Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, December 01, 1882, Image 1

Below is the OCR text representation for this newspapers page. It is also available as plain text as well as XML.

    VOL. XIV.
Bee Keepers' Convention.
Present, Dr. J. V. Morris, Arthur Warner,
A. F. Miller. J. D Rusk, John Rowan, E. E.
Charman, TT. P. 6hannon, N. W. Randall,
Dr. Morris and S. Waldron. Vice-President
A. Warnr in the chair.
After t)ie preliminary order cf business,
Judge A. E. Wait was admitted to inember-
ship; also, T. A. Apperson and Mrs. Dr.
Mr. Miller moved that the next annual
meeting of the society be held at the State
Fair, subject to the call of the President, and
also suggested that the convention consult
the Agricultural Society regarding offering
proper premiums hliI preparing proper ac
commodations. A good display will attract.
Mr. A. Warner was appointed to consult
with Mr. Apperson, President of the Oregon
State Agiicultur.il Society.
Mr. J. D. Rusk gave a verbal report of how
he handled and raited queens. He was willing
to take samples of hives and bets to the State
Fair; also, other features which would bo
attractive. He spoke of his extractors, hive,
etc. He preferred the Italian to any other
method at the present time.
A general discussion regarding hives was
entered into. Each known hivo was tho
roughly ditcussed and its merits and demerits
shown up. '
Regarding foul breed it was conceded that
it was caused by cold instead of warm air.
Mr. Rusk thought there was more than
1,000 stand of bees in Clackamas county.
Mr. Warner did not believe honey dew was
any more than a deposit from an insect. He
did not think bees throve on it or made honey.
from it. He thought Epstein Oregon better
for. bee culture on account of its early and
long warm season. He said his bees were
feasting in Captain Apperson's alsike pasture,
but the Captain'snid he had not received any
boney as yet in payment.
Mr. Warner said that basswood, locust and
barberry were good for bees.
. Mr. Randal said that he noticed they
worked on barberiy extensively. It was con
ceded that the best honey was produced in the
fore part of the season from apple blossoms
aud clover, and hence inferred that these
were best Ho thouglrt'that nil should con
sider the quality, size of swarms and hives,
and the localities, so that it could be ascer
tained what was preferable as food for bees.
Mr. Waite thought that hoccy in Southern
California was made from white sage, which
grew abundantly. He also thought that a
gocd locality for honey bees; that cattle in
Eastern Oregon ate and thrived upon the
white (age, and why not bees ?
Mr. Warner said he found around Walla
Walla that bees had done splendidly. He
especially alluded to Mr. Gilliam's place.
Mr. Randal asked if the conventien thought
it was preferable to set hives so as to get the
first ra of Bun?
Mr. Waldron thought this was the best..
Mr. Waite pretered an easterly aspect, but
was governed by the prevailing winds.
Mr. Rusk thought the Italians better to
force moths from hives. He had known them
to seat up a moth when they could not force
him out by streugtb.
Mr. Waldron said bees invariably worked
on the second -bloom of red clover, as it poe
tesses more honey deposit than when first
Mr. Rusk had reports from several locali
ties, including Yaqmoa, which was very favor
able, for bets feed on salalla and manxaneta.
This was the best report received. Clarke
canty, W. T report that the bees fed on
alsike clover, and thought more attention
abonld be given to the alsike.
Mr. Rowan thought the common black bee
could not reach the salalla, but thought the
Italian could rtach it quite easily.
Mr. Miller said it would not pay to sow
alsike for bees alone, but thought that we
ouxht to plant something that would be valu
able for hay also, and desired to know how
alsike clover was for bay. He alluded espe
cial! to buckwheat, and thought it preferable
all around.
Mr. Apperson said be sowed thirteen acres
twa years ago, and hid used it for horses and
cattle, and found it fully equal to timothy,
and that it would go two tons to the acre.
Hi land was fern land, and his experience
was tbst there was 1.0 gross so profitable as
alsike, as stock ate it close, while red clover
yew too rank, and it cure easier than the
red clover.
Mr, Warner had bad it fourteen years; had
had good luck; knew bees liked it; horses
prefcred it. It will grow on damper land than
red clover, although it does tatter en rolling
We were obliged to leave at this time, and
do not know what mote was done. We en
joyed ourselves very much, and found an in
trlligent set of men in attendance. Much stood
can be accomplished by this organization.
