9 JwE nh A i h LB lN--"" H eLF Lh LLH Lm Ll iLLhiL 'J-yMfisL7rif BBejriLLLLLLaSB! BMiarlLBBfc i fcBfftf t f ILBJePrarif lSSsBBMiLLLLLT'lBL sflH t i B H pVk A ftJu VOL. XV. 0rrfomIenc Editorial CortespoDMnCf . THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY. Walla Walla, July 2, 1883. Walla Walla county docs not occupy a largo area on the map or on the world's surface, and the greater portion of its acres arc not productive. Over towards the mountains, including tho foot hills of Umatilla county, closo by is the garden spot of the world, or at least this part of it. The rolling plains towards the north and west constitute two thirds of the county, but as yet have not becomo pro ductive though much settlement has gone there the two years past. To the north- i oast, towards Grange City on Snake river, 'Si there is a Iarec area that produces heavily. Eureka Flat, between here and Snake river, is reaping its first good harvest the present year. Though small in its en tirety and not half of it become produc tive, it is probable that no similar area in the the Willamette turns off as much wheat ns this county does. It was esti- ijrnaieu in April unit me surplus ironi una county wouiu approximate uu,vuu ions, !pr over a million and a half of bushels. if I 'l.n nimn( it), t tt-l mn..ntila 41. n ImiIiaI ..lifAHC iicacilb uiiuuua HUliuiito uio ui;iii;i fpnat its exports win amount to 4u,uuu tons, or 1,333,333 bushels. That is an .tlmmense outnut for a country of this JPkize, but will be greatly increased when ;he remainder ot the county is settled and iinade productive. My former letter related chiefly to the arvest prospects of Umatilla county and in this I shall confine myself to Walla Walla county. It does not seem possible lat this vauey win produce as much heat as Umatilla county but experts and statisticians place the products of each at the same hgure. To realize this result ,Walla Walla must have an astonishing harvest. One point in its favor is the fact that winter wheat is grown hero ex clusively, or nearly so, It is already so forward that there is no fear of sun or wind blighting the crop, while Umatilla county may suffer to some extent from those causes. As I stated in my last, con siderable injury has already been inflicted and more may bo expected, if hot spells occur before the grain is fully matured. The foot hills in sight of town are in Oregon, principally. This year the show ers that usually occur along the foot hills did not occur, and grain is little better close to the mountains than on Eurka Flat, close to the Columbia. It is won derful to see how well the soil retains moisture and sustains the standing grain. This is principally duo to the nature of the soil, which is a sandy loam. Experi ence this season shows that all the Colum bia river region can produce wheat relia bly, if farming is conducted on principle. This is a winter wheat region. From The Dalles to the Cceur d'Aleno mountains winter wheat is certain to bring good re turns if the right kind of seed is sown in September on ground plowed well and thoroughly pulverized. In repeated in stances I have seen that good harrowing has made the crop. The man who farms well needs never fear drouth in any county in Oregon or Washington East of the Cascades. Gardens do well on upland without rain, if well tended and well stirred beforehand and during the timo of growing. Barley makes a good crop this year ; so do potatoes and other root crops and all sorts of vegetables, and so does corn. The farmer who studies the situa tion can make a crop the first year, and every other year, if he labors with good judgment. Walla Walla valley being the oldest settled country east of the Cascades, farm ers here have more experience and thrive better. Alfalfa thrives well on the low places ; so does timothy and so does Kentucky blue grass. A dairy farm near town has timothy and alfalfa grow ing. I saw in a drive this evening some fields of alfalfa that were furnishing an immense quantity of green feed for stock. & When farmer hero learn the capacity of uio sou to produce, aim piu nuai uiej learn into practice, it will be evident that tho capacity o this region has never been understood ai 1 that mixed farming can be carried on with profit. This county contains 750,000 acres of prairie, of which 600,000 acres is excellent wheat land, ca pable of growing much else besides wheat and with many inducements in favor of mixed lnbandry. Along the mountains for ten miles in width, there is a perfect net work of waters. When this blessing is made use of sufficiently it will convert a large section of the country