Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, January 06, 1882, Page 4, Image 4

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WILLAMETTE FARMER: PORTLAND, OREGON, JANUARY 6, 1882.
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Issued every Week by the
iixuiirrn: FAniiRit ri miisiiixg co.
tiiiims or sunscnirnoii.
Jno roar. (rentage pIJ), In wltanco $2.60
III months, (I'cwtaxo paid), In advance 1.25
jus than eii months will be, per month 25
ADVEItSISINO RATES :
AdTcrtls.Mnriitalll bo lncrtcJ, providing tn are
reapectoMc, at tho follow Ins table of rates :
Jne Inch of p ice per month 8 2 w
fhreo Inchon of sjneo per month 6 00
Jno half column per month 15.00
Jno column per month 30 00
F"8vniilo copies sont free on application.
1'utflicatlon Oillce: No. 6 Vvashl.igton Street, up
Ulrs, rooms Ha. b ana r
OUR FOURTEENTH VOLUME
Tho Wii.i.amftk Fai.mkb has now been
going abroad to visit the homes of its friends
for thirteen years, and ouinmences tho four
teenth year with tho early weeks of 1882. As
tho world goes, a dozen or so ears aro not
much, measured by tho great record of time,
but considered in the light of local events our
existence Govern a period during which tho
population of the Columbia region has
trebled, and from a comparatively non ex
porting country wo havo passed on to become
exporters of twenty millions of dollars worth
mutually. When tho Farmer wa Btarted wo
bad no railroads, except tho portages around
tho Cascades and Dalles of tho Columbia;
tho Willumetto river, as well as the Colum-
bia, was owned by companies who monopO'
licd tho portages; we exported no flour or
wheat to foreign countries; sold only a small
quantity of wool that went to California, ami
such a thing as selling a million or tun dol
lars worth annually of eattlo, horses and
sheep, to bo dtivtn East, was not even
ilrcamcd of.
Times havo changed sinco tho Willamette
Kaumku was a small sheet and started in for
a precaiious existence; for now tho wholo Pa
cifio Northwest teems with cnterpiise, and
tho nuwspapcr goes to hundreds of places
that then had not even name. Tho expan
sion of our columns has kept pace with tho
growth and development of the region wo aro
proud to loproscut, and wu feel justifiable
satisfaction v. lien wo lccoguizo that this
papor will compare favorably with similar
journals published in older sottled couutrica.
Whatever tho Farmer has been in tho
past, wo desire to inaleo it in ovcry respect
more usoful and moro valuablo in the future,
There is a limit to human enterprise, how
ever, and in our case that limit is financial
ability. Wo stand roady to dovoto every
dollar of income to improving tho character
of the papor und in adding to its practical
value, and as it is impossible to canvass the
whole country, wo depend on the kindmss of
ourfticudsto take somo pains to show tho
papor to otlioij, and so increase its circula
tion. Oue brain can do but so much, and to
employ other Inuins requires money, (live us
tho meaiis, and wo can fully supply the want
of a first-class newspaper. If a lifctimo of
education and experience, are of any value, it
'is at your hcivico if you w ill furnish means.
Tliis.iogioti now has a population of oue liun
bundled ami fifty thousand farmers, and
ought to bo abundantly nble to support a
journal that will cover the whole Held of inde
pendent thought, improved agriculture, ecion
tillo progress mid gcncr.il news of tho world.
The age, standing and influence of this
journal aiu a guaiantco that it will not go
backwaid or Bland still, To go forward wo
must have support to justify it, and if evt-j-subsctiber
will take intwwit In procuring
moro nuU-"'icnj, It will soou iijercaso our
circulation, which will also increase our ad
vcitising patiouagc, and wu shall maku tho
F.Uimkii conoapond with its support.
Onu gi.itif) iug fact that wo note is that tho
majoiity of thoao who tako tho paper remain
its linn mtppottorg. Wu fool grateful fur
every kind wuid and act, and iceeivo many
enoouiagiug expressions that give us coinage
to do.
l'loa-m remember tint wu offer a good coin
mission on all new subset ibers sent us, and do
not expect scivico without remuneration; but
nil the sainu wo feci obliged to thoao who
accept our terms ami add new names to our
lilt.
