Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, November 25, 1881, Page 4, Image 4

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    WILLAMETTE FAKMER : PORTLAND, OREGON, NOVEMBER 25, 1881.
i mp
W. th.
aafvanmsxal
jpE
Iucd every Week by trie
mun.ru: I'Aitucit i'ihmiiiinu to,
TIIIIVS OK BLJ.SCIIHTIOJ.
Iliercir, (I'osLdlrt pildl In ftiltam-c . .. .$ 2 SO
Jlx niont.li, (1'osli.ioiiald), In ailvantv
CjCBS than px month will tic, lx.r month
AIUKI'.SISI.NO ItATM:
Adiirtl-mixritsiiill l liiatrtctl, lirolHirn In
fea.tpct ililt, at thefolloiiintf UMoot rails-:
One iin.li of fpue per inoiith
Thrto inchos of t.u.c r lnonth
One half column per month
One column tcr month .
. ' . ... . tl.ttni.
2.M
. f. 00
. JO 00
fctTSlUlip'P TOpiCA (eni irre Oil n'imuiii'
IMoiluitbii Office: -No & Watlii talou btrrLt
talrn. rooimt No f aii'l rA
Up
PUGET SOUHD
I.KSrilAI. IIIM'IUI'IION,
It is ton m in iliough to hc.11 till ft'Stition
matin that Pugel Sound is "tliu finest body cf
Hater 111 Hie w 01 Id, "and the assertion is true,
lievoml a iloulit. Study the .ithsaa you may,
ami you will nivci finil n land lockfd s'a that
in iti eqml, ami whcriver one exists tliat may
resemble it 111 tiacings (if otitlmo upon the
atlas, an investigation at to its character
slums thai it has not the practical advantigcs
that belong to our western water-ways, that
roach from Olympi.i, liy various mart of sea
n.l almrp. tii tliB British Columbia line, ami
beyond that tho waters of tho Gulf of Georgia
tany tho varviiig chum of sea anil hoio in
iltfinitcly to the northward.
Hy attual surveys of government the me
andeiings of tho shore lines of these land
locked wattn extend two thousand links.
'J ho intricate windings; the svncp of island-),
peninsulas and main land; the dctp reaching
lnj s, sound and inlets, constitute a very
labyrinth to which navigation, however, soon
finds tlir clue. One can imagine, wncn he
traverses this plu.nl stone to-day with coin
nitrte spi tailing it. sails and sttaniingili every
diicction, what a ill he heic in tho future,
when, witli a lapse of yeats, this region shall
havo acquit cd some portion of the great prom
ise Hut awaits 't. When wo study tho lead
ing fiatuus of the country wc find tint tho
most inti'KHting and valuable loealitiis for
prodiiclion as well an for coinnieite ho in tho
counties of Washington Ttintory. Thtro is
so much of wealth and iindevclupod piosp n
ty in this legion that we possess, that wo can
forgivo tho statesmanship of two stole ycais
ago which failed to claim and stture the lino
of fit dcgieos 40 minutes as our Northern
bounds'', in viow of tho fact that thoy pre
Bcived the wondufiil iigion of Pugct Sound,
ami 1110 111111111 loiouices ami immense wcaiiu
that hew lAisti, as put of tho National do
main.
One g 0 it point in favoi of this immense,
stretch of tnhiiiil sea is, that nowhere is navi
gation impeded. Ships of any sizo that sail
tho ocean 0111 sail in on any tide or with any
gale behind them ami need no pilot through
the length of tho broad Strait dc Fuca. From
one end to the other these watcis aro 11 laby
rinth, with broad islands on tho south, that
cluster thickly into an arelupilago bcfoie wo
reach tho Id itish lino, but w hcrcver tho w aters
go they give good chniincls, fteo from shoals
and without .1 sunken rotk or dangeioua retf,
thiniijli all thtn length and biuadtli.
II MK Volt Sl'OKTSMKS.
