Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, May 05, 1882, Page 7, Image 7

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W Jpejjartmeni
Powfll's Valley, Multnomah Co.
Editor Willametto Farmer:
I enclose the report of tho Committee on
Legislation to tho Stato Grange at its last
session, with the request that yin will publish
them, ann4ffihe farmers such adv'ce that
they may ueSflttS'to carry out the intention of
the report, and break tho wires of tho wire
workers now at work all over tho Stato. The,
advici must not bo pirtisin but cringe like.
Ynnr fraternally. T. K. WlLLIAm.
The report, which was adopted, reads as
follows :
W recommend thit this State Grange Rive
its most hearty support to all me fure of
legishfon inaieuratcd hv the National Grange
and i-URijotted bv the Master's ndilrea We
also reennimend that this State Graptre and
all pitrnns within the Stato of Oreeon
earnestly and persistently demand of our law
make tint tlie comply with tho often ex
pressed wishes of their const'tuents unti1 laws
shall be enicted upon the following MibjectR
thateannot be set asido as unconstitutional,
uor treated as dead letters from their very
inc-ption :
1. IWulatinjr freights an 1 transportation
on railroads
2. Tho fees ' f Clerks and Sheriffs and all
State, county or municipal officer", whoso
compensation is disproportionate to the duties
3. Tho interest question.
4 The protection of stoek expos d to
accident upon railroads, and tho more rapid
liquidation of claims for stock killed upon
5. The enabling of women to enjoy
equality with man upon all questions where
their jiint intere-t is concerned, especially in
the settling of estates which have been the
fruits of the j"int industry of husband nni
wife, and the control and guardianship of
minor children.
0. The providing for and equilizmg of
the assessment of property throughout the
7. The fostering of the fishing interest of
this State by extending the breeding fields to
the uppei Willamette and other waters.
S. Making the requirements of scholar
ship in the Agricultural Colhge to he a com
petitive ex munition.
!. Regulating the pilotaee and towage
ajstem of the Columbia, and to take measures
to call tho attention of Congress to the abso
lute necessity of iinp-ovintr the channel at the
mouth nf slid riva- and other outlets, and to
the harbors on our coast.
10. Protection for sheep husbandry in our
To the attainment nf which objects we
recommend an etemil vigilance on the part of
all pit'ons, not only in pcrn'tritly demand
ing their enactment by our legislators, but in
seeing that lcaislato's only are sent to the
State Cipital who will enact them.
We are much obliged to our friend for call
ing attention to this matter at this approp'i
ate time. The above sums up all tho matters
of public importance that interests f-irmers,
and appeals to tho good sense of all the pro
ducers of tho country, regardless of their
grange membership or their partisan preju
dices. In an editorial lately, on tho "Duty of Citi
renship." we showed the need of caution to
prevent schemers from controlling the pri
maries, and to secure selection of proper men
from all parties as candidates. With these
principles in view all voters caa unite to
place candidates in such a position that they
can be depended on.
1. Thesafetyof the people against monopoly
of transportation lies in their right to regu
late fares and freights by legislation. While
the formation of a railroad system is going ' n
it is hardly possible to regulate this matter
perfectly, but tho election of men competent
to judge such matters and not afraid tr do
tight, is the only safeguard of the public
against these and all other evils.
2. The law regulating Clerks' and Sheriffs'
fees was found defective by the Supreme
Court, and the next lagislature must frame
and aass a law that will stand.
3. Interest is gradually coming down;
money can now bo borrowed at 9 per cent, on
real estate. The present law works woll, and
by the light of experience the next legislature
can judge if the rates should be lowered. It
would be unwise to disregard financial condi
tions and force intere-t down prematurely.
We belong to the unfortunate class who bor
row, and are clad to see that interest is grad
ually lowering.
1. Farmers understand their rights with re
gard to stock killed by railroads, and there
should be proper Iegi3'atioi on this head.
5. The grange is doing much to enable
women to enjoy their rights, and should have
the support ei all fanners in this respect.
0. rt'e expressed our views plain!) in thelast
issue concerning assessment and taxation of
property throughout the State.
7. Modern science secures an ample supply
of fish by cheap and simple means; this mat
ter is of especial importance to us, as by
State action we can introduce the best fi.h of
other regions in our u aters.