UUAUTIFUL WINTER WEATHER.
If wo Invo any tovoro Winter weather, it
invariably comes punctually with Christmas,
It is frequently tho case that holiday week is
ijuitu sharply cold, but tho present season we
wore struck with a moderately cold wave iu
Novemlier, though it would have been consid
ei cd mild for that month iu tho same latitude
east of tho Itocky mountains, and since then,
we have neither had cold or rain in great de
gree, but though occasionally foggy and rather
raw, our December was unusually pleasant to
bear that name. The new year commenced
with a Spring tempeiatuiu. If it continues wo
shall have picmaturo bloom on poach trees, if
not other fruit, We remember to havo sccu
peach trves in bloom Iu Portland gardens at a
very early daj.ln tho month of February, and
ludicwtiou faor a similar occurrence tho
present year.
If thlt wtvtther continues our fanners will
itmnodiMely K'tfiu their Spring plowing, and
an umuiml acreage of Spring grain will bo
put in, While we expect to have mild Wiu
" Wr Hi Western Oregon, this season, so far,
lmi In t few predecessors of equally moderate
t(liioi-tuli', It will sound strine to persons
iu the 4Vi latitude elaott hero to read of Mow
ers ill Koom In our giidcut at Christmas, but
such it tho fact, The lawns and door )nrdi of
..IVrtlaiid ro gw;n anl beautiful ai if it wu
May. Pastures rro nil bettor than usual, and
stock ge: eioll) eloiujj well. Fall sown grain
lias mi df 01 grow th ami promises to whiter
muo'.i IrlUr thtn Ut yea-. (live us good
prices atiot'jri yc.-.r, and this whole Northwett
corutry will W on t. etop wave of prosperity.
1. 1 ' i . i i. n
Thar are stld tc moro pure Hate
f .Short'..! ni) females iu the vicinity of Mt.
btorliii,:, Kv., than there are iu Kmdu d and
the rv: id AmencA coniuiuto.
THE NEW TEAR.
The advent of another year is a fit time to
consider many things; to glean experience
from the past, and make resolves for tin
future. Our readers aro found far and near
among farmers, and this season it usually the
time when the farmer has loss pressure of
work and less demands upon his attention
than any other. Tiie work of the past year is
fully completed. Whatever tho harvest has
been, it is all gatheied, and as a general fact
our people of both Oregon and Washington
have been blessed with fair returns from the
soil. The Fall work is done, and you now
wait for tho "turn of the year" acd tho
"breaking of Winter" to commence plowing
and seeding for Spring grain. If we have any
advice to give, or suggestion to make, based
oil personal experience, general kttowledgo of
fanning matters and many years dev oted to
conducting this journal, it is to hope that our
farmers will appreciate tho vakjo to them
selves individually and to the State at largo
of moro careful husbandry and more deter
mination to vary tho class of products. Tho
timo has come when careless farming and
propagation of wild oats and weeds tell
heavily on soils that are not impoverished, but
waste their fertility in producing such pests,
and as a result disappoint tho hard-working
fanner w ho hopes for a good yield.
We look upon it that in 'tho coming years
the world will see greater competition in the
lino of breadstufls, wool and meat than has
ever been known. Vast districts of North
iVinerica, that possess uncounted possibilities,
besides those opening up on this Northwest
I Coast, aro being made-available by railroads,
and besides this, other portions of the world
aro iucrtasinv production and also increasing
areas for cultivation. Russia is putting mil
lions of acres into wheat that never havo been
cropped, and tho constitution of railroads
will make tire Russian Empire n greatly in
creasing ptoducer of grain for a century to
come. Not only so, but India and parts of
Asia that havo dono little in that way, but
ato in or near the mountains, having secured
transpoitation by railroad building, are now
beginning to push their grain into the markets
of Kuiopc. Wo read quite lately that tho
coast of Africa, bordering the Mediterranean,
is to become wheat producing, and wo see no
reason why development shall not mcko
South America, before many years, a com
petitor in this branch of agriculture, and in
every other.