Novel was there such a region as this for
tho hivet of out-doot sports. The higlit of a
eportsmui'ii hopes cannot exceed tho fact as it
exists h iv, wheio tho islands abound in gamo
and the watus 1110 thronged with v.inoiis
kinds of salmon, salmon trout, halibut, cod,
and many othei salt water llsh, while the
stioam m so well stocked with trout that'
flip ilinloi u 1 nriKu U illi tin- itinnnln n- i.f lua'
.... . ..f,.. . .......... ..-- V--U '.. I. hU.- i- 111a
suotms. This 1 will illustrate by actual facts
Cipt. dill, of tho revenuo cutter Wolcott,
who loves his lod and gun ami uses them ar
tistically, usmiii-d us that ho actually tiled
his arm pulling trout out of Whatcom lake;
and Ml .Ins. McKnaiight, of Seattle, who
proctitis at nut-door sports with genuine
ardor, when Ins li gal duties permit, tells In w
young Itnllct (sou of Major llnllei) killed
forty ducks at thno shots at 0110 time, and
when 011 0110 of tho islands, at another time,
killed seven elk inside uf (if teen minutes. On
these islands, and t lit main laud, can be found
e'k, dear, bear, giouse, and in proper seasons
myriads nf wild gene, duck 1, brant, etc, of
fer inducement i to tho hunter.
IN HKWtrll Ol" IMMUVIATION.
Hut wo I .tely iido a journey to Pugct
Sound for the purpWo of becoming Informed
as to lU actual ieourc- and aciiuaintcil most
especially with tho inducements that region
oilers for settlement, Having lived here, in
wirgou, ior almost a iniru 01 a century, we !
gan to 00 aslmuietl tliat we nail so little prac
tical kuowlii!-o uf t!-o Souad country, ind
Mhcn an oppottuiuty olVernl to 111. ke an ex
cursion Micro in company with a gi'iitltmaii
who latl) cauiu nut with Mr. Villard, and
has been cotnuis,ioiiiil b) him to superintend
in Now York City vinous publitations with
reganl to the Pncilli) Noithvvist, as the lit ail
of a lluresu of liiformati.ui to bo istablinhed
hy the Trans contiuiiital Companies, we wire
thankful for an opporttiuit) to visit this re
gion under such ciruimatauies, and to add to
1IIK UlTtll SOUMI IIIUMUY
Tho (harm uf delightful companionship.
The Strait of Kuca forma a Uriud chaimtl
that leads in an eatteily dimtion fioin the
ocean for at least sixty-five mile, and Ad
miralty Inlet forms an arm to this cllmw,
reaching south to Taeoma for a distance of at
li act scfcnty-five miles, while the rpreadiiig
Inlets tlat were originally and sptauVally
known as Pugct Sound, something like the
flngem of a hunt, are eastward, or south and
cast of Taoouis, hy water 43 miles to Olympia,
anft. extend still beyond there. This crude
descrlfion Iravca much uniaid, hut anwrs
s a gel guide to locate the places of ilurf
Interest nnnportaiire. A glance at the
will M t ri-ailer t this time.
Olyrnpi rrly ettlt'nieiit ami wa
th 6nt pout racld by stage Uforv the
.y& u Quit, ana lr4jv hire ttimlviU
S ,
ran the length of the Sound. At present this
point seems out of tho way as a commercial
' cen cr but has a wide stretch of country tribti-
tary to it ami only a slight divide separates
it from the waters of the Chehalis which tuns
to tho ocean. Though not on tlie line
of the North Pacific railroad Olympia
cnterpiise has secured connection with it
hy a narrow gauge 1011I. This makes the
place easy of access and its tiaile is main
tained by the pioilutts of the surrounding
cnnutiv. ft is true, however, ol tins p rtion
of the Sound country, that its soil is oftth
band and not -cry favoinblc for production,
though tncie are spots of neh heaver dam bot
toms along tho cricks that are viry valuable.
Tim general characttrof the land may be given
as heavily timbeied, but there are openings
throughout tho country and tock-iaiing and
daiiymg are made profitable. No doubt tic ro
is much vacant land with good soil, hut the
expense of tleaniv' will 1 1 event dense s ttle-
incut for the pnscnt.
'J'acoma, at tho head of Admir.ality Inlc' is
tho pnscnt terminus of the railway from the
Columbia, ami is making rapid growth based
upon it i piospicts as a future commercial
point. Sca-goyig vessels of all denominations
can come to Taeoma and the only difficulty,
here, as tlscw hero, is that tno water is too
deep for comfortable anchorage there aro no
shallows This is also true at Seattle, and of
all other points except Olympia. which is
located inconveniently, for at low tide vessels
cf deep draught cannot approach nearer than
two miles of tho tow n. Tncoina has the
same sort of timbered and gravelly and sandy
countiy hack of It, but the I'uynllup river
comes in from the southeast and on this is
found n groat extent of rich bottom land that
is wou-ierfully productive. Tho l'uyallup
countiy is famous for its hop yards and the
past eeason as well as tho tvv o seasons before
it, Ins greatly cniiehed its hop growers.