into an earthly paradise. There are many charm ing homes already, due to this natural cause. This season has proven that the dry lands of this and other counties only need proper cultivation to respond with good harvests, fiureka iat has no running streams but this season farms there pro duces crops but slightly inferior to those grown along tho base of the mountains. Lower Umatilla produces well, as Prospect J" arm evidences, with 3000 acres that they claim will yield 30 bushels. Also, tho Whelan farm, grown in "sand and sage," west of Umatilla river, is doing well. Dr. Blalock says that wheat growing at the mouth of tho John Day river in Wasco county, is doing well and will make a good yield. This has been a crucial year, following the dry season of 1882, but has proved that with proper cultivation tho upper country is safe against disaster, though seasons with usual rains are to bo desired. Garfield and Columbia counties extend east to tho Idaho line and include a great deal of good soil. People there have be come accustomed to putting in sprine wheat and will suffer this year for so doing. The season is later there but winter wheat is the kind they must use and if they had used it this year they would have nothing to complain of. I start to-morrow for a tour through those counties and will re port particulars as I proceed. S. A. Clarke. Farmers Som What to Do With Them. Mohawk, July 5, 1883, I spent the "Fourth in the shade of some of Webfoots" giant trees, in com mon with nature and myself. One train of thought led me to a retrospection of my college days, of classmates and fellow pupils. Nine-tenths of them were far mers sons and daughters. These sons had been taught to hold the plow, swing the scythe and do other common farm work. These daughters had been taught to milk the cows, churn the butter make bread and wash dishes. Nearly all these boys come to school clad in comfortable clothes, respectable but not showy, with good serviceable heavy boots. Many of them "tacked," wore colored shirts and did their own washing. The amount spent by them for whisky, cigars, cologno and sucli like stuff, would have starved out a five cent beer saloon. Tho progress in studies, development of mind and ex pansion of ideas' broad and liberal, were satisfactory to the faculty. Not a case of discipline during my stay. Surely these boys and girls will make their mark, and having been raised in the country, at tended collages in a village there can be no allurements to draw them from their avocation that has given them rubby cheeks, vigorous health, and well balanced minds. Why should they? I at least had no thought of overlooking beyond the farm. But what are tho facts. Now after more than a dozen years have passed I am yet a farmer. And what of the others? Let me see j there are the Fen tons, Burnett, Knox, Tanner, Campbell, Bean, Holman, Wolverton, all lawyers. Campbell, Cole, Powell, the Harrises, doc tors ; besides teachers, preachers, clerks, etc. I can only recall four who are simon pure farmers. Of the girls only one is a farmers wife. Surprising! Do all classes in that college furnish such a proportion of candidates for tho professions? Do other colleges do likewise? If so where do our farmers come from? Necessarily from those who never see the inside of college walls. From those who, for lack of means are compelled to remain at home, sacri ficing mind culture for routine work on a farm. From those who for lack of energy and ability, desire nothing beyond the present crude and imperfect system of agriculture. From those who are by na ture and education fitted for nothing else but a life of drudgery, labor of body without mind or thought. There are no table exceptions, noble men and women, who, fitted to grace any profession in the land, voluntarily choose the vocation of a farmer, and right well do they fill the po sition, with honor and credit to themselves and fellow men. Yet it is too true that our farmers as a rule, are in point of cd; ucation and preparation inferior to every other profession. Why? It seems to me that there is now the greatest opportunity for young men of education broad and liberal, to enter the field of agriculture as a life study. Certainly nothing can be more noble and deserving of encourage ment, than the devotion of ones life to tho study of the principles that govern the production of all food substance. It should be a calling respected above all others, as being necessary to the support of human and animal life. What is there in the calling of a lawyer, doctor, etc, to exalt them above that of a fanner? othing I think, but tho woeful