S. The agricultural school should be fos
tered by the Stato in the iuterest of agricul
ture, and tuition there should be considered
worth competing for.
I). Pilotage, towage and improvement of
the Columbia bar are matters made of prime
importance by recent events. The inefficiency
of tugs and excessive cost of pilotage and
towage work against the interest of producers
and prejudicethe commercial iutcresta of the
whole region,
10. Protection of aheep husbandry, we
hope, means theptssageof laws against aheep
killing dogs. It is no doubt true tkat more
losses occur from this cause than from pesti
lence, famine and wolves. We have lately
touched on this subject.
The foregoing matters for legislation, as
presented by the last State Grange,' coer
the most important subjects that need to be
acted on next fall, and while the grange for
mulates them in the interests of the brother
hood of agriculture, it it advisable for farm
ers, u a cuss, to aid in euforcing tho same
Sublic policy. There is nothing in the least
esree distinctively partisan in these propositions.
Deputies and Lecturers.
We have heard of booms. Business has
been booming, and by the recent rains the
streams have had their boom. Why notliave
a grand Grange boom in 18S2? This is the
year for it. Let every Lecturer in the general
field proclaim this to all the world. Let Dep
uties labor more than ever to bring about the
grand results. Set every officer and member
at work and vigorously at work in his own
location. Cannot each member bring in at
least one new member during tho year, or re
awaken some dormant member and restore
him to the Order at d its principles? Tryit.
Cinnot each officer, not only bring in his'or
her member but stimulate each member to do
as w ell or better ? County Deputies and Lec
turers, do you mesn business! If not, we say
resign at once and let a worthier man fill your
place. If you do mean to till your position
with credit to yourself and honor to the Or
der, you must go to work at once. Prepare
yourselves by getting a ki owledge of the Or
tier, its aims and purposes as well ss its grand
possibilities and then prepare for duty in the
Look over your whole field. Learn of eveiy
good wot king Grange and secure their hearty
co-operation and aid in tho work before yu;
Then hunt up each dormant Grange and find
out wl o aro the workers, or who wero the
moat worthy members and would liko to luvo
the Grange restored to them, and would Ubor
to make it a success Impart to each some of
your enthubiasm and earnestne's; get them tn
meet and meet wi'h them, calling to your aid
at the meeting all the new, live and active
members. So thoroughly an use them that
they will then and there recogirze and
go to work and re-embody the old princi
ple and honor jt by worthily doing it. Hit
them to readjng and working, anil worki g
and readitu, and doVt give up until you suc
ceed. Grange BuUttln.
Oregon State Grange.
Okeoo.s City, April 20, 18S2.
Editor Willamette Farmer:
The regular annual inciting of the Oregon
Stato Grange will bo held at Salem on tho
fourth Tuesday in May (23d).
Governor Thayer wi 1 delher an address of
welcome,, and a response on the pait of the
Grango will be made by Judge C. V. Mooi.
It. P. Boisf, Master.
N.W. Ranuall, So.'y.
Care of Farm Horses.
That there is often cruelty in the manage
ment of running and trotting horses is un
questionably true; but that, in the aggugate,
there is more cruelty to, and more suffering
by farm horsos, w e have no shadow of doubt.
This cruelty is often the result of thought
lessness, sometimes of ignorance sometimes,
unfortunately, from sluer brutality.
We recently had an opportunity of exanviv
ing horses on two adjoining farms. Those on
one wero fat, perhaps too faf ; their hair, eyes,
and general appearance indicated good health
and good feeling. Th -y wore not well
groomid, and had hardly suffi ient exercise.
Tho other horses wero sm dler, thin in flesh,
with staring coats, dull eyes, with evidences
of a feverish condition. Yet tho owner ex-
plamed'that he fed them ten or twelve ears of
corn three times a day, with hay, while his
neighbor fed not more than half as much of
corn and oats, and not any nnre hay. Here
was a case of costly, unintentional cnftlty.
The horses were over-fed. They w ere m ikine
poor use of the ,rain. and were bein2 injured
tiy what they ate. Over-feeding of farm
horses is not an uncommon form ot cruelty.