During tho two past years our farmers havo
had to pay heavy toll to ocean transportation,
but it is only natuial to bclievo that this fault
will bo remedied, simply for the reason that
abundant capital is satisfied with moderate
dividends, and our comineicial wants need
only to bo known to be amply supplied in
timo.
When commencing a now year wo ought to
look all probabilities fairly in tho face and
prepare to meet 'them successfully. The
farmer needs an active brain, perhaps not as
constantly, but as certainly as the inei chant.
Tho coming years will see a great strugglo on
tho part of producers to hold their own, and
economical management, and that sort of
cultivation that will bring sure returns will
eventually win. Tho man who puts all His
land to wheat takos gteat chances, whilo the
man who has a 'ood orchard nnd garden;
good meadows and pastures; who keeps stock
with good judgment especially sheep; whoso
management makes him in as gieat measure
us poasiUosolf-siistaiuing, and with something
nt all seasons to sell, has the safest, surest
and far tho pleasantcst lot in life. The pos
session of such varied interests not only givis
pleasant variety of occupation, but stimulates
energies and ideas into constant and healthy
exercise.
Tho great change that has como upon this
legion within threo yeais past is simply won
derful, It looks as if wu should soon have
little left to desire in the way of internal im
provements, and a groat area of country will
be nude available for settlement and cultiva
tion. Tho l'acillo Northwest has qualities
that will bo rapidly developed, nnd will yield
enormous products, to supply the wants of the
world. There is no leasonvvh) our farmers
should not bo propctous and happy, but wo
insist upon it that they need to study eco
nomic methods. Kcouomy docs not simply
mean parsimony, cither, but tho w old signi
fies w hat is best. Political economy takes iu
all that pertains to the prosperity of a nation,
und farm economy means mot hods that will
pay best in the long run; not a penurious,
hand-to-mouth way of living that looks only
to the wants of the present. Tho farmer
should plan liis work for years ahead, and
farm to preserve hit family as well as his land
in tlrst-rato condition.
It may not seem very lively to commence
tho Now Year with a sermon, but there is no
better time for ouo than now. Yet it is
pleasant to reach out a hand and grasp that
of every reader, and, with hearty good w ill,
wish you all a "Hippy New xear, and
imagine a full and hearty response. May tho
year bo bountiful with blessings, and may it
bring not merely health and happiness in au
ordinary acceptation, but may it bring relia
ble prosperity to us all, and the possession of
the best pnvilegos to every homo. 1st) far as
the Wiilamktte I'AltMhH goes, we will try
to bring you cause for Welcomo every week,
and endeavor moro and more, as we havo ex
perience to qualify it, toeoutiibuta to your
actual prosptiity and lucrease your iutel
i-ctual resources.
Attorneys for tho N, r. R. R-
Tlw firm of McNsujht, Kerry. MoXaught,
of this city, haw Wen employed as Mtorucja
lor the Northern l'acilic Railroad Company,
counsel of the Con twuv. making tho appoint
iiient, the nufstiui of i imputation, wtivthor
fee or salary, ws left to the hnn, anil they
chose the latter. James McNanght v. ill go
Host of the mount i us early iu January ou
tha Company's bttfine, to bo gone a couple
J of weeks. iSYuHc- iHttlli-jtnttr,
on a salary, and now have full chargo of all
that Company's legal business iu Washington
Territory, both Kast and Wist of the luoun-
taitia. in the utter oi urorce lira v. cenerai
REVIEW OF THE TEAR 1881.
Standing on the threshold of the New Year,
till in the shadow of the old, wo can look
back with satisfaction on the advanco the Co
lumbian region has made in 1881. The previ
ous year was remarkable for the short crops
that followed an uncommonly dry season Kast
of tho mountains, which worked a decided
hardship on the farmers there who made
wheat taising a specialty. They claim, in the
Umatilla, Walla Walla and Palouse regions,
that, oning to the vtry great product.on from
their soil, where wheat fairly put in averages
thirty bushels to tho acre, they can do w ell
when their wheat brings 50 cents a bushel at
tho nearest station. Owing to various causes,
during tho year following the harvest of 1880,
wheat did not command more than 35 to 40
cents a bushel, and times were hard with
farmers. Also, along tho Columbia and to
tho North of it, there w as a very severe Win
ter ono year ago, and a ereat deal of stock
died from cold and starvation. The unusually
dry Summer had left the pastures bare, and
stock entered the Winter poor, hence the loss
iu that section; but those who have read our
articles on stock in Wasco county, will see
that in all Middle and Southern Oregon the
Winter was mild, the pastures gooJ, and
that scarce any stock was lost. So through
tho greater portion of Eastern Oregon stock
Wintered' well on tho native ranges, oven in
that unusually inclement season.