Bunting Ducks with a Bad Boy to Carry
the dame.
"Since pa quit drinking," said the bad boy
to the groceryman, "he is a little nervous,
aud the doctor said he ought to go out some
where and get bizness off his miud and hunt
ducks, and row a boat and get strength; and
pa said.shooting ducks was just in his hand,
and for me to go and borrow a gun, and I
could go along and carry game; so I got a gun
at the gun store, and some cartridges, and we
went away out West on the cats, inoro than
fifty miles, and stayed two days, You ought
to see pa. He wan just like a boy that was
sick aud couldn't go to school. When we got
by the lake he jumped up and cracked bis
heels together aud yelled. I though he was
crazy, but ho was only cunning.
"Well, after shooting twenty or thirty
times at ducks without killing one, I heard
some wild geese squawking, and then pa
heard them, and tin 11 he was excited. He
said you lay down behind the muskrat house,
and I will get n goes. I told him he couldn't
kill a goosu with fine shot, and I gave him a
largo cartridge the gun s'ore man loaded for
me, with a handful of powder in, and I told
pa it was a goose cartridge, and px put it in
the gun. The geese came' along, about a mile
high, squawking, and pa aimed at a dark
cloud and fired. Well, I was awful scared.
I thought I had ki'ded him. The gun just
reared up aud came down on his jaw, and on
his shoulder, and everywhere, and ho went
over a log and struck on his shoulder, and the
gun flew out of his hands, and pa ho laid
there on his neck with his feet over the log.
and that was the first time he didu't s:old me
since be got relidgin.
"I felt awful sorry, nml got some dirty
water in my hat and poured it down his neck,
and laid him out, and pretty soon he opjnc'd
his eyes and asked if any of the passengers
got ashore alive. Then his eye swelled out so
that it looked like a blue door knob, and pa
felt of his jaw and asked if the engineer and
fireman jumped oll,or if they went down with
the engine. He eemed dazed, and then he
saw the gun, and he said take the dam thing
away, it is going to kick me again. Then he
come to his senses, and wanted t know if he
killed a goose, aud I told him no, but he
nearly bi oka one's jaw, and then he said the
gun kicked him when it went off, and kept
kicking him mora than twenty times when lie
was going to sleep. iVo went back to the
tavern where wo were stopping. We told the
tavern keeper that ho fell over a wire fence;
but I think he began to suspect, after he spit
the loose teeth out, that the gun was loaded
for bear.
"Has your pa talked much about it since
you got back home?" asked the grocery
"Not much. He can't talk mnch without
breaking his jaw. But be was'able to throw
a chair at me. You see I thought I would
joke him a little, 'cause when auybody feels
bad a joke kind of livens 'em up, so we were
talking about pa's liver, and ma said he
seemed to be better since his liver had be
come more active, and I (aid : 'Pa, when you
was rolling over with the gun chasing jou,
and kicking you every round, your liver was
active enough 'cause it vas on top half of the
time.' Thfu pa throwed the chair at me. He
say s that le believes I knew that cartridge
was loaded.
"But you ought to aeen the fun when an
old (be deacon of pa's church. called to collect
some money to send to the, heathen. ' Ma
wasn't iri, so pa went to the ptrlor to stand
her off, and when aha saw that pa's face was
tied op, and bi eye was blacked, and his jaw
wu cracked, (he held up her hand and said ;
Ob, my dear brother, you seem drunk again.
You have backslid. You will have to ?o back
and commence your probation all over again.'
And pa said ; 'Damfido,' and the old deacon
(creamed and went off without gettingenough
money to buy a deck of round-cornered cards
for the heathens." if U waulte Sun.
' A middle-aged lady, with a black alpaca
dress, w orn shiny at the elbows, and a cheap
shawl, and a cheap bonnet, and her hands
puckered up and blue, as though she had just
got her washing out, went into the office of a
prominent Mason a few mornings since, and
took a chair. She wiped her Lose, and the
perspiration from her face with a blne-checkrd
apron, and when the Mason looked' at her,
with an interested, brotherly lojk, as though
she was m trouble, she siid :
"Are you the buss Mason f
He bluthtd, tolcTber Be was a Mason, but
not the highest in the lind. She hesitated a
moment, fingeredtbe coiner of her apron, aud
curled it up like a boy 'peaking a piece in
school, and asked :
"Have you taken the whole two hundred
and thirty-three degrees of Masonry!"