The l'uyallup Indian reseivatiou occupies
thirly-six sections of excellent Ian I, and it is
generally true of the many similar reserva
tions that they have been locatid on the best
land tho country allords, and it remains a
fertilo waste, because tho present possessors
make no clfort to cultivate and improve it.
Fishinu and tho chaso, and whatever bounty
they iccicve from the government, answers
their wants and supply their not over scrupu
lous needs. Agriculture is not an art tiny
appntiatc, much ltss put into practice
TIIK MIlUlLi: MlU.Nll CIIU-STUV.
Not far to the north of l'uyallup are the
waters of White river, which run noith and
nut into Seattle bay. This river and its
,r,i,,r; ,.,... 1 .,-,. ii nt ,,.,1 mm
cllltl,rni lall(1 BU1i ftro occupied by farmers and
cultivated to gooil ndvantagc. This county
is tho most populous and wealthy on the
Sound, as it contains Seattle, which is the
prescut eoinnvrcial centre and seems so
located and favored by its natural rosouices 11a
to ordain tliat it will remain tho chief com
mercial point throuch all ages to come. As
this is the oldest settltd region of the middle
Sound, of course the most available lands
near it are occupiid and hate been so for
many years.
Wo have alluded to tho best alluvial
lemons, alone the sti earns, and now will
speak of tho character of the timber regions
and uplands that constittito tho great body of
tho country lying between the shores of the
Sound and the spurs of tho Cascndo ranee,
which will applj in ucncial to all such himli,
wherever they may lie. The soil ol the up
lands is often gravelly anil when underlaid
with a clay subbsoil is, with tho uiu of man
mo, valuable for most crops and cs-pecially
for orchards, but when tho gravel has great
depth it is found that all richness lcachis out
through it and tho use of mautiin is of no
elicit. Wo walked up on tho hills above
Seattlo and examined tho soil aswu went, to
find evetywhero coarse gravel, that is di limed
through the soil but does not prevent its
biing vvorkot. In many locil.ties where tho
ilay subsoil picvails (and it la said to exist for
one-half or two thirds of tho area of tho mam
shore and the islands,) the soil is rich and
would I e valuable, only for the pieienceof
heavy timber that the rcttlcr cannot allonl to
ilear oil of it.
Kurthtr down the Suiud lies tliu most in
ten sting region upon it, that is wonderful in
its exttnt and productiveness, and ollcithe
greatist inducements to tho immigrant, and as
our object is to give information to such per
sons, wo shall proceed directly to that point
and deal more particularly in the description
of it
Wo reached Seattle Saturday evening, and
remained thoto oer the Sabbath, enjoying
delightful hospitality and fortunately meeting
tin re sev irul members of tho Territorial Legis
lature, who were enjoying a tup to the me
tropolis of the Sound during a period of recess,
lVom these gentlemen my friend g.athtiul
valuable information concerning rimoto paits
nf tho Territory tu tho eastward, as well as
.on the Sound.
MIYAlllMl lillW.N TIIK MH'SU.
Monday morning wo embarked upon tho
beautiful little ateaniir Wtlcouie, whim vie
uiado a lomfortali e home for several davs, in
joying tho en at 1110 comlorts tint wtieuiiomu
monly will pn vidiil b) its steward, and bo
loiuing actpiaintid with I'a coiuinaui'iT, i apt,
Jim Uranium, one of the veterans of Sound
navigation, who added two more to his long
list of friend, lor tin re is 110 more honest,
plain and popular man on those wattrstlmn
the commai dir of the elcouie. We had a
tait of his MaiuaiiHliip, too, for it seems that
for vrars tho genu of those waters had bottled
up the ir wrath in waiting for our coining, ami
opened all thu vials upon the devoted irft as
we went down the Sound, but the skill of
Capt, Uranium was itual to thu occasion, and
though the waves fivuncil and broke over us
in dashing pray ami the winds blew lit to
cr'ik their chiiks, the little Welcome reach
til her wharf at Ia Conner My, alter the
tunnies' passage known for iur.