In Western Oregon tho harvest of 1880 was
magnificent. Suddenly thera was a scarcity
of tonnage to satisfy tho demands of Cali
fornia and the Columbia river trade, for the
two States had a surplus of over 50,000,000
bushels of wheat to export, and all the ton
nage nvailablo could not transport two-thuds
of that quantity, so that the two States cat
ried over a surplus of twenty millions of bush
els, or more, to the present harvest year Of
course, with such a lack of tonnage, the ship
owners had it all their own way, and freights
were simply enormous, much to the disgust of
our honest and hard worked producers, who
sold a magnificent crop of wheat at an aver
ago of about sixty cents a bushel, when they
had hoped to get a dollar; and if freights had
remained at a reasonable figure they would
have received 85 cents to 00 cents per bushel.
High .freights cost our Northern Pacific farm
cisnotfar from $3,000,000 that year. Tho
Winter season of JSS0 and 1881 was not so
seve'ro iu Western Oregon as in Eastern Ore
gon; with us stock uiu weil, but stock hero
can always bo housed and fed in inclement
weather, as stock raising is not carried on as it
is East of tho mountains.
An abundant yield of cereals in that sec
tion has mado 1881 a prosperous year for
Eastern Oregon and Washington. Fortu
nately, they had in their favor improved
transportation facilities, a reduction in freight
charges and partial failui o of productiou over
much of the world, gave wheat a price that
netted the farmer everywhere in all this re
gion a much better piico than in 1880. The
heavy yield was marketable at 75 to 85 cents
iu this valley during tho eatly Fall months,
and at 55 to GO oouU lAb of tho Cascades.
Despite freights of extoitionatechares, wheat
this year was made to aid the producer, aud
was encouragement for further labor. Still,
tho overcharge on freights, above a good pay
ing rate, dipped into producers' pockets to
the tune of about two millions of dollars, oven
though not so hear as iu 1880.
California in 1SS1 failed to produce even an
urcrago fair crop, and did not havo a total of
ouo half as much an in IbSl. Only for tho im
mense quantity held over from 18S0, freights
would now be abundant and cheap, but while
we exported from tho coast less than a million
tons of giain in 1880, wo commenced with at
least fifteen hundred thousand tons of wheat
on hand, after tho recent harvest. The latest
reports of tonnage goes to show that nearly
enough vessels are on the way hero to take
away all this immeuso surplus, but still tho
tonnage question rules the day, because there
is not known jet tu bo a full supply of ships
to answer our nccels. Our expoits include
lumber, timber, canned aud salted salmon and
many other proilucts, so that our growiug
commerce seems to bo a U on producers, as
it creates a demand for ships. Take wheat
pioduction in 1881 and it may bo considered a
fair business, though not a remunerative one,
but tho world needs our wheat, and pays a
premium for it ou account of its extra qual
ity. Soon, this transportation problem will
bo solved, and with the Southern Pacific road
to take away part of the California surplus
and ship it to Europe via the Gulf of Mexico,
and with the prospect of a ship canal, or ship
railroad, across the Isthmus of Darieu as soou
as human energy can accomplish them, we
may consider that beforo many years pass we
shall have cheaper transportation for our
grain, and also a more ccrtafn market for it.