The man laughed and told her thero'were
only thirty-three degrees, and that he had
only taken thirty-two. The other degree
could. only be taken by a very few who were
recommended by the grand lodge, and they
had to go to New York to get the third-three
The lady studied a moment, ' unpinned the
safety pin that held her shawl togother, and
put it in her mouth, took a long breatn, and
then said :
"Where does my husband get the other
two hundred degrees, then?"
The prominent Mason said he guessed her
husbaud never got two hundred degrees, un
less he had a degree factory. He said he
dieln't understand the lady.
"Does my husband have to sit up with a
corpse three nights out of a week?" asked she,
ner eyes flashing tire. "And do they keep a
lot of Biok Masons on tap for my husband to
set up with tho other three nights of the
week ?"
The prominent Mason said he was thankful
that few Masons died, and only occasionally
that one was sick enough to call for Masonic
"But why do you ajk these questions, mad
am?" said thepiomine-nt Mason.
The woman picked the fringe of her shawl,
hung her head down, and said :
"Well, my husband began to join the Ma
sons about two years ago, and he has been
taking degrees or Bitting up with peoplo every
night since. He has come home twice with
the wrong pair of drawers 011, and when I
asked him how it was, he said it was a secret
he could not reveal under the penalty of being
shot with a cannon. All he would say was
that he took a degree. I have kept a little
track of it, and I figure that he has kept two
hundred and thirty-three degrees, including
the grand Sky Fugle degree which he took
the night he came homo with his lip cut, and
his ear banging by a piece of skiu."
"Oh, madam," said the prominent Mason,
"there is no Sky Fugle degrco in Masonry.
Your husband has deceived you."
"That's what I think,'' said she, as a bale
ful look appeared in her eyes. "He said he
was taking tho Sky Fugle elegreo, and fell
tbiough the skylight. I had him sewed up,
aud he was roidy for more decrees. After be
had taken about a hundre I and fift'y degrees,
I told him I Bhonld think ho would let up on
it, and put some potatoes in the cellar for
winter, but he said when a man once got
startctl on the degrees he had to take them
all, or he didu't amount to anything. Some
times a brother Mason comes home along with
him in the morning, and they talk about a
'full flush,' and about their 'pat hands,' and
'raising 'em out.' One night when he was
asleep I heard him whisper, 'I raite you ten
dollars,' and when I asked him what it meant,
he said that they had been raising a purse for
a poor widow. Another time he raised up in
bed, after he had been asleep, and shouting,
'I stand pat,' and when I asked him what it
meant, he said he was ruined if I told it. He
said he had spoken the pass word, and if the
brethren heard of it they would put him out
of the way. Milter, 'stand pat' your pass
The Mason told her it was not. That tne
words she had spoken was an expression used
by men when playing draw poker, and he
added that he didn't believe her husband was
a Mason at all, but that he had been lying to
her all these three years.
She sighed and said : "That's what I
thought when he came home with a lot of
ivory chips in his pocket. He said they used
them at the lodge to vote on candidates, and
that a white chip electa and a blue chip re
jects a candidate. If you will look the matter
up and see if he has joined the Masons I will
be much obliged to you. He say he ha taken
all the twr. hundred and thirty-three degree,
and now the boys want him to join the
Knights of Pythias. I want to get out an in
junction to keep bim from joining anything
else until we get some underclothes for win
ter. Ill tell you what I'll do. The next time
be says anything about Sky Fugle degrees, I
will take a wash board, and make him think
that there is one degree in Masonry that he
has skipped, and now good-bye. Von have
comforted me gieatly.and I will lay awake to
night till my husband gets home from the
I. ..!.. .l.t. Ui. . 1.-...I 1 T 111 I.- !.
imigo wm nu iv iuii, ,uu 4 win mane mm
think he has forgot his ante."
The lady went to the giocery to buy some
bar soap, and the prominent Mat on resumed
his business with a feeling that we are not all
truly gcod, anil .tint there u clieatu g going
on around. Ex.
SZTVrttTA arfi.inf .1 lirn. ...a,j.1 I..
tli.ir nrin.r.ftl l.nlv I v f lt...rtnjl Tl. . !'..
