Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, June 15, 1883, Page 7, Image 7

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We have published much nlout horsc-
Bhociui?i hut tho following from the
Prniric Farmer is worthy of cnrcful rend
ing : In removing the old shoo prior to
the horso being newly shod, each nail
ought to be drawn by the pincers inde
pendently, and the shoe not torn off as is
usually the case. The shoe being re
moved, the smith satisfies himself as to
the obliquity of the foot, which is readily
done by allowing the horse to stand on a
level floor and himself retiring a fow
pace, so as to obtain a view of the angle
formed by the front of the foot and the
surface on which the foct stands. Tho
angle should be about fifty degrees. If
tho obliquity is greater, or if, in other
wools, the angle bo less than fifty degrees
a portion of the crut around the too only
and on the ground surface should be re
moved. Should the opliquity be corroct
and there is a superabundance of crust, it
should bo removed by rasping and judic
ious paring from toe to heel. When too
great an obliquity exists, it is owing to the
heel having been pared or rasped more
than tho toe. Few horses require any of
the horn removed lieyonu what is done m
fitting tho shoe ; the more horn there is
below the sensitive parts the less mischief
nails do. By leaving sullicient horn the
nails arc far removed from tho sensitive
lamime. It is not absolutely necessary
for a nail to penetrate the sensitive lamina)
to cause mischief; for if tlio nail ap
proaches tho horn, which become dis
placed, depresses upon the lamime and
causes considerable pain on a membrano
so highly sensitive. When tho fitting of
tho shoo is completed it may be made
sutliciently warm to make for itself a bed
or seating so as to insure the foot and tho
shoo having two planes as near as can bo
obtained. This can bo done without de
stroying the texturo of tho adjacent horn.
The crust yhich is thus removed, and by
the previous operation of fitting the shoo
is generally found sufficient in working
horses to reduce the foot to a healthy
size. Tho outer wall should under no
pretense be rasped, tho clinch should bo
simply knocked down and not lot into the
crust by making a line with tho rasp.
The growing in fine cattlo throughout
tho West is a most encouraging sign.
And while new breeds arc attracting at
tention and ourbrecders and ranchmen
are willing to give them all a full and fair
trial, and pay .handsomely for fine ani
mals, of whatever class, it is encouraging
to know that the old and favorite breed
Short-horns has lost nothing by compe
tition with these newer importations. Tho
Short-horns still have a firm hold upon
the affections of the farmer in this
country. And no period of their history
did they ever stand higher than now.
Their many excellent qualities make
them a very desirable cattle. Xo animal
lines and ribs better than they and puts
on flesh faster. They are a pretty beast
and most profitable both for farmers and
feeder. We are speaking of good animals
now, cattlo with individual merit as well
as pedigree. Animals that have consti
tution as well as good blood, and when
fat, do not show too much daylight under
them. The word "Short horn" is a very
general term just now. The whole Dur
ham family lay claim to being Short
horns. It is the largest family of fine
cattlo in America, by many times, and of
course has many "black sheep" in it.
Then again there a,ro many carelessly
bred animals who claim to have sprung
from good families, but like many of tho
.human race who, once stood well, seem
to have retrograded. Hence it is not sur
prising that we get tho sale of so many
comparatively cheap animals. Take the
tops of the Short-horns and they sell as
well as tho tops of any breed, and when
you come to fancy animals, they have in
the past out sold anything in tho way of
bovines. Kansas Price Current.
Idea on Live Stock.
A writer says that to dosiroy lice on
livo stock he has found nothing better
than strong carbolic soap-suds. Tho
soap usually sold under tho name is not
strong enough for the purpose. It may
be easily prepared and at any degree of
strength that may bo required. Get a
pound of carbolic acid crystals, which
may bo had at any wholesalo druggists.
I get them at a cost of sixty cents per
pound. Take ten pounds of common bar
soap, put in a pan with a little water and
heat until dissolved. Take out tho cork
from tho bottle containing the acid, and
put it in hot water, which will cause tho
acid to become fluid, add this to tho soap
and stir well. Set away to cool and you
will have a soap at small cost which will
bo strong enough to kill any vermin
which infest domestic animals, and which
will euro barn itch and any cutaneous
diseases to which they are liable. It is
good to cleanse and heal sores, and a wash
of it will bo found good where animals
aro hide-bound and the skin out of con
dition ; it will 1)0 found good to wash tho
inside of poultry houses to render them
sweet, nnd kill and prevent vermin. It
is a cheap, safe and sure remedy, and
should find a place in all well regulated
premie. Ex.
fit Papers.