Wool has been a great and increasing staple
with us, and our w ool is favorably Luown in
the markets of the w orld. We have for years
been breeding up in Merino, until we havo in
many instances the best quality of clothing
wool for sale. Last ye-ar we had probably 8,
000,000 pounds of wool worth $2,000,000,
which added to the sum of money netted by
the farmer for his wheat, made a total of ten
millions of dollars that went to producers of
these two staples alone. While wool growing
it carried on extensively East of the rnoun
tains, as a specialty, here, in Western Oregon,
aud iu all farming districts, farmers generally
find it profitable to combiuo sheeu with their
operations, as scavengers and gleaners, to
clear their Summer-fallow of weeds, so to in.
urv good crops and to sustain the fertility of
the soil by tho returns that sheep alw ays give
to it.
At years pass our agriculture it becoming
more divcrsitied, We grow more grass and
clover mow good pasture and gooel meadow;
more well cultivated gardens aud well assort
vj orchards, Gardening near large cities has
become profession; so has the cultivation of
tuiaU fruits. We find good hop yanlt turning
off immense yields and payiug tome years a
heavy profit. Last year wt fortune in every
respect for hop growers. This industry has
become a permanent thing, and many men
give careful study to it, and produce and pre
pare their hops in the very best manner. The
hop crop of the Sound and this valley was
worth hundreds of thousands of dollars the
past year.
The price of stock cattle has advanced from
$10 a head to about 15, and wo have active
demand for all we can afford to sell. Tho
Bame is true of horses and sheep, and it is not
too much to claim that the stock sales' of the
Columbia and Willamette regions have aggro
gated two millions of dollars in 1831 for that
year's transactions. It is not an overestimate
to suppose that the products of agriculture,
sold for foreign markets, including shipments
to California and Eastern trade, foot up S15,
000,000 the past year.
During the year passed by, our country has
been on a top wave of progress and develop
ment. Kailroads have been extended, and the
system undertaken insures for this region
speedy connection with the world in all direc
tions. It looks as if we should soon have
nothing left to wish for. Money comes here
by millions to be invested in all safe ways; to
encourage industry in every form; to but.d
railroads; to start commercial banks; to make
great improvements everywhere; to develop
coal fields, build saw and grist mills, buy
homes and improve them, and as fast as rail
roads offer opportunity, settlement progresses
and agriculture is maintained.
It is not possible in a single article propor
tioned to a newspaper's means, to do justice
to this wide region wo denominate the Pacific
Northwest. Early in the Spiing wo shall see
tho railroad a through line from Portland to
Walla Walla, and to Northern Montana. By
Fall tho gap will bo closed between Portland
and Kalama, giving thiouph connection to
Pugct Sound; also, by Fall the Northern Pa
cific will be completed to beyond Missolua, in
Montana; the Blue Mountain branch of the O.
R. & N. Co.'s roads will be built from the Col
umbia river to Baker City, criving connection
with the Oregon branch of the Union Pacific
and a through route to Chicago and New
York. The work of 1882 will finish the sys
tern by which tho O. R. & N. Co. will develop
tho Palouse and Walla Wulla valleys. Jan
uary, 1883, will see less than 300 miles of gap
remaining unfinished in tho great Northern
Pacific route, and the Summer of 1883 will
doubtless see that road completed and in full
operation. Also, 1883 will see the union of
the Oregon and California road and the Ore
gon branch of the Central Pacific at the Stato
lino, and speedy connection between Portland
and San Francisco.
We have briefly recapitulated the facts of
our production and development, and shown
what advantages projected transportation en
terprises offer us. We are rapidly growing iu
population, and shall soon possess facilities
for transportation in every direction. The
great Columbian valley will no longer be an
unknown land, but will be thoroughly pros
pected and rapidly developed. A great deal
of our progress has been accomplished by the
energy and ambition of a single man who had
tho genius to grasp tho subject comprehensive.
ly, and recognizing the capacities of this great
region has had the courage and ability to uu
dcrtake its development. Mr. Vilbrd has
certainly accomplished much, and this recion
has benefitted by his ambition and enterpirso.
If he keeps his promises with us, we shall
benefit still more. Let us hope that our future
progress will be identified with his continued
success, and that the farmers of Oregon and
Washington will also find buccess crown their
efiorts.
INSANE ASYLUM BUILDING.