-..V. -'.... wvJ J ... ..W..I. UjV., -
fectand simple. Price 10 cents, at all drug
A 8 Tiro of the Earlr unit Later Gronth of
Orecon anil Washlnat"" The North
ern Facile and Oilier I lllartl
Railroads- The Pre-eat
Condition or the
The country and its progress as seen by a
special correspondentof the Springfield, Mass. ,
Portland, Or., Oct. 22, 1882.
The development of Oregon, Washington,
Northern Idaho and Northwestern Montana,
constituting tho grcxt northwest corner of the
United States, has been long delayed, but is
now at last well begun, and promises to pro
ceed hcrca'ter at a rapid rate, Although the
moving force behind this new and brcader
growth is the railroad, the iron way as the
Germans call it, this country had a life and
had made a history of its own long beforo any
railroads were built on the Pacific Coast. The
first settlements iu Oregon were made in the
Willamette valley by leprescntatives of the
Hudson Bay Company in 1824, though trad
ing p .sts had previously been established, one
of them at the mouth of the Columbia river
in 1811, whieh was calltel Astoria in honor of
John Jacob Astor. During the next 10 j ears
several religious missions, Methodist and
Catholic, were established here, and in 1840,
a elircct immigration fnm the eastern States
began, which ban continued since. Tim earli
est sett'ement of importance was at Oregon
City, rn the oust side and 24 miles above the
mouth of th') Willamette river, w hick runs
norini paradM with the coast an I rmpties into
the Columbia 08 miles from the ocean. Other
towns were "located later, l'nnland among
them' in 1840. Tho liberal policy purued by
its founders attracted to it many settlers, and
this fact, coupled with its fortunate situation
as a river pott a"ces!iblu to ocean vessel?,
gradually gaeo it a lead over the towns of tho
new country which it has since maintained
and increased, Pnitlanel lies 12 miles from
tho mouth of the Willamette, chiefly on the
west bink of the river, though it is now
SH-eiiling across it, and is, therefore, HO
miles from the sea. Since 18.11, it has been
the great distributing point for the whole Pa
cific Northwest, carrying on a direct trade
with New York and other eastern ports, with
Europe, with the Sandwich Islands, and at
times, with China and Japan. Its river
steamers havo run up the Columbia ami Snake
rivers 401 miles eastward to Low is ton in
Idaho, making two portages in this long dis
tance, one at the Cascades of tho Columbia,
03 miles fiom l'nrtlind, and the others at The
Dalles, 110 miles, wheru the river runs at
great speed through a narrow passage in the
locks which horn forms its boundary und bed.
During the excitement created by the gold
wlaccr mining in Eastern Wash ngtmi and Or
egon in 1800. railnuds of a somewhat iirimi-
tive character were constructed over these
portiges, one six miles and the other 13 miles
long, and the river trallic assumed laiger pin-
fioitions. Smaller steamers ran from Port
and up tho Willamette 70 miles to Salem,
aud the line is Btill maintained, The town
prospered through the profitable trade of its
merchants, many of whom acquired lare for
tunes, and growing by legitimate and healthy
means it assumed a character of Bolidity and
sobriety unique among cities west of the
Mississippi. This character it has preserved,
'and to-day it more closely resembles a New
England community than the typical
western town. It ii relatively one of thu two
or three richest cities in tho country, and has
now a population of 30,000 people, including
the suMtrtis on tho east side ot the river,
But Portland has been the capital of a re-,
mote and isolated territory. Communication
with the world outside has been slow, some
times interrupted, and always in a measure
uncertain. In earl v days the news of events
transpiring in the East often first reached this
northern coast by way of the Sandwich
islands. Now the quickest passage into or
out ol tne country is ly steamer connection
every four days with San Francisco, the pass
age occupying three or four days, or by rail
and 275 mile of stage, requiring four or five
days. Since the rich wheat lands of eastern
Washington antl Oregon have been discovered
and cultivated, the river beat have found it
impossible to move all the grain that was
offered them. Portland aud the entire region
behind and around it have long suffered from
the lack of proper local railroad facilities and
rail connections with the East. Ben Holla
day, known a the proprietor of the eld over
land stages, was thu first man who attempted
to supply this public want. While still run
ning theoverland stages he had become owner
of the Oregou steamship company, whose
boats ran from San Francisco to Portland.
When the first Pacifio railroad was finished in
1869 Halladay began to give closer attention
to hi Oregon interests, and started to build a
railroad from Portland to San Fraooisco.