At Ijv Conner, we had the good fortune to
inert Mr. J.tmea Ppwtrs, a gentleman real
ilt tit and geueral Ojirator, and also rditorof
tho valuablo looal journal known as the La
Conner Mail, whoso long residence, coupled
with practical experience and acute observa
tion, had furnished a mind well stored with
facts and valuable information. It was while
he was detailing this information to my
f 1 iend, Mr. Winser, that I took notes of tho
conversation and acquired the means to fur-ni-di
the facts that follow. But, first lit mo
describe La Conner as a few acres of rock and
fir forest that risi s in a graceful knoll in the
midst of a sci of tide lands, for wo are now in
the delta of the Skagit, tho gtcatost of the
streaiiM t1 at empty into the Sound.
Till. SVI-lln-Mllll COl'NTIIV.
N r h of Seattle, tho shores are bluff for a
considerable distance, and no streams divide
them until we come to the Sno ho-inish, which
furnishes a con-idcrablo extent of tido lands
at its mouth, and much good agricultural
country lies on the main sticam and its tribu
tincs. Here is undoubtedly to Us found good
land unoccupied, and tho tido of immigration
that cts in this direction will bo certain to fill
up this region, especially as these streams are
nav igablc for a considerable distance, and so
bring these lands near to market, liacl: to
wards tho mountains aro tho Snorjualmie
prairies. Much of the heavily timbered land
will bo eventually valuablo for agriculture
On the north edge of Sno-ho-mish country
the Stilaguamish river conies in, creating an
other agricultural region along its valley.
The chief interoit at present lies in the re
clamation and cultivation of the tide marshes
formed as the deltas of their various streams,
which aie redeemed by dykes between four
and live feet high. We see barns and homes
built 011 these. Hats to lately claimed from the
tides. Our steamer entered Tulalip bay, be
tween these two livers, where an Indian
agency is located, with numerous buildings,
mills, shops, etc., and also many houses along
the shores are occupied by the families of the
tubes ga the led here. The point of laud south
of tnu eutiaiico appears to hav o been an an
0 cut burying ground, as graves, old and now,
aro to bo scon among the trees of the ancient
forest that stands there.
Tilt IlKLTA or THE SKAOIT.
A n.airow strait separates La Conner ami its
tido hud shoies on the main, from Fidalgo Is
hnd, on tho west, and tho (plaint town site
parched on a reeky knoll, and sometimes
styled the " Venice of Sound " is confronted
with tho buildings and improvements of the
Swinoiuish reservation, planted almost within
earshot, 011 the low er peninsula of the great
island, Through this narrow strait or pass,
tiufco tides rush, that prevent navigation from
being altogether a delight, and combined with
tho action of tho Skagit river result in form
ing tho wido Hats or delta, now fertile an 1
wonderfully pioductivo while it was lately
twice each day covered by the tides; but
tlj kes luvo been constructed to hold back' tho
wattrs and tho out-turn ol cropi that results
are simply prodglous.
The Skagit has a length of COO milos, and is
navigablo already for 80 miles, up to the tap
ids, and as it rises in British Columbia and
drains a largo region, and is itself much larger
than any other river that empties into thu
Sound, it has cicateil a fertilo valley and ex
tensive delta that is lapidty assuming value
and Incoming productive. This may rafely be
called the most pioiinaiug agricultural portion
of Western Washington Teuitory. Tho usual
d signation of this legi u is: the "Swinoiuish
couuiry," after tho Indians, who inhabited
that pj turn of the Som d and aro now on the
icaeiiation above alluded 10, but tliu people
uf La Conner like to give the name of their
town to ti o adjatei.t soil; it must event
ually becomo known as the Skagit valley and
delta.
La Conner is ab nit 40 miles from thu
Hi iti-h Columbia hue, and 6T miles north of
heatlle. Tho piopir pl.nu for a town la across
tho strait on I'nlalgo Island, where the In Man
n ter ation now is. '1 ho 200 Indians w ill pro
bably bo removed in coutse of time and
allow tho town to be built thtro.
The Skagit divides into two mouths, and
foinis a wulti delta that has btcii ilanueil
while most doirablo and has bceu djkeil
and sutccssfiilly cultivated. As we passed
down wo could seu the buildings of settltrs
thickly located for a long distance upon these
jlats, but the opinion of Mr. Powers is tnat
the best region is jet unuccupicd, and alUmls
(.reat ojpoitunity for any individual with
omo means to ditch and improve, or fir a
colony with stout bauds and willing minds, as
well as somu means at command, to make a
splendid location.