ignorance of the farmers themselves. And we can never hope for exaltation except through the thorough practical education of far mers. Speed the day when educated far mers sons will return to the farms, when farmers may be found competent to fill the halls of legislation, State and national. J. S. Cuubchill. PORTLAND, OREGON, Editorial Correspondence E0CTH OF SNAKB RIVER. Pomeiioy, Garfield Co., July 5. Thursday we left Walla Walla and drove to Dayton, thirty miles, through as bcatiful a country as the world can pro duce. I had before traveled the middle and lower roads from Walla Walla to Waitsburg, but this timo we took the up per road that lies through tho foot hill region, or close to it, and is finely watered and long settled. The improvements are good and the houses of farmers all com fortable and many of them handsome homes. The absence of forest growth is compensated for by avenues and groves that have been planted. The poplar does so well that they generally use that tree, and they frequently stand in long lines, pointing their dark green and slender spires to a great hight, adding beauty to the landscape. Every foot of this route from Walla Walla to Waitsburg, twenty miles, is through beautiful country, with sur rounding hills waving in grain, and the road usually winding beside some charm ing stream. I thought it the most at tractive ride of twenty miles I had ever taken. Tho whole country was in grain, and the fields varied from the dark green of the late sown spring wheat to the rich golden color of the fall sowing that was nearly ripe enough to harvest. The barley too was white and almost ready to cut, and tho oats, of which there is more grown here than below, presented another shade of ripeness. There is not and can not be anything moro beautiful than a rolling country, meandered by frequent streams, covered with ripening grain fields. Occasionally there were fields of corn, which is a crop that is neglected be cause it requires so much labor. Even the settler from tho corn growing States soon learns to seek his ease and gives up growing corn, though this country will raise as good harvests of corn as tho aver age of Western btates, and it is worth much more here than there. At Waitsburg I met my old friend W. N. Smith, the Postmaster, who has been there eighteen years, and I got from him many valuable points. Despite the drouth he says the present crop is the best and largest ho has ever known. Coming down the Coppei we saw large fields headed out but entirely green. Mr. Smith said these were all spring sown February and March and promised twenty-five or thirty bushels to the acre. Even spring grain put in in April prom ised well, but most of the wheat was put in before April and give the utmost promise. Speaking for that portion of Walla Walla county and Columbia county near the line, extending for almost forty miles from the foot hills of tho Blue Mountains to Snake river, he ,said the crop promised to bo good. There is usually more rain near the mountains and better crops than out on the plains, but this year there had been no rains since the middle of May, and the prospect for crops was as good near Snake river as near the mountains. This was the report I heard all along tho line. Tho country is newer to farming out on the plains, and it is very evident that sev eral years' cultivation is needed to bring land up to its best producing capacity. Between Walla Walla and Dayton two thirds the wheat is fall sown and looks well and promises a very good yield. All that can injure it is excessive hot weathe. and the hot wind, such as prevailed the week before near Pendleton. Mr. Smith thinks fall grain around there will aver age thirty-five bushels and spring grain twenty-five to thirty. Last year Bpring grain was heaviest in that vicinity and gave the largest yield, though that also was a season of drouth. Snow lay deep and long along the river last winter, which was an advantage to the winter wheat. He told mo the experience of Mr. Storms, on Coppei. near town, who sowed his wheat in 'July. He replowed his fal low and sowed at that timo and the fields sown then show much better than wheat he sowed in September. So Mr. Smith believes early sowing as early as June is advisable and every farmer should have sheep to pasture his grain. At Dayton I met an old friend, John Berry, cashier of First National Bank, who always takes interest in crop pros pects. He said the acreage in Columbia county was the heaviest ever known and there is a greater proportion of fall sow ing about one-half and that sown in spring was generally put in early. Elias Muncy.a