Two hundred miles of road were constructed
to Hoteburg with the proceeds of $1 1,000,000
of bonds which were sold, principally in tier
many, at 70 cents on a dollar, but UDder the
Holladay style of financiering only netted the
railroad company SO cents. Another line of
road 90 miles long was also built by Holladay
on the west side of the Vt ilUinette, the
original line being oa the east, connecting
Portland with Corvalbs, for what purjoseit
would be hard to say, except that it gave
inm further opportunity for financiering. Iu
1874 the Oregon and California railroad was
found to be bankrupt, and a cimmittee of the
bondholders was sent over from Gcnruuy to
examine into tbe condition of the property
and effect a settlement with JiolUday.
Among them was Henry VilUrd, who had
been varying his eventful life iu America by
a shott risidcucj at Heidelberg, lhe uego
Unions with Holladay resulted in bis tuiren
derol ad interest in the railroad, and likewise
of tbe Oiegon steamship cinpauy property for
ths benefit of the crelitors. Complications
continued, however, feir several years, mid
finally the railroad passed into the hands of
English capitalists, the Germans selling but
on good terms, while the steamship company
was taken by Mr. Vi'dard and his friends,
who consolidated it in 1879 with the Oregon
steam navigation company, which they bought
out for $4,000,000. The latter company con
trolled the river traffic of the country, own
lug the portage railroad and all the steamers
on the upper Columbia. The new organise
tton Was called the Oregon Railway auti Nav
igation company, and started with a capital
ot $6,000,000. Meantime no work had been
none toward tho extension of tho railroa I to
California, and it was not resumed until last
year. Now the line lias been completed and
is in operation 25 miles south of ltcsebarg,
ami is being actively pushcel forward. One
hundred aud fifty miles remain to be built to
tho California Statu line where the Central
Pacific peop'o are expect d to meet it with nn
extension of their California and Oregon rovl
150 miles north from Redding, its present
teimiuUB. It is not probable that tho gap of
300 miles will ba entirely filled under two or
threo years. Although Mr. Villaid has but
a slight pecuuiary interest in thu Oregon part
of this line, he is president of the company,
auel tluougli the commanding pisiti on given
hi in by tho control of all the other raihoads
in the Statu, he is nblo ti practically direct
its policy. He is known to desire an inde
pendent connection with Cal foruia iu order
to develop the business and strengthen the
position of he Northern Pacific on tho Pacific
coast, and it is quite possible that the Oregon
and California may ultimately bo rxtenel 'd
thiough California to San Frnucito) bay.
Such u enterprise would bo welcomed with
great heartiness by the Californians, who ar.i
culleiing so severely through the Central
Pectin mo mpoly.
Since thi.organizption of tho Oregon Rail
way and Navigation comptuy three yeais and
a half ago, it has greatly enlarged its capl al
and extended ita fielel of operations. The
capital stock is now $18,000,000, of which
$2,000,000 is water, being stock given away
to the early suhecrib-rs for bonds when the
success of the enterprise w as held to be some
what doubtful, and thu bonded debt is
$0,000,000. In 'addition to its fleet of
ocean and river boats, which lias been
considerably enlarged ami improved since tho
proper ywas bought, the company uow owns
350 miles of completed railroad, controls by
lease 150 miles ol narrow gauge, and is still
pushing its lines iu various directions. Its
main line, extending from Portland along the
south shore of tho Columbia river 213 miles to
Wnllula Juuctun, is now in operation for 173
mile, nnd w ill bo open for gi iieml trallic over
its entuu length by thu 10th of next mo ith.
It has been a difficult and expensivu road to
build, the roid-ued for many miles being cm
out ot tho rocky hills and lnuiiutains which
iio precipitously from the river, lloyo'id
Wielliiln, to the cat, a system of branch lines
is umter construction aim pirtly in operation,
inters' ctiug in various diiectious tint part ot
tho futile wheat belt of Eastern Washiugt u
and Oiegoii which lies between the Columbia
and Snake rivers. From Umatilla, 185 miles
east of Portland, an important branch, known
as the Blue Mountain branch, has been
already built 43 mdes southeast to Pendleton,
and is now being extended to Baker City, 127
miles further in thu sanw direction. This line
will meet the Oregou Sho't Iii", now build
ing by the Union Pacific, from Granger, near
ureen river, on their main road, the dis
tal! co from Granger to Baker City is 0'JS
miles, and through to'l'ortlan.l by this i onto
will lie U83. The ground between Maker Ulty
and the Snake river, 50 miles, is now in dis
pute bclweea the Union Pacific and Oregon
companies. Tho latter has occupied the
Burnt river canyon, w hich is believed to be the
only practicable pass for a railroad, in force
and proposes to contest tne neiu snarpiy.