As a rule tho pig is reared for tho
nig is reared for
money that is in him. Wo may talk
about cheap meats for the millions as a
necessity justifying tho rearing of swine,
and persuade ourselves that the man is
excusable who at this day places beforo
his fellow men, as an article of diet, tliat
which in olden limes was rejected by an I
honored people as unfit for human food.
Little difference, however, does it make to
the man thus excused, whether we think
of him as a philanthropist or one engaged
in leading mankind astray, so long as he
has a fair profit on the pigs ho rears, or
on the pork products he can place on the
market. If there were no money for
him in the breeding and rearing of hogs
he would not engage in the business. Wo
find, however, that fo every farmer and
cottager in tho land there is a profit in
pig raising, and so long as such is tho
case, wo may expect to seo this among
the leading industries in civilized America.
The rapidly growing interest in swino
breeding in tho United States is shown
by tho late census returns. According to
these there were on farms, in June, 1880,
47,083,951 hogs, the rate of increase since
WiV being UU per cent., while tho rate of
increase in population during the same
time was only 30 per cent. The census
returns show also that nearly two-thirds
of tho hogs in tho United States in 1880
were in the five States of Iowa, Illinois,
Missouri, Indiana and Ohio. With facts
and figures such as these at hand it is not
surprising that the live stock and agricul
tural papers, particularly those of tho
West, should devote more attention than
formerly to swine husbandry, and that
public records of breeding stock should
bo established and sustained ; nor, on the
other hand, that all parties interested in
swine breeding should more eagerly avail
themselves of every means calculated to
aid in tho successful prosecution of this
work. Phil. Thrifton in the Breeders'
A Free Martin.
I have a well-bred Durham cow
dropped twin calves November 5, 1882,
one heifer and one bull, tho heifer being
strongest. When dropped the bull calf
was weak for a time. I am told none of
them arc good for breeding purposes.
Both are good strong, healthy calves, now
doing well. They arc from a high-bred
bull of a good family. Tho bull calf I
would like to keep, as ho has the appear
ance of making a good animal.
David Steel.
In such cases tho heifer is what is
termed a "Free Martin," and although
outwardly in appearance all right, yet
they aro generally hermaphrodites, and
consequently do not breed. There arc
exceptions, however, but in such cases
tho heifer has more of the feminine np
pcarancc. Tho "Free Martin" is usually
large, masculine, nnd when sho bellows
has tho coarse voice of the bull. Tho
cases of fertility aro rare of n twin heifer
with a bull eal ; but the bull is all right,
and can bo kept for breeding purposes
with perfect confidence. This peculiarity
of infertility of tho female twin with the
bull is only applicable to tho bovine race.
In all other animals, and in the human
race, there has never been discovered tho
least inclination to this fault.
"Freo Martins" aro generally large,
strong nnd given to taking on flesh, and
make good beeves. The sterility in such
cases is a freak of nature in tho bovine
animal, which is almost uniform in its
characteristics, as not more than ono in
a thousand is any more fertile than a
femalo mule. There is no recorded caso
of tho bull in such cases being impotent.
-Iowa State Kegister.
Right Living.
It is preposterous to suppose that wo
can livo as our sensual impulses may dic
tate, outrage all common sense, violate all
of tho laws of our being, and then escape
tho penalty. Wo cannot live like swine
and rise to Iho position of angels. Dis
ease is no accident, but has causes as cer
tainly as have bruises, sprains, broken
bones and tho like. Derangements, dis
ease, pain, suffering and premature death
aro tho direct outcome tho results of
tho violations of tho laws of the body, or
tho laws of God, in general, visitecj upon
us as penal inflictions. There is no acci
dent or uncertainty in the matter of secur
ing health by obedience to tho laws and
conditions of health. There is no more
uncertainty in securing it than there is
in obtaining an education, in learning a
trade, or in succeeding in any branch of
business. Seeking health is a legitimate
business, and is far more promising and
certain than tho mercantile, since there
is no danger from competition, and very
few obstacles in tho way, savo our own
85nsual weaknesses. As a ccnernl prin
ciple, tho climato is far moro favorable
than our own habits. We can obey and
succeed, or disobey and suffer. In this
wo aro free to act, and arc tho architects
of our physical fortunes, ns much as in
business. Dr. J. H. Ilanaford.
Profitable Axe of Ebeep.