Especially in wintir, far " horses are apt to
be irregularly fid; sometimes kept fasting
from early morning until niglit; thai allowed
to g'Tgo themiehes. It u not a bad plan
during tho short days of w inter, when work
is I ot regularly done, and when a team is oc
caionally to be driven to a neighboring town.
thus being a ay from home at the middle of
the day, to give gram only at morning ami
nieht. allow intr the hones hay or "rough fod
der" during the dav. This makes the task of
midday feeding less objectionable.
By needless exposure many farm horses suf
fer much in winter. A liorso in good health,
and well fed will endure great cold and severe
storms; but it is, i evertheless, cruelty to leave
a h rse unblanketed and exposed to a strong
wind in winter, perhaps for hours, and, per
haps, after he has been warmed by hard driv
ing. In the hurry of the opening of spring work,
many farm horses are injured by being re
quired to change at once from idleness to hard
labor. Sometimes, in such cases, additional
harm comes from too suddenly increasing the
food supply. Colts are certainly often severe
suffirers from over-exertion in the process not
i inaptly called "breaking," or when first set
to naru worK.
Injury from ill fitting harness is more com
mon than many suppose. Galled necks and
backs cannot always be prevented, but they
ought Dot to come from bad-fitting collars or
There are some farmers who abuse their
horses by blows and kicks, or who insufficient,
ly feed tbem. but there are so many of those
as of the class who have no w ith to be cruel,
but who are so either from thoughtUssness or
Utilizing the Eos Product at Home.
We have practiced the curing and selling f
the cured product, to the extent of SO to 100
head, at the farm, and know how simple and
easy a task it is. Not hard work, like swing
ing the ax or maul; not driving work, like the
routine of harvest, but light, under-shelter
work, requiring no hurry. Cut up and trim
the hams, shoulders, and side meat neatly,
using the trimmings tor sausage or to go into
the lard kettle, or partly for both. Curd i p
the hams, shoulders and sidis in the cellar,
on plank, using a liberal lajer of sugar, and
saltpetre on the hams and on the others it
you like If you do not get through this
chore in your leisure hours of one day, the
meat will keep, and you cau finish during the
uext, or the third. At about the end of each
week shake the layer off into a box or tub.
Add fresh sugar, etc., to the mixture, and rub
this into the flesh side, again putting on'a
libtral coatiug, cording up at before. Four
or five such handlings will fit the meat for the
smoke bouse. Thit may be a temporary
structure, made i f 2x4 scantling and pine
bonds, cnvrretl with the same, and if 12 fee'
square, will do for the hams and bacon of SO
or 40 bogs. A small arched furnace, built a
few feet away, beneath the surface, with brick,
will afford a safe and economical mode of dis
tributing smoke to the meat. When nicely
browned, you are ready to supply your own
b ble, and tell 13-cent hog meat to the re i
tailcr. Nothing can bo easier or more simple.
As compared to it, dairving is, in any nf its
modes, complicated. Workine up our wool
product, as stated, is beyond our reach, but
to permit seven proms to be mule off one of
our leading products, this going, perhaps,
across two or three States, where common.
low-nriced. unskilled labor docs what should
be done upon the farm should not bo so Gen
erally permitted. The selling of this product
neioro our syes, witn tno seven proms aimed,
is a reflection upon our modes. Lire-Stoch
Advantages of Polled Cattle
A writer says the first advantage that polled
cattle have over horned cattle is that he can
build a stable for them for half the money.
Second, he does not have to tie them, but lots
them run loose in tho stable. They are per
fectly harmless, like sheep. He lets the man
ure accumulate, supplying plenty of litter,
and cleans out the stablo twice a year and
hauls direct to the field, thus saving once
handling. The manure is also much better,
ho thinks, for being kept under cover, and all
the urine is thus saved. One load of it is
worth three ot the ordinary barnyard manure.
Another great advantigc is that he can let his
hogs run in the stable with the cattle, with
perfect safetv, to gather up the corn, that
would otherwise be wasted, and to work over
the manurewhich cannot le done with horned
cattle. Some fay, the writer continues, that
cattle look nicer with horns. It is not so. It
is a matter of education. His Satantio Ma
jesty is always pictureuWwith horns; they
make him look mure Satanic. And yet "cat
'le looked nicer with horns than without."
If we were as accustomed to polled eattle as
we arc tn horr ed, and some one would attempt
to introduce the latter, he would be limited
nut of the community and pronounced an im
porter, Qualities of a True Breeder.