l his road win aliord an approacn to tne ure
gon and Washington country which the Vil
lard companies must guard and control if
they will maiiitiin their position us the sole
railroad and steam navigation proprietors of
the Northwest. Thu narrow gauge lines
upeiaieu uy mu railway aim navigaiiuii e-uue
pany run up the Willamette valley from Port'
uml on both sides of the river and were built
by Scotch capitalists, from whom they have
oeen teased lor U'J years.
The people of Or. gon and Washington have
looked lorward long and impatiently to, the
completion of the Noithern Pacific railroad a
the one thing necessary to secure to their
country its full growth and prosperity. The
enterprise lias been attended witn ttraego
vicissitudes since the building of tho road wax
begun iu 1870, but its ultimate success has
now for some years been assured, its managers
have displayed energy in pressing it on to
completion and we are now promised that the
road will be opened for trafho before the closn
of tho year 1883. The original projector of
tbe Northern Pacific always Cftntcmplatod the
location of their principal western terminus on
l'uget Hound for the reason that It affords tho
best hsrborage for Urge ships to lie found
anywhere on the Pacific coast north of Kan
Francisco bay, but their charter authorized,
and they expected to build a branch line down
the Columbia river to Portland. The build
ing of a railroad from Portland into Eastern
Oregon and Washington by the Oregon Ka 1
way aud Navigation Company, as well as the
connection of that region with tho enact by
the steamers of the same company mi the Co
lumbia liver, led the Hillings management ol
the Northern Pacifio to postpone the definite
location and construction, both of tie line
over the Cascade- mountains to thu Sound and
of that to Portland on thn north tide of the
Columbia, und tn direct their energies toward
the completion ol tho overland road between
the Mistouri river in Dakota and the Colum
bia in Eastiru Washington. In tho lurly
days ol the or ternnsf . however, n niece of
read 105 miles long hid been built from Kt-
lama on ttio uoiumina, 40 miles ikI w roit
land, to Tcoina en the Niund, and the Utter
place was selected for tho weitcru tcrumibr,
NO. 42.
Subsequently an addition of 30 milos wa
made to this is dated short line, conucctirfri
Tacoma with some promi-ing coal fields lying)
near the Sound, and the town which grew na
in the vieiuity of the mines was called Wilksv
son after Samuel Wilkt son, secretary of the
company. Under the Bdlin.-n management,
the Pen d'Oreille divisiou of tho main lino ex
tending from tho confluence of the Snak
river with the Colnmbit 210 miles northeaat
to lake Pen d'Oreille in Northern Idaho, waa
for the most part built. In the Spring of
1881 Mr. Villard secured control ot the
Northern Pacific property by means of th
famous blind pool, and it has since een man
aged in harmony with the On gon road.
The lino over the Oiscade mountains to
the Sound, which would uicasmo 220 mils
from tho Snako river ami cm only u. mult
at yreat expense on account of tho heavy
graeles ue ccsary, has been gien up foi th)
present, though it will in nil likelihood lia
carried tiiomgh in time, nnd Portland is happy
in being the main westciti terminus of the
Northern Pacifio. It is proposed now tocouneot,
Portland and Kalatra Uy mil, and thus secura
a t' rough all route to the uund, which wilt
be about 150 miles longer th'in thn diiect tin
over tho Cascade range, but will atloid aa
opsier louto for heavv freiuht traffic. Tho
Northern Pacific and the Oregon roads wiM
thus secure at oncu a deep witter terminus,
where thev can load iliiectly on tn thu largest
shipping i i tho Wi-rld. The r.ulioid will
sooner or later bo extended from lacoma,
which lies nt tho southern arm of tho Sound
u-arcr to the sea, iu order to save shipping
tho pissage inland.