farmer and old resident, earn tan wtieat should go ju bushels and he has some wheat sown in March that ihould go 25 bushels. One third of the FRIDAY, JULY spring wheat is late sown and will go 10 to 15 bushels. This would give an aver age of over 25 bushels for the whole crop. Barley is over an average crop and gar dens are fair. Oats arc a very fair crop. Timothy hay is good on bottoms and led clover does fino any where. At Dayton I also met and took notes from the county assessor, Mr. II. Hunter, of the firm of Hunter it Kuhn, merchants there, who has had long experience as a farmer. Mr. Hunter had reports from very comiietent deputies. Ho assessed last year and took notes that are valuable i'l computing the average in wheat. He says, in Columbia county, there was 18, 000 acres new soil turned last year and sown last fall to winter wheat ; besides this there was 8,000 acres old ground summer-fallowed and perhaps 2,000 acres of stubble or volunteer, so that tho area in winter wheat is 28,000 acres ; besides this there is 20,000 acres in early sowing of spring wheat and 2,000 acres late sowing. The total is 50,000 acres that should yield 25 to 30 bushels to tho aero ; taking tho first figure there will be a million and a quarter bushels raised. The population of Columbia county is 0,500 souls and for seed and bread a double allowance would not take over 250,000 bushels, and that would a million bushels, or 30,000 tons for export. Mr. Hunter seems to havo a thorough knowledge of his subject and is a man of far more than average ability and his conclusions deservo respect, but they place the export product of Columbia county far abovo common expectations. Mr. Hunter says the present crop is the best known in five years and may overgo his estimate but will not fall below it. Barley is over ave'rogo and oats do well. There may be 3,000 acres of each in tho county and 1,000 acres in corn ; somo wheat will bo cut for hay. There is 3,000 acres in timothy that will average two and a half tons per acre. Mr. James, four miles out from Dayton, has just cut his meadow that went four tons per acre. Alfalfa succeeds on north and east sides of hills. Red clover does fino whero well put in. Blue grass takes well. Every part of this and Garfield county promise good crops. I havo hero given the very intelligent report of a very competent gentleman who has had exact means of information. My own view is that under ordinary cir cumstances results would equal his expee tations, but I realize that it is now July, that hot suns and hot winds may burn up tho maturing fall grain and that it will be very uncertain whether tho spring gran can mature. Tho salvation of this country lies in its cool nights that refresh all nature and send moisture down into tho soil. If there is no excessive heat tho crops will mature, but a singlo day of hot sun and wind may ruin every thing. No country on tho earth has liettcr se curity for crops than this, rail gram is the only way to farm, early sowing is al most suro to succeed. No wheat should bo sown in tho spring. I assorted last year, after traveling through this and tho Palouse country, that they could lo cer tain of crops if they sowed fall wheat. Barley, oats, corn, timothy and gardens look well, despito tho dry season. From Dayton to Pomeroy tho appear ance of the crops does not improve. Tho proportion of spring wheat increases. Tho country is somewhat newer too, and I havo observed that thorough cultivation is needed. Thero is a mistaken notion that deep plowing is not necessary but deeper working would insuro moro mois ture. This country is a month behind Walla Walla valley in season and tho rains extend this season no later hero than there, though the soil is probably heavier, so crops suffer more from drouth here than there. Pomeroy is thirty miles from Dayton and ccnterof a magnificent farming coun try. I met hero with J. W. Kancli, in surance and real estate business, who studies carefully the general interests of this region. He places tho acerago at 00,000 in cultivation and 10,000 in crop, of which 5,000 acres is oats aud barley, leaving 35,000 acres in wheat. Tho fall wheat is 12,000 acres and the remainder is spring sown. Some complaint is made already that wheat is burning. Many will cut spring wheat for hay. Thero ure many ntock men in this county who make a market for hay, so it usually pays well Mr. Itanch is not confident of crops turning off well. Ho says fall wheat will do finely and it will be a good thing if people hero learn not to trust to spring sowing, spring wheat may mature n there come showers to assist it but