The people were determined to have a
State Institutiou erected, and iu consequence
of that determination the last Legislature
passeel a Building Act appropriating one hun
dred thousand dollars ni money, and the use
of convict labor so far as it could be employed,
and with this scant appropriation the work
was commenced. We say "scant," because
we have so often been told that tho usual ex
penditure was $1,000 for each patient, and
when our State Board undertook to put up an
asylum that would accommodate four hundred
patients with that sum of money at command,
it really did appear that it was a "scant"
appropriation for so important a purpose.
The Stato Board, consisting of Governor
Thayer, Secretary Earhart and Treasurer
Hirsch, went to work determined to see what
economy and prudence could do in the way
of building such au asylum. They selecte-d W.
F. Boothby, of Salem, an experienced builder
and accomplished architect, to plan anil super
vise the construction, and, so far, results
achieved fully endorse this as a most judicious
selection. They also appointed Dr. H. Car
penter, late of Salem and now of Portland, as
Medical Superintendent to advise as to the
best mode of construction for sanitary pur
poses, a Board of Consulting Physicians hav
ing met and decided on a geucral plan at the
outset. With this orgauization the building
of the Asylum has progressed through the
year lbsl, and is now enclosed, roofed and
tho windows partly iu. Partitions are being
put up, and very soon the heating apparatus,
consisting of hot air furnaces, pipes, etc., will
be put in place and ready for operation. It
will thus be apparent that work has pro
gressed already so rapidly that there will be
no difficulty in finishing the construction next
Summer, to tliat the Legislature can provide
iu September for fitting and furnishing it for
occupation as au Asylum when the Hawthorne
contract shall expire in December.
To satisfy themselves as to the value of
their plant, Dr. Carpenter and architect
Boothby lately made an official journey to
California and visited both tho asylums of
that State, at Stockton and Napa, and we
learn that in each instance the officers in
charge of these asylums pronounce the plan
oi the Salem Asylum quite superior to their
own, and in fact combining more perfect aud
convenient arrangements tlian any known
institution of the kind. We are prepared
to believe this, because wo have known that
Mr. Boothby and Dr. Cvpentcr hare cb.
tained plans and specifications of the best in
stitutions of the kind in tho world, and hare
devoted a great deal of study to combining in
their plan the best features and most ap
proved modern ideas known in the building
art and in medical science. Dr. Carpenter
has had wide experience as well as professional
learning, and has entered into this matter
with great earnestness; the result will be seen
in a perfect asylum for those unfortunates
that come upon the State.
Experts everywhere pronounce this a model
plan; the building will be better lighted and
arranged than most asylums; there is more
space allotted each patient than in California
asylums. Besides, it is the best building
ever erected, in Europe or America, for this
amount of money; thero has been no chance
for jobbery or speculation, and the Stato
Board, tl at has inspected and passed on all
items of expense, is entitled to great credit
for tho faithful and economical manner in
which the work has been done.
Of tho total 100,000 appropriated $02,000
has been expended, leaving $38,000 to bo
used, with nearly all the expensive material
bought and paid for. When the building
shall bo finished and furnished, the total cost,
including a fair valuation of convict labor'
will bo about $150,000; of this $100,000 will
be tho cash cost of the building; $25,000 will
bo the estimated value of convict labor, and
$23,000 will bo Required to furnish it. The
asylum is calculated for 400 patients, and,
dividing this amount by that number, gives
$400, or lesj, as the cost for each patient,
and, deducting convict labor, not much more
than $300 for each patient. The cost of
tho Napa institution was $2,000 each patient,
there being a great deal of ornamentation
about the edifice; the avcrago cost in most
countries is placed at $1,000, but our
asylum costs less than half the usual outlay,
while it still, though a plain edifice, possesses
great architectural beauty, and its adaptabil
ity to the use intended is equal to any known
asylum, and far superior to most.
It will be a great credit to our State, as
well as to the officers superintending the
work, that we can put so thoroughly com
petent a building so cheaply and stfll possess
so much excellence, and we venture to be
lieve that when built and in operation, our
asylum can be conducted efficiently and hu
manely and with the same economy that has
characterized its construction.
THE QUITEAU TRIAL.