Thcro aro few nnimaN kept on a farm,
that when they aro in their prime, pay
as well as sheep, and there are few if any
others upon which old age has so dam
aging an effect. As tho sheep is much
shorter lived than any other of our do
mestic animals, it is not strango that
many of our fanners attempt to keep
them too long. At ten years of ago the
horso is just in his prime, nnd tho cow is
as good as ever, with tho prospect of re
maining so several years. But the sheep
at ten years is very old, that being about
the natural limit to its life. After reach
ing this ago changes of weather or any
little carelessness in handling is quite
liable to injure them, while with the
younger animal it would not bo noticed.
Old sheep are much more liable to attacks
from disease, and when onco dii-cased are
much harder to manage. Sliecj) should
Iks disposed of when they aro t-ix years
old, as after that ago they cea.so to lw
profitable. Ex.
Tho United States has in round num
lers 33,000,000 cattle, 10.500,000 horse,
36,000,000 Bhcep anjl 48,000,000 hogs;
beinc first in cattlo and hogs, wxond in
horses, fourth in sheep.
Ripe tomatoes will remove ink or other
stains from the hands. Kerosene will
soften leather hardened by water and ren
der it as pliable as new. To heal cut
fingers with' rapidity, wnis them in n
cloth saturated with alum water ; it will
sting sharply for a little while, but the
pain will subside quickly and for good.
The same remedy will euro chafing, but
is too severe to be used on children. To
keep tinware nico and bright scour it
every two or three week's with fine sifted
coal ashes. To clean willow furniture
use salt and water, and npply with a
horse brush nnd dry thoroughly. Mnchine
grease may be removed from wrap goods
by dipping tho fabric in cold rain water
nnd soda.
Some seeds will retain their germinat
ing properties for many years. There are
others again will loso their vitality very
speedily. Wheat and peas have been her
metically scaled in the tombs of mum
mies of Egypt, for not less than four
thousand years, have been grown and
produced their kind. But it is always
safest to commit to the ground the most
recent seed, if well matured and properly
gathered nnd preserved.
A New York farmer has found by ex
perience that Hubbard squashes fed to
hogs fatten more rapidly than corn. He
fed Hubbards raised on one acre and the
corn raised on one acre to two bunches
of hogs. Those fed , on the Hubbards
weighed heavier than the same number
fed on corn. It might be worth while to
raise squashes for fattening purposes.
A regular rotation of crops should be
ndopted and systematically adhered to,
and so arranged that every year a portion
of tho farm that has laid fallow, or upon
which clover has been turned under, mav
be brought into cultivation. This is im
portant, as in no other wny can the soil
bo kept in good tilth so cheaply.
A novel method of dealing with the
codling moth, the parent of the apple
worm, has very recently been practised to
good advantage. Thcro are two broods of
worms in ono season, often three. The
first brood is hatched from eggs which
aro laid in the blow end of the upple soon
after tho flower drops. The young apples
nt this tinio stand erect on their stems,
and if Paris green nnd water be syringed
on to them it will fill up the blow end and
kill off tho whole of the first brood of
worms as soon as they hatch and begin
to eat. Later tho npplo turns down and
all the poisonous matter is washed away
beforo it ripens. 1 ho second brood can
not, of course, be treated in this way.
The easiest way to increase roses is by
layering. When tho flowering season is
o- er a branch may be cut through in a
sloping direction, and the cut portion laid
and pegged down and covered with soil,
or it may bo pressed down into n pot, nnd
when it is rooted tho layer is severed from
the original plant. In this wuy one plant
may furnish half a dozen plants in one
season, and so on for a few years, when
tho third year the original dozen may be
increased more than a hundred times.
The Farmer's Magazine thus says re
garding sunflowers : The sunflower yields
more seed than corn. A bushel of seed
will yield a gnllonof oil, nnd tho residium
is equivalent to that of linseed. The
flowers make n good dyo and furnish bees
with material for wax and honey. The
stalks make excellent fuel and furnish a
fine fiber for working with silk. The
leaves are a good adulterant for Havana
fillers and are eaten by btock. As food
for the table the seeds can bo ground into
flour and made into palatable, nutritious
It is a practice with some farmers to
whitewash the trunks and larger limbs of
their young npplo trees overy spring, to
remove moss nnd destroy moths and other
insects. Tho practice, however, is not a
good one. Tho bark of a tree performs
functions similar to the skin of a ierson.
It exhales and inhales such gasses nnd
substances as nro necessary to its healthy
condition. The lime c!oms the pores and
becomes nn airtight canting. A strong
wnfeh of tobacco, lye and soap-suds will bo
as effective upon moss and insects as lime,
and will open tho pores of tho bark, give
it a smooth, glossy surface, and will do no
Betting Large ana Small Trees.