Tho standard of excellence of the true
bierder must be high and we 1 dcfii.ed; in
other words, he must have a clear idea of the
various piints, of the pirfect animal, and
strive to attain, slowly it may be, but surely,
to that perfection. This will require in him
a keen cje, quick to detect faults, onl also to
rcozi.ii'e all good qualities as they present
themselves. Beyond and back of ee sight
he should have good judgment, by which he
ci mprehends the causes that are at w ork to
pruiluco good or ill effects, and if possible he
should bo able to control the forces with
which be has to deal. Any exterior points of
biauty, as to out'ine of color, should not lead
him tc sacrifice the dee. fundamental quali
ties unon which the creat value of well-bred
animals always rest. Lastly, he should not
hope to produce an animal that is best for
pm"- tiling. The best animal br beef making
cannot be enecteil to excel at the pail, and
the supenor runumg horse, it is well known,
is not the lct one to put before a heavy cart.
tyc $jiarj.
When to Prepare Hives, Etc
The winter months is the best time to put
up jour hives for spring use, so that, if paint
ed, they may bo thoroughly dried nnd ready
for use when want d. Caro should be taken
that the frames are made with sufficient space
bctw ee.i them and the walls and the bottom
of the hive, so that the bees can pass between;
otherwise thero will be a lurking place for
moths. Bees want to pass all around their
work, and thu3 prevent any intrusion by
moths. The entrance should be sufficiently
small to prevent the entrance of mice, which
are very destructive to the comb, often driv
ing out or destroying thu ertire colony. Dur
ing the winter sea'im, when bees are rearing
but little brood and are not working much,
tlies.i little iutiuders are mest apt to invade
'holiivo. Hives that are occupied, with en
trances sufiici' ntly largo for a n ouso to enter,
should, during the winter, be frequently ex
amined. We aro often asked the question,
which is the best hive to use! We should
sy, that which is commonly known as the
I, iug.it roth, is thu best, especially for extract
ing. It is comenient, simpln and cheap.
Many extract from the single hive, which we
do not approve of, as more or les of the voting
brood is destroyed, and the cdony weaken' d
and demoralized in a innnner that retards
work. Extracting from tho brood-chamber
should bo avoided except where it is necessa
ry in order tn make room for the queen to lav.
The double hive, theiefcre, should be used,
and should be ventilated at each end by an
inch or an inch and a quarter Imle, covered
with wire cloth. Honey houses should now
be "built, extractors, tanks, cans, etc., got
ready, that there may be no delay when the
honey season begins.
Much money can be saved to bee-keepers
by uing man power or horse power saws in
sawing out materials for hives. Tlio-osaws
.tie not very expensive, and we presume can
be bad at San Francisco. Sev ral bee-keepers
could club together for the purchase of a saw,
which they would find of great service Many
scraps of boards can bo sawed up into slats for
frames, etc , that would othcrw Ue be lost.
C'orr. l.o Anjebt Erpreu.
Bees as Weather Prophets
Nature in her generous (.if t and liberal econ
omy has not endowed man alone with premo
nitions of changes of the weather, but to all
livuij creatures, moie or less. It is said that
the swine herald the coming storm, by run
ning to and fro carrying straw, weeds or
other material for tho formation of a bed.
Likewise geese, by running, flying, and I y a
continuous quacking and clatter. But from
close exotrie ice of a learned German apiarist,
it would ,cem that niturc has endowed the
"blessed bte" with more instinct in this ie
Kpect thau she has mod of the animal king
doui As we have never given the suoject
.uuih attention ourselves wu give the tallow
ing frrm a bee-keeper who has d no so:
"Wbei on Wednesday your swarm leaves
the hive , coming out of the boles in a mass,
and hi v.r about, )ou may be certain that on
Sundry the weather will be nice, or at least,
will 1 rmj a g od swarming day. -hould this
happen ou Thurs lay, tho good weather will
set in on Monday, etc. At least, here in Ger
many this is the case; but whetbrriu America
it is liVswise, must be as ertined from obser
vation. When bail w eather is about to et in,
or a soiree time for the bees, the sins are as
follows: Should tho bees lly later than usual
in the evenii g, it will generally rain the next
day. Should they sit thick around the entrance-holes,
lift tho aldomen up, flopping
wi h their wings, or move backward or for
ward will the head, as if they wished to chink
up the place, (we call tins movement llobeln),
from eight to ten days of sctrcity for the bte.
wi I follow, which days are noticeable for con
tinued rain, wind and cold." CV. Aj-Uiritt.