This miserable performance drags on and
costs the country an immense sum, much more
than Guiteau's lifo is worth, but this nation
is vindicating its claim to be of a high order
of civilization And possessed of the magnanim
ity tnat becomes a great people. The assassin
is protected as carefully by the law as if he
were entitled te the best acts of our people,
and all the while he is looked upon with
loathing and execrated as a depraved villain
that has no right to live.
But while wo arAvindicating our houor by
granting this human fiend an impartial trial,
at an immense expense, there is no reason
why, week after week, and day by day, ho
should be allowed to blaspheme by claiming
inspiration for his act, and asserting his alli
ance with God; nor should he be allowed to
use scurrilous language by insulting witnesses
aud counsel, as he constantly docs. Judge
Cox may be honest and impartial, but he
lacks judgment and forgets what is due to the
Court, what is due to the people, and what is
so evideutly due to the cowardly assassin who
stands so infamously condemned by the world.
Something is also due to the murdered Presi
dent, who stood so high in the esteem of all
good citizens, and whose fate has been so sor
rowfully mourned. This pitiful wretch, that
would not have tho courage to attack any en
emy openly, seems to havo reached the very
hight of his earthly ambition when ablo to
insult tho memory of tho dad and outrage the
feelings of tho living. It is the day he has
lived for, planned for, and, standing in the
prisoner's dock loading the air with foul
mouthed profanity, his vanity is intensely
satisfied becauso his low-flung and ribald
utterances are telegraphed all over tho conti
nent and the world.
Tako up an Eastern journal two weeks old
and compare it with the dispatches of to-day,
and they read almost alike. The constant in
terruption, unchecked insults and degraded
utterances seem stereotyped; and we wonder
how long human patience can endure.
Before the days of mourning have gone by
in Washington, this human vampire is heard
iu open court, and allowed unhindered to
gloat over the assassination. It is an insult
to justice and civilization; to the nation and
to the martyred dead, that such a course is
pursued. The ribaldry that he affects as in
sanity is assumed with too much skill. The
popular verdict has long been rendered that
he never was insane, but that depravity has
run unchecked until murder was the outcome.
We shall all be glad when this despicable
farce shall be ended, and the spirit of Gar
field be allowed to rest iu peace.
Lousiness.
The cheapest and one of the best means of
ridding stock of lice, consists in tho free ap
plication of ordinary wood ashes, frequent
bruthing, removal of old or dirty bedding,
occasional application of boiling hot water to
the wood-work of stalls, sheds and sties, or
lime-washing of the same. All loose hairs
aud dirt removed from tho bodies of animtlt
by brushing, as well as old bedding, should
bo collected in a heap and burned. The prcs
ence of vermin or live stock can never be
successfully combatted by simply applying
a certain reniady to the body of the animals,
and not 1 1 tin same time attending to the
general clcanlinus of these, as well as of
their surround).!. li.-.Stoch Journal
Cabbage it tho best and cheapest (jreen food
which can bo fed to raaltry iu Winter. It is
not necessary to fd t'o best heads, but the
loose, soft spociuieus that are not extotly
marketable.
RAILROAD MATTERS.
We hear considerable speculation concern
ing tho intentions of railroad managers, that
may not bo worth noting, but aa the publie
likes to be informed of all tuch current gossip
we will sum up the floating talk for what it it
worth.
Hon. A. L. Williams, of Kansas, attorney
for the Union Pacific and Oregon Short Line
railroads, has been in this city attending to
the incorporation of an Oregon Company, so
that they can build railroads in this State.
The local board are D. P. Thompson, M. S.