A resident of ono of our largo villages,
who had come into possession of a fine
lot which he wished to plant, but who had
little cxperienco in tree culture, called on
a neighboring nurseryman to make pur
chases. Ho wanted nothing but large
trees two inches in diameter if ho could
find them, nnd ten feet high. Ho cared
much less for tho kind than for tho size
anything which was gigantic, early or
late, fruit or ornamental, was eagerly
taken. Tho nurseryman gave his opinion
frankly that trees of moderate size would
le better, but tho purchaser quickly re
plied, "I want big trees now I may not
live fo' tho small ones to grow up." Ho
carried offa largo load of monsters. In a
few years he camo again to make addi
tional purchases. Tho nurseryman at
onco remarked, "I supjioso you want all
tho Iargot trees you can get 1 think I
can supply you." ".o, nor exclaimed
tho purchaser, "I've had enough of big
trees! No moro for mo! Those I got of
you have searrcly grown any since, and
the smaller ones have overtaken them,
and they are ever so much handsomer and
more thrifty; give mo small, vigorous
trw." This incident tells tho whole
story, and should bo remembered by every
incrpjrienced planter. Many yearn ago,
Sir Henry Stewart inado a plantation of
large trees in tho moist climate of Scot
land, but they inailo little growth and had
a sickly apjearance. It was then that
London, with his long nnd extensive ex
perience ns n landscape gardener, offered
to make a public tost with any one who
would try large trees, ho himself planting
stnall and thrifty ones with full roots, in
rich, deeply trenched nnd well cultivated
ground, with the confident assurance that
in a given number of years ho would
show trees not larger but immeasurably
finer in appearance.
Tho practical hint to be derived from
these facts at present, by those who made
purchases of large trees last fall, w ether
already planted or heeled-in for next
spring, is to give them the extra care
which they require, by spreading all the
roots which they have, equally on differ
ent sides when they aro set, tilling in nil
tho interstices among them with fine
earth compactly trodden or beaten ;
bracing tho trees firmly agrinst the wind
by staking ; and beforo tho buds swell in
spring cutting back all the annual shoots
to lighten tho heads. Taking up a wide
circle of uninjured roots is vitally impor
tant, but this may have lieen omitted.
Mellow culture through the summer is
absolutely essential. With all this care
trees may in a year or two recover from
tho check thoy have met with in reiioval.
But small trees, with the abundant roots
which arc easily taken up with them, will
need no staking, nnd with subsequent
care and the thorough cultivation of the
soil, they will spring up nnd grew with
scnrcelyn single season's check in growth.
Small trees cost less, aro more easily dug,
havo better roots, aro more casilv trans
planted, arc not whipped out by the wind
and are more easily trained into the de
sired form.
Tne Exciting Property of Oats.
Experiments have been recently made
by M. Sanson, with a view to settling the
question whether oats have or have not
tho excitant property that has been at
tributed to them. The nervous and mus
cular excitability of horses was carefully
odserved with the aid of graduated elec
trical apparatus, beforo and after they had
catena given quantity of oats or received
little of a certain principle which M. San
son succeeded in isolating from oats.
The chief results of tho inquiry aro as
follows : tho pericarp of the fruit of oats
contains a substance soluble in alcohol
and capable of exciting tho motor colls of
tho nervous system, This subt-tanco is
not, as somo have thought, vaniline, or
tho odorous principle of vanilla, nor at all
like it. It is a nitrogonized matter, which
seems to belong to tho group of nlknloids ;
is very uncrystalliznblo, finely granular
and brown in mass. Tho author rails it
nveninc. All vnrieties of cultivnted oats
seem to elaborate it, but they do so in
very different degrees. The elaborate
substance is tho same in all varieties. Tho
differences in quantity depend not only
on tho variety of the plant, but also on
tho places of cultivation. Oats of tho
white variety havo much less than thoo
of the dark, but for somo of tho former,
in Sweden, tho ditlerencc is small ; whilo
for others, in Russia, it is considerable.
Under 0.!) per cent, of tho excitablo prin
ciples of air-dried oats, tho doso is insuffi
cient to certainly affbet the excitability of
horses, but above this proportion tho ex
citant action is certain. Whilo some
light-colored oats certainly have consider
able excitant power, somo dark oats have
little. Determination of tho amount of
the principle present is tho only bat-is
of appreciation, though, as already stated,
white oats are likely to be less exciting
than dark. Crushing or grinding the
grain considerably weakens tho oxcitant
property, probably by altering tho sul
stancc to which it is due; the excitant
action is more prompt, but much less
strong and endurable. Tho action, which
is immediate nnd moro intense with the
isolated principle, does not appear till
some minutes after tho eating of tho oats ;
in both cases it increases to a certain
point, then diminishes and disappears.