Tho railwavand naWL'ation company s mam
lino fitini Pmtlaud now connects with the
Noithern P.icitio at Wallula Junction, 12
ini'cs south of the Snake in Eastern, Washing
ton ; the Northern Pacific lias been oxtemlod
70 miles up tho valley ot Ulirks forx irons
Like Pen d'Oieille into Montana, nnd there
is, therefor.', an unbroken lino of road com
pleted for 520 miles cast from Portl md, By
PJnvember 10th it is expected that the track
will reach Thompson river, 538 milos from
Portland, and lhe unfinished .gap between th
eastern and western divisions will then '-e ie'
duced to about 450 mill's. Over muoh of thi
intervening simco tho grading bos already
been done, nnd tho two long tunuo's require!
in passing over the o intiuental r.iiige are weH
under way. 'Pro Missoula tunnol, 15 mile)
wrstof Helena, Montana, is 3850 feet long antt
4070 feet above tide water, and thu llozcmaa
tunnel is 3000 feet long and stands at an ele
vation of 4000 feet The highost point om
tho road bnrely oxceods 5000 lent and is 3O0t
feet lower than Shtrnim on tho Union Pa
eiflc. The construction of thu Clark's Folk
division over tho Ciur d'Alene mountains is
attended with many and serious ditlicultios.
Although the sloe-pest grade does notoxcec4
52 feet to tho in Ic, tho gmgu through which
the r-ver tuns is sonarr wtbitn large amount
of rock uniting has beci n easily to socure A
footing for tho nil. In plans tho loud riso
to an elevation ot 100 and even 200 feet ubove
tho tiei, liuuly ebiiging to thu rasuptaia
sides. Tho work of eonstruutinn procicds a
rapi lly as possible, however, and for miles l
advance of thu track gmgaof Chmimen unA
Irishmen swarm hlong the lino preparing th
For the purp'xo of managing homogeneously
tho Oiegon nnd Northern Pueifloiuilroaifs ant.
retaining tho control of both properties, Mr.
V lard slid his friend organid tho Orcgoa
Trai s cntlneiital Company with an authoru'sl
capital of Si0,000,000, of which 83U,000,00V
has been paid in and $10,030,000 more ha
been c died for recently. 'I his company own
a controlling Interest in both the Oregon Rail
way k Navigation Cotiipinyuiid the Northern
Pacific, and is budding for the latter road.var
ions branch lines into the gr.vu distnots of,
Minnesota, Dakota and Washington, which
will 1m loiscd to th Northern Pecific and ul
timately pait of it. The Oregon Improt.
ment Company is another corporation with
$5,000,000 capital, owned largely iu Boston,
which has boiightout tho Pacific Co.ist.Stiati.
ship Company, of San Frauo seo, and running
steameis to Vancouver and Alaska. The sama
company is engaged in large lapd operation
in eastern Washington, owns and tarries oa
several coal mines and will poihnps build soma
Bhorf Hues of railroad. Other iitsociated com
panies have been forme I for mauagidg th
extensive tiriliiual facilitbis of tho inilroa4
and steamboat lines at Portland and other
kindred puri loses. Tho entire stem of rail,
row), steamship and improvement companies
reeogiii7cs its head and front in Henry Vil
lard, who now seems to hold this great north
wester n It nitory completely in hi power t
nuke or mar. So far bis polity ha been t
make, and there is reason t hope it will cm.
tinue to be. He is not an ordmiry rsilioat
king, but a man of broul aud liberal views, of
great enthusiasm, of generous impalxM nnsl
high purposes. If ha i able to retdn hi
Dowtr in this country and wields it wisely anal
conscitiitl utlv, no nun in America has great.
er opportunities for goid. Hois in fact now
regarded hero in the nature of r. bcuef ictor.
since he lias secured for the country the rail
road facilities which it has so ling needed.
and hat also dona mviy generous things tor
Portland aud other eomui'initie iu On go
entirely, outside of his business operation.
Sponge Cako Roll. Take four tm, heatca
separately, one teacupful of euar, one tea-
cupful of flour, one t oapooiiful if cream tir-
if mind iu tho flour and hull a teaspoonful
if loela iu a little water. Bike quickly in a
I i-cuit pan; turn out on a damp towel; put iu
jelly or lemon butter, aud roll while It l
Tli't wonderful oath Iicori InrWii as Mrs.
Mdia I' Piiikliam's Veg( tibloG'iiiipmi.il has
given the lady a world whUi leputation for
doing. It is Ilka n living spiiug to t'm Vitel
eoutiiutio.i. Her ltloed PillifW will d)
linnet' clc" sethe rlnnnels ot tho en uu.
tl'iiaud purify the lifu of tho bo ly tl no all
tho tauiUry devices of tbe Board of Health,