Burrell, Ellis G. Hughes and B. J. Penirra
who aro organized merely to comply with the
laws of our Stato. Mr. Williams was inter
viewed and announced that his company in
tend not only to meet tho O. R. & N. Co. at
Baker City, as agreed between the companies,
but also to put a road through either to the
Columbia and down that river to Portland, or
else push west from Boise City, cross the Blue
mountains, and enter this valley by the San
tiam pass of the Cascades. He plainly says
that such work is conditioned on whether
Villard pushes his road eat through Idaho
and Wyoming from Baker City; in which case
tho Short Line must return the'compliment
by coming to Portland. It is pretty safe to
conclude that the respective managers will
come to a mutual understanding not to inter
fere with each other's plans, and that the Un.
ion.Pacifio Short Line will end at Baker City,
Thero is also a rumor that the Central Pa
cific magnates, in pursuance of their scheme
to transfer Oregon wheat, via the Southern
Pacific road to tho Gulf of Mexico, and thence
to Europe, aro negotiating for tho purchase of
tho Oregon and California road and control of
all tho lines in the Willamette valloy. It is
apparently to tho interest of our producers
that one company should own the route from
here to the Gulf of Mexico, if it is possible to
carry our wheat by that route. Without
knowing anything authoritative, we should
say that the scheme is reasonable on the face
of it, but will hardly bo carried out except as
a compromise between the Villard combina
tion and the Central Pacific men, to prevent
the latter building independent roads into
Oregon and take away both the wheat of this
valley and the surplus of Eastern Washington
and Oregon. Four great corporations are in
terested in the trade of this Northwest re
gion: tho Northern Pacific, O. R. & N. Co.,
Union Pacific and Central Pacific, and who
ever expects they will be apt to antagonize
each other may as well abandon that idea, for
it is only good business sense for them to
compromise matters, so -that each will have
distinct interests that the others will not en
croach upon, and as all seem to have abundant
means at command it is not safe for one to
neglect the claims of another.
What the Oregon Pacific will amount to re
main to be seen. If it really comes into the
field with immense capital at command, and
determined to claim a share of this trade, we
shall look for some compromise rather than
that the producing class will have the benefit
of competition and low freights. Men who
swing tens of 'millions of capital are not apt
to throw it away in fighting other capital, ,
The usual way with railroads is to harmonize
their interests in some way or other, and as
that is only common sense, in a business point
of view, we cannot blame railroad men and
need not foster any sanguine hopes of good to
result to the producer from competition.
e mako these suggestions as to railroad
policy with perfect confidence that the future
will bear them out, and what we have dished
up has only been the railroad gossip of the
hour.
O. LATHROP ts CO.
This celebrated Boston house has lately
put us uuder obligation for favors. They issue
the Wide Awake illustrated magazine, Baby
land and several other periodicals for chil
dren and youth that are fully equal to any
thing of the kind we have ever seen.
Their illustrated calendar, Day After Day,
for 1882, is a convenieut thing to hang up in
every home, and every day carries a lesson
with it, as "golden texts" are printed on eaoh
leaf, nnd there is a leaf for every day in the
year.
'How wo wont Birds'-Nesting" is the title
of one of the most charmingly written and
most beautifully illustrated works we have
ever met. It is written by Amanda B. Harris,
and the illustrations are by G. F. Barnes,
These pictures of birds of various kinds show
them in all situations and different seasons,
with their nests, and are of a choiming style
of etching that exhibit natural features with
great beauty. We should class these illustra
tions as very happy efforts, displaying great
artistio skill, and the book, as a whole,
though inexpensive, is a beautiful and tasteful
gift. The cover is a gem of itself.
D. Lathrop & Co. are also publishig
series of illustrated works, in which the his
tory of different countries is given in a plain
and pleasant manner, with numerous illustra
tions. They send us a sample of this "Library
of Entertaining History," which U devoted to
Switzerland, a land we all like to read about.
The book is a handsome size, nearly six hun
dred pages, and contains one hundred engrav
ings of places in that country. The history if
written in easy and familiar style, and made
attractive for young people. A library of
such books would not only be an ornament to
the household, but would entice the young
oople into an understanding oi matters oi
great importance that are often neglected,
much to tue Joss ol tne luture man or woman.
REDUCED BOBSCBIPWOH PRICE.
Onr charge for subscription at home is in
variably $2.50 a yetr, but as we wish to en
courage Eastern people to read about tbii
region we offer to tend to subscribers from
other States for two dollar a year, or one
dollar for six mouths.
A wealtny company cf Belgian capitalists It
about organizing a new concern for the manu
facture oi beet-root sugar in th Province oi
Quebec. '
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T-TL.
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