Galvanized, Painted or Japanned.
Tho'Handsoiaost, Stlffest. and Moat Durable. No Rust. No Decay. Secure against Tire, Flood and 'Wind.
It fs the nntyltnrbcd Wire that will proent small animals, such ns rabbits, haros, pigs, dogs, rats, etc., from passing through, under or over It, IM
the barbs are so near each other. .... . , .. . , , .. '
Ti..H..ih.tnnri,ntir..ii.iiw,l. ilka tho tooth of a saw. anil clo-o toeether. thero Is no cruelty to animals, as thoy cannot pierce the hide; thereat?
prick, which Is all that Is eer necessary, as no animal will iro neir a Barb Fence twice.
Is Che Wire Is net bent or tn Istcil. Its tcnslMe stroiuth Is much sreater than tho w Iro In all other Barbed Wire Fences as they are all made of twist
or bent wire , , . , .
Ileal nr cold rnnnnt nfTeel (lie Aiiirrlrmi llnrb I'enrc, as It cm be allowed to sa? when putjup, eaough to coer contraction and expansion, M
cause It Is a nntlnns Barb and cannot slip through tho staples one Inch. Eadi panel of fenco taUs care ot itself.
Tho llirlis cannot bo dlsnl iced or rnblio 1 ot, and are not poumloJ on and Indented Into tho w Ire to hold them In place, as In other Barb Wire, thereby df
iroasln ' the strength of the w Ire. Tho B irbj aro short an 1 bro id at the baw, hero strength Is requlrod.
Tlic Pnlntril welkin u pound In Hie
"1W. -VST- 3MCO3Xra7jfik.C3S-XJJES &D CO.,
110, 112, 114, 116 and 118 Battery Street, San Francisco,
Z. F. MOODY, The Dalles, Oregon, a ent for Eastern, Oregon.
First and Taylor, Streets, Portland, Oregon.
Stul Dpit, uro prernrul to ollir kuocUI inducements to 'nh I'lirrliinert In tho Interior,
hariuersand Oirdcners will do win to bj lautl us In Im)lii Suuls from IrroinnnslMo dcilors who iirry
their seeds from 5 tar to J ear on commission and hive no knonlwl.'O of tho seed business; buy our seeds
from a risponsihle House who Import an i:riKK M'.W tiM'K EM'll rlKiwOM. and vour crops will
not fail bo often W c luvo now opened complete stock of Rleld Grass, Uardon and Flower Seeds, at loisonalilc
rates. On hand a limited suppli of 1'urple Mnnt mill White tuitrnllan and Short Caiudi O it Seed.
GENERAL AGENTS FOR llcnrv Miller s IIoers, sohrubs, ete. Also tho Railroad Nursery
fSTScnd for our price catalogue for 183i milled f reo on application. Address.
Stove Foundry.
Agricultural Implements, Plows, Cultivators, Cook, Parlor
and Heating Stoves, Hollow Ware, Etc.,
Repaired and built to order, at reasonable rates. Alio, all kinds of Farm Machinery and
general npairiiiL', and IKON and BRASS castings furnished promptly to order.
Jan2u J. l. I'ATTEUHON, WMiauer.
Portland Carriage Factory.
Between Front and First Street, on Yamhill, Tortland.
equipped with the best skilled labor proiurablo at the Eut and the best material found In the world, to
manufacture cierythlm: In the line of
Buggies, Carriages, Pheatons, Webfoot Dog Carts, Light
Speed Wagons, Light and Heavy Buck Boards,
DexUr Wairons, Side Spar slid Whlto Chapel Wagons, Sprint' and ThoroUKhbrace mall wurons, the Kspey Hack.
Truiks, I)ras and Ollh ery Wagons, Hotel Wagons, etc , built of tho best FjltUrn matrilal Largest and best
facilities ot any shop on the Pacific Coast and iruarunUe ever) article of our work, and prices that cannot be
be boat by any dealer and man facturcr. rite to mo fo anjthlniyou want.ani oninnare with any of my
competitors and be contincul. W. W. IrlPKl, Uox MO, I'nrllnnd, Oreann.