The rich tido lands, and river bottoms now
above tho tides, couveuieiitto navigation, com
prise 60,000 acres at least, of which tot one
half is yet claimed by settlement. About
l'J,tl00 aires of tide land lias been reclaimed,
and has ptovtd woiuleifully fertile, leaving as
much more still to be rttkeiiieii. Mr. Conner,
founder of the town, has over COO acres in
cultivation, and rents for one third the crop;
ami it is .isscrttil tliat Ins tents oil tins laud
the present jiar are worth $10, (XX). Ho in
foitned ns th .t 12.1 bushels of oats 10 the atro
waia froirucut vield, and 100 hiuhels a coin
111 11 avirago. Tluee anes of ulu.it he tented
pi minced 'J00 bushels, and 40 husiitU is aver
age, but the ijiulit of the wheat grown lure
is nut No. I. Six miles from Lt Cuiunr is a
iiuautiiy of beavir hint, kuovvn a the 01 m
1.1.1 nuisli, after some secuiati rs from Olyui
pia, wh.i piospeeted It with a viun to pur
ihaseiuid recUuiatlou, but failed to carry out
tlitir plans. Plus Olv mpia niarah is iM.lnjii
Aens 111 ulttut, and is p-tit of the 50,000 acres
al udod to. A 00 ouycould settle aud improve
this, mil would reap iich leturus, as this
marsh is l a delta of the Skagit, ainl must
once have liven under the title. All this land
is opt 11 to homestead or pre-vmptiou eutry.
One half of the 60,004 acres spokru of ia so
situated and is as productive a any aln.Jy
Ukeu, which la held at Very h gh into,
TheupprT water of the Skagit aud it lri
hut ry, the Soak, are kuowu to be capable ol
sustaiuiug a large oouUtieu nd to powe.
much txctllent agricultural land, hut (key arc
comprUtfel uw titbit for totcrprur, aud
almost unexplored. The Saak comes into tho
Skagit CO miles above its mouth, and is navi
gable for quite a distance. Indians pasture
their ponies on a great prairio that is of at
least 2,000 acres in extent, that has no settle
ment upon it, and is highly prized by tho
aborigines. On theso upper rivers theic is a
great deal of alder and vine maple bottom
land that is of tho most fertile character.
Tho valley of tho Skagit ia said to be ten nubs
wide for a distance of fifty miles along its
course. Tho Skagit comes fiom tho northeast
and the Saak fiom tho southeast. At a mod
erate calculation it is claimed that homes for
1,000 families can he inado on these rivers.
I'he Indians arc somewhat jealous of whites
occunvinc this region, but they aro not un
friendly- N'o feai need be entertained on that
scoie, as the power of tho native tribes is
greatly diminished
Tho Samisli river is a small stream that
enters the Sound 15 miles north of La Con
ner, with 1,300 acres of tido land in cultiva
tion, aud as much more to be reclaimed. It is
settled five miles up, and the valley, with
vine maple bottoms, extends eastward into
the mountains. A low ridge lies hetw ecu La
Conner and tho oamish. heavily timbered,
with rich soil on clay sub-soil, which describes
the uplands of Whatcom county. Tho Cnuck-
anut rango comes to tho bay a fi w miles be
ond Samisli, and affords a fine sandstone
quarry that furnisliei stono fir the Portland
Custom Houso. It is beautiful stone, ana very
valuable, and exists in inexhaustible-quantity.
This rock is coming into use for public and
other substantial buildings in other p'aces.
TIIK NOOKSACK KK1ION.
Mount Baker, one of the gieat natural mon
uments of tho Cascade range, stands in the
middle of Whatcom county. Tho waters of
the Skagit rise far off in British Columbia,
and coining down to the eastward, divide it
from tho main ranee, and tho sources of the
Nooksack form cloe around it and then flow
to the Sound. The Nooksack is cloo to our
noithein bordor. The removal of a few drifts
will rcuder tins liver navigablo for 30 miles,
and its valley is sicond only to the Skagit in
exttnt and value, ofTtrintr great inducements'
to settlcis. This region contains a level
plateau, extending for 20 miles in width to
the British bne, with intcivals of marsh land
The river has a itch delta, and its valley is
extensive, but hardly can be said to have been
cxploied. Stc.nnboats can ascend tho river for
27 miles, ami canoes go much further, so the
products of the valley can easily reach mar
ket. This is the immense advantage of this
land that lies o near tide water, that what it
produces is but a few hours dist int from a
reliable maiket.
As wc view it tli6 shores of the Pound, ex
tending north from Seattle to tho national
boundary, as dcscnbed above, offer great ad
v nntages for thoso w ho are able to occupy and
impiove the tide and swamp lands and the
fertile river bottoms, His not fasy to over
estimate tho natural advantages of this region,
or to predict for its future anything greater
than tin.o will surely bring t' pass.