The total duration of tho oll'ect is slated to
Ih! an hour per kilogramme of oats
Fruit, Shade and Ornamental
Trees, Shrubbery, Vines
roJIas an especially fine lot of'&i
A.IdreasO. N. I'OTTKH,
Novl2tt Salem, Oregon.
II. W. Settlcmirc, Proprietor.
MUrtrd lUj.-a ear .Vurstrjiiian.
t-Ml'ir, OKSAMKftTAL and JilUDt:
Trees, Vines and Shrubbery.
farKend to Tangent, Ortifon, for prlai Urt mJ det
criptlve ctaloue. declttf
tlkm In all cdtHc&dU. and to cu.
totwrentlutrearwlthnutordertliirlt. Jtoonulni
about m 1 ww. uXt Ulnrtnlru: prions, amirall
doKtiinUtim uid valuable ibrectloa. for plautm
ISm van'stl. cl t?eUi and Win" ""
Hants, Fruit Xrw.t(& Imilu.LI to all, txa
laUjrto MiiVaOardtncrtL KenJforltl
D. M. FERRY & CO. Detroit Mich.
A fa III ft MMlilii Ifulilt Cured
fllNIIMt" to lii7..N;r.y until
II II U III J. U ftitru.s. ii.li., UltUA.
,' T'jJlaJM
GEO. A. MOORE, President.
Pacific Mutual Life k Co'y
A NcKINNIE Manager for Northwest Department.
wcxxiiju wiiu ruHTiiAflu savinua bank.
Incorporated Under the Laws of California, and is today the
Strongest Life Insurance Co. in Amcr co.
J. a. STnownmnoE,
Portland Carriage Factory.
lietwecn Front and First Street, on Yamhill, Portland.
eflUilHH'd With thO bC8t Skilled labor UrOCUrable Bt tha Kttt ami Ilia hpftt m.trrl.1 fmtnrl fn tt.. A.u .
manufacture etcr) tiling In tho line of
Buggies, Carriages, Pheatons, Webfoot Dog Carts, Light
Speed Wagons, Light and Heavy Buck Boards,
Dexter Waeon., Sl.lo Spar and Whlto Chapel Wagons, Spring and Thoroughbrace mail wagons, tho Emty Hack
TS,' Dr.a)' "".' I)ell,e'y Wagons, Hotel Wagons, etc.. built of the best Eastern material. Largest and bea
fadlltleii of any shop on the Pacific Coast ond guarantee every article of our ork, and prices that cannot be
.J..ir..v......,,1,v,u,vll HiiwHiiiiDiv ujt..iiiiK jwu wain, aim compare wun nj ei my
compUitoraandbecomiiiceil. w. T. 811,1, liox 530, lortlAuil. OrtsoB.
G. Sh.ia.dler & Co.,
ion and i8 Fiuyr, AND 107 AND ICOFKONT &TKEET3. : toutlakd, oukoon.
Has been Regularly Issued
Upward and Onward
Has been our Aim. The improved appearance of tho FARMER
is but a sample of contemplated improvements impiovcmonta
which will call for all the assistance our friends can render us
And these clubs MUST begotten up by our friends for wo can
not afford to put canvassers in the field. The FARMER is an
acknowledged success, as well as correct authority on matters
pertaining to the Agriculture of Oregon and Washington.
It contains each week articles on such subjects as
In clubsof F1JE, sent atone time,
In clubs of TEN. sent at ono time.
And an oitra cony to the getter uu bf tho club,
rtSrSample Copy Sent Free to any address.
Drawer No. lb. Portland, Oregon.
JMndror mm
Catalosua H
Prloaa. H
afaaaaam KUUaaaHaaaaWl
KixcraOTcaxaa or
J. N. PATT0S, SccrtUrj.
C. M. WHlKlld,
mxuncTURia, mroRTM and jobbis or
Bedding, Carpets, Paper Hang,
ing, Stoves, and
Crockery and Glass ware.
Stoara Factory Water Street, betweoa Montgomery
aud Harrison.
Street Warehouse 18S and 186 First and
184 SeconJ Streets
in 1657.
Aro thoroughly prepared to furnish throughout at
short notice
Hotels, Boarding Houses, Private
Residences & Steamboats.
.-..AT SUCH....
As were never beforo offered.
t'hanilif r Wf Ih, from MO I'pwarit.
Parlor Hr is. from MO rpiyarda
Ladles must see ' t to be appret lated. Call for It.
Ladles must see t to be appre
""-" fJW?C febl
3 10.00
IND.. U. .
ERlw !