Save $20 on a Singer I
' Although the I'utents Expired yearn ao, tho old Monopol
Companies hold to their high price .system, and defraud the peo
ple of their Just share in the benefits of the patents. They can
not afford to reduce pricss now, lor they .still continue their ex
tensive uluns of sellinc. inakiiiirit cost the nurehaser five or six
times the original cost, forcing them on the people whether
they want them or not. This entire arrangement Is changed at
Forslner's anti-Monopoly Sewing Machine Depot.
Ho sella the Genuine Chicago Singer, Whoeler & Wilson No. 8, the Doaet
tic, Eldrld(re. the Celebrated Davis, the Crown and New Home.
Be Sure and See Us Before Purchasing Elsewhere
Commercial Street, Salem, Oregon.
faJ. . BrilUve Caiultteue aud Prlre tt.t ami by mall when requested.
July 29 tf
.essfjfjfjfjfjfjfjfjfjfjfjfSSI itwt My
kaMigaFM riiijIjwIKzlL!!-,
roil, so that the purchaser Knows examy now mucn icncing no is swung-, uuniu woigiu imi uwr
and Retail
Mtmricrtsss, mrosris asd joisim, or
Iteddlng, Carpets, I'ttpcr Hang
ing, Stoves, and
Crockery and Glassware.
Sl-iara factory Water Btreet, between Maibfomery
and JIrrlon.
Htce's. Warehouse IM an4 185 Flirt nd
111 8cond fctreU,
roKTLtlt., OBMJO.
i .
For mora tlinn a thlnl of a contury the
Mexlcnu Itlu.tmiff l.lnlinent lias uueu
known to millions nil over thu world ns
thu only sufa rcllniioo for tlio rellor of
uocliluiits nuil lniln. It Is n moillclna
nbovo J)i loo imtiiii also the) best or Its
bind, i'or every fuiiu of externul pain
Muslims l.lnlinent It v lthmit nn cnuul.
It iieiietrutta fleull olid muscle to
tho tcvy bone umklnir tlio coutlntx
ltd vtroe'ls upon lliimnn Flesh unit tho
Ilrutn C'ri'iitlon uro equally wonderful.
Tho Me lean
I I.tiilim nt t iiptuli'il liv HOinnlifMlv 111
li'veiy lioiirtii. Dveiy itnv uiinKunewsof
I the Rfrouy ofnu nwrnlsralaorbara
Ibiibilui'il, of iheiimntlo maityre ro
Istoioil, or n lnlunble liorse or ox
laaied by thu huullng power of this
which spin iltly rmes such ullinents of
Illiountattem, MwoIIIub", Stiff
JfillitM, f ontriicteit mscieat ssurus
anu Ninlila, Cut., Jlrulaea and
.Sirulnat roltouoiis HUc and
HtSuirii, btlnTkies,t J.nmeneas, Old
Hures, Ulcers, Frostbites. Chilblains,
Note Nipples, Caked Urcaat, and
Indeed every form at external Us
ase. It heals wllbout scare.
For tlio lliiUTK Cukatiok It f uro
Sprains, Hwlunv. HtlnT Joint,
Founder, Harueas Mores, lloaf Ills'
eaeea, Foot Hoi, Screw Worm, fJeab,
llolloir Horn, Scratches, Wind
Hulls, Spavin, Thrush, lllngbone,
Old Sores, Pull i;vll, Film npon
the Slant and every other ailment
to which the occupant at the
btable and Slock Yard are liable.
'I ho Mexican Mustang IJnlracnt
always curve and novcr disappoint)
auil It Is, positively,
The Farmers' Favorite
(.t-tentud Juni 20, 1880 )
etarjot Inirentel. It Is o coiiitruOeil toatlt
txmivruis to uuurun surfaces, snU Is the
Mo. I tiaslly Jlanazed Implemtul f lh
Kim! lu Isr.
Iljr meant of the lerer either section can be readily
lifted, so as to avoid any oUtructlon, or to clean It.
A Small Boy can Operate it,
ItTlt hn UVcn tlio KIllS r premium at all the Fair
tthtrolthas loen exhibited. A reliable a.nt wanted
In ererr County on the 1'aeiflo Uust. bUU and County
right, for (lie. AJJrs.t:
Ilowburn, Oie;on; General Aeut for i'aclflo Ooett
f.bintf .