TIIK ISLANDS OF TIIK SOCNI).
To pass by the Sound country and not do
iustico to its islands, would be criminal. Onn
single island Whidby has area for a pros
perous county, and alieidy contains 1,000
i til abitants. It lies in an in egular shape, and
parts of it are too heavily timbered to allow
of cultivation, but the central portion of the
island has many fine farms, and possesses a
good number of stock of all kinds. Camano
Island, with Whidby, constitute Island
county, but the latter is valuablo for its tim
ber, and has no popula ion sav 0 that cou
nt cted with Utsalady and its saw mill,
San Juan county consists of the islands of
San Juan, Fidalgo, Guemes, Orcas, Lopez and
other smaller ones, which have some cultiva
tion on them, and raise many sheep and cat
tle. The products of the islands are oats,
fruit, potatoes, vecctablcs of all kinds and
hay, and considerable portions of them that
are worth cultivation yet remain unoccupied.
Thu climate of the islauds and the main shores
is equable and healthy. The toil of the islands
is usually g od, but heavy timber often makes
it unavilable for fanning optrations. The
timber is being rapidly cut oil' to supply the
great saw mills, and when tho rabbish is
1 turned off and grass seed sown on the ashes,
this country ill liecome a vast grazing and
dairying region. This is not dilhcult io ac
complish, and no doubt the attention of
Seattle will soon be turned that way.
OX THE WEST .SIDE.
All along tho west lido of the Sound, aud
including tho waters of Hood's Canal and the
south side of the Strait of Fuca, the shores
are abrupt and mountainous, offering little
if any room for settlement, with the single
exception that the Skokomish river comes in
at the head of Ho d'a Canal, affording a val
ley of limited extent that is made use of
already as a settlement. The great. extent of
arable lands he on the south and cast, and
especially along the east shores, where the
numerous riven and their fertile delta offer
extraordinary row ards.
TUB OCEVN SIIOUE.
Hon. Joshua Miller, member of the Terri
torial Council from Seattle, informs me that
ho has beta over a great portion of the out
hundred miles of coist reaching from Cape
Flattery to Gray's Harbor, and, while there is
no ha bor along this coast, he describ-s it as
artly composed of rich alluvial bottoms and
parti pea prairie country tit for cultivation.
The fact we can glean concerning this w est
short- lead to the belief that it ha a wide belt
of good land, ranging from 20 to 40 miles iu
width, well watered for practical purposes,
and capable of sustaining a large numlier of
people and extensive flock and herd.
LCMBEK, COAL AND IKON
The lumber inteieata of Puget S-ajud are
imply immense. Vessel load here for San
Fraucisoo and port of South America and
Asia. The vast forest Are ling rapidly thin
ned hy the lurubenuaa' ax and touverted into
material of all descriptions. At Mutkilteo,
UlaUdy and Taeoma w yuited great null,
when gang of it mv wre crashing through
logs tint had been sla'jbcd down into shapu
by gieat circular saws hanging in pairs, while
smaller circulars were turning rough slabs into
firewood, or conveiting them int 1 pickets or
lath by tho mi'Iioii. It was like the din,
whirr and crash of Pandemonium, but system
and ordci w b hied this vast steam pow cr so
iffectiullv that tho work was perfect. There
i one company on the Sound with a capital at
command of $l.",000,000. It is wondeiftil to
watch tho processes of converting the great
forests into all kinds of lumber, and seo it
stowed away in cieat ships. We cm only
glance at this subject, w Inch has no direct
connection with our pi esetit object.
Forests and coal beds on Pugct Sound seem
inexhaustible. Otler ships aro lonling coal;
great steam colliers now come and go loaded
with thousands of tons of " black diamonds."
It is vvi 1 th a column of description to narrate
how the coal trains come 'rom more than 20
miles back of Seattle, and tell of a visit to tho
mine, which has now penetrated the moun
tain for a mile and three quarters. Coal is
found in many direction, and, when the for
est shores shall have disappeared, the coal
beds will only have begun to yield their treas
ures. Already the lumber and coal trade of
the Siund put that country on a footing of
prosperity that will must grow and increase
with the growth of commerce in the world of
the Pacific. We only allude to this matter
to show the intending immigrant what vast
resources nature here has stored away that
must repay the toil of agriculture as they are
developed.
Coal, iron and lime exist in various