dairy farmers will be
gin immediately to work up a high grade
of good milkers we shall soon havo dairy
products for home use without looking
to California or the West or to Elgin, Il
linois, or any other dairy producing re
gion, Eastward. Meantime we are ex
pecting hundreds of thousands of dollars
annually to secure god dairy products
for our own use. The business increases
rapidly and we must be up and doing at
an earnest rate if we have any hope of
maintaining ourselves independently of
other States in supplying dairy products
for home usa.
Prices of School Books.
The publlehere ol tchrol looke uaed io tha pubiie
achoolaol thiaftUtohave aent to the auperintewleBt
ol erery count tha following price liat. Ferwna ua
ablo to obtUa thcia books o! dealers at the prices
quoted cui obtain them of the publishers, who will
prepay postage :
Wholeaale. Retail.
Walton's IndVt Primary Header S .IS t X
" Second '
" " Third "
" " Fourth "
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' ' Sixth "i
" ' Child- Speller
" ' Youth's Speller
" " Complete Speller
llonteith's " Elem'tary Geography.
" " Comp thenira "
Sill's Practical Leaoa's in English
Clark'a Normal Engliih Grammar. , ....
lUinea' Brief ttlatory of the U. S ... .
Steele's Fourteen Wteks in Philosophy.
' " ' l'h) sielogy.
" " Cbemlatrj.,
" " " Botany. ...
Spenccnan Ctlir lLoas,
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," , .. " " shorter coune.
Parley's Uolrertal Ulstory
Brook's ITtmary Arithmetic, , .
Mental ,,,
" Elcme-Ury "
" Wrltun '
" lUxfaer "
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Otcmeuy 4 Trizonometr) .. ,
Ljle'i Bwk keeping-. ... -.J, ..:,.
I Wtt ale's Commoii Sehcel' Literature'.