thero is no appearance of rain. To-day tho wind comes from the north and farmers who come in from the country say grain is burning. I am of the opinion, making a rough guess, that Garfield county can not bo depended ori to produce for export moro than ten thousand tons of wheat flm that Columbia cnuntv will do well to i,avo twenty thousand tons for exjwrt, 13, 1883. making a million bushels surplus for tho two counties. I met a man, near Pomeroy ,who lives in the Assotin country, in Garfield county, which is on Snako river beyond Lewiston. lie said tho grain in that vicinity was suf fering badly mid had already burned with the hot sun. That is a new country and feels drouth mom tlinn liiml lnnwr in cultivation. Back a few miles wo found a largo bottom all in timothy, that needed cutting, and was as good a stand as I ever saw. I find moro timothy as I get fur ther up Snako river. There is usually more showorv weather in the narlv sum mer along hero than in Walla Walla and Umatilla counties but this season has treated all sections alike. I am satisfied that farmers hero can raiso prodigious crops, without fail, if thoy farm aright. Deep plowing and fall seeding will insuro success. Even this year and last, which are exceptional for drouth, tho fall grain does well and barley and oats sown early in spring will return a heavy yield. Gar dens look well though deep plowing will make them look tetter. I was told at Walla Walla of a farmer named Chris Myer, who lives near town, who has 400 acres. Ho fallows 200 acres and nuts in 200 acres every year and docs it well : as a result ho has averaced. for many years. 40 bushels to tho acre. Hero is n samplo of what thoroueh work will accomplish and all-over this country good farming is all that is necessary to insuro eood returns. Orchards suffered badly last winter. I think there must have been warm weather to keep tho sap up latoand tho sovcro cold caught orchards in that condition. Peaches are all killed and many cherries, plums and pears. It is pitiful to seo hundreds of dead trees standing whero last year was a thrifty orchard that had received many years of care and becomo a source of profit, -8.-A. Clarkk. Weath'r Report for Jane, 1883. During Juno, 1883, thero was one day during which rain fell, and .05 inches of water ; 23 clear and 7 cloudy days. The mean temperature for tho month was 02.27 deg. Highest daily mean temperature for tho month, 72 deg. on tho22d. Lowest eaily mean temperature for tho month, 54 deg. on tho 17th. Mean temperature for tho month at 2 o'clock P. M., 71.73 dog. Highest temperature for tho month, 80 dog. at 2 P. M. on tho 1st, 5th, Cth and 22d. Lowest temperature for tho month, 51 deg. at 7 A. M. on tho 2d. The prevailing winds for tho month were from tho north during 25 days, south 2 days, southwest 2 days. During Juno, 1882, thero were 4 days during which rain fell and .91 inches of water ; 17 clear and 9 cloudy days. Mean temperature for tho month, 01.63 dog. Highest daily mean temperature for tho month, 78 deg. on tho 2d. Lowost daily mean temperature for tho month, 50 deg. on tho 9th. T. I'kaucr, Eola, July 2, 1883. Hotel by tbe Wayilde. Stafford, Or., July 7, 1883. Editor Willamette Farmer In accordance with promise I drop you a few notes in regard to grango work. Pursuant to agreement, on Juno 22d, I drove to Tualatin Plains in Washington Co., where I was pleasantly entertained for the night, by Brother Imbrie and family. On tho morning of tho 23d, in com pany with a party of grangers, wo visited tho Farmington Grange, which had a pub lic picnic on that day. It was well at tended and a very enjoyable occasion. In my remarks I dwelt upon thoso sult jects which are of tho greatest imortanco to farmers, which seemed to meet tho ap proval of all in attendance. Worthy Master CariM'iiter and many of tho mem tiers upjKiur to Iks arousid to a realization of the necessity of co-operation in grango organizations. Brothers Hare ami Tongue, from Ilillslioro were in attend ance and made very interesting and able remarks. It U gratifying that thero are inemlien of tho legal profession who m tho necessity of our organization und the justice of its principles, who are willing to stand by tho people, giving their aid to ward the elevation of the masses. The grain in Tualatin Plains has not suffered so severely from the drouth as some localities that I have visited, and what generally looks very well, consider ing tho "feeze out" of last winter, tin my return I visted some members of tho Butte Grange, which thoy roport in a flourishing condition. On the 29th, I started for Washington NO. 22. Territory, and arrivod at Washougal tho 30th, where tho grango held its meeting at 10 o'clock. An hour later tho doors were opened, per notice, to tho public. Much interest was manifested in tho ad dress of tho State Lecturer, in which he laid before his hearers, as concisely as pos sible, tho present fraudulent system by which tho people are controlled and the" advantages which would accrue from A thorough investigation of tho financial, social and educational condition of our country in general, and tho noccssity of organization among tho laboring classes. About 1 o'clock tho meeting adjourned and tho good sisters, as is usual on such occasions, prepared a sumptuous feast, fitted for tho sovereigns of tho land, to which every ono did amplo justice Din nor finished tho Grango came to order and conferred tho 4th degree on a class of four members, with six applications for mem' bership. After spouding tho night with Brother Yeomans at his beautiful prairio home, wo took a ramble over his placo, and find that tho portion of tho territory between tho Washougal and Columbia rivers con sists of rolling land with timber in tho ravines, with scenery as picturesque as the eye could desire. Thence wont to Mount Ploasant, where I found Brother and Sister Sampson, Brother and Sister Turk and Brother and Sister Marble, all active members of our order. Found hero a voiy neat church, erected through tho influenco of Dr. At kinson, of Portland. Tho peoplo hero are interested in stock and dairying. Spent the night of tho 30th with Brother and Sister Russell, who own a largo dairy and a good farm situated on tho bank of the Columbia. Tho grain and grass crop is generally light, although wo saw somo that were heavy. Tho peoplo have learned tho valuo of clover and are turning their attention to tho different grasses. Thoy also raiso lafgo quantities of potatoes, as between the hours of morning and ovening dairy work thoy have amplo time for thoir cultiva tion, which thoy find quite remunerative. Yours Fraternally, II. E. Hayes. Town of Dufur, Waioo County. Tho editor of tho Wasco Sun, who has been traveling south of The Dalles, says : Tho approach to Dufur was a surprise to us. Wo were delighted with its situa tion in a snug valley of tho Fifteen Mile creek, whose merry waters mado music and spread vigor upon tho wholo bottom. Tho view from some points was very fino. Its fine carpet of green grain and gross divided by tho fences of tho various es tates upon tho surfaco mado us sigh for such a homo. This snug placo was named for and is tho home of several members of tho Dufur family, so long identified, and particularly through tho elder Dufur, with most of tho substantial industrial in tcrests of Oregon. Mr. Andrew Dufur lives on tho south side of the creek in a pleasant homo. His bottom lands about tho hou so were very desirable, and wo no ticed that ho had taken a ditch across his lands from tho creek upon tho west side of tho county road in order to irrigato his lauds to the south of his residence. Wo visited Mr. Dufur and his wife whilo dinner was being got ready at the hotel, and were very cordially received. Mr. Harrison Dufur, our representative to tho lust legislature, lives about three miles up the vulley,and, like his brother, is engaged in sheep and wool raising. The town has a first-rate blacksmith. The school-house, Odd Fellows' Hall and neat looking cot tages and houses showed what can bo done in a short time on good lands by pluck and go ahead. Bucceiifol Timber Culture. Tho Wusco Sun says: Wo wish to call the attention of the public to ono problem which has puzzled many a Wasco farmer and that is, how to effectually, with the least expense, make tho Timber Cul ture Act of value upon the high, open hills and plains of this region. Many kinds of heed hao been tried, with no satisfactory result, and it bus discouraged many farmers from trying to benefit by this grant Act of the government. Mr. Thompson has been trying the California walnut uikjii a high, dry piece of ground west of his residence with great success. Wo have referred to his effort before, but wo do no now at tho request of Mr, Frank lluot, who has had success with walnut seed introduced by Mr. Thompson, after repeated failure with other kinds, Mr. lluot says that he eel the seed on the 1st of April of this year, and that on the 1th of June one thousand plants were shew ing abovo ground. The bitter hark of this tap root tree is a sure preventive against the depredation of gophers, crickets or grasshoppers. It is to be hoped that every farmer in Wasco will persevere in muk ing a timber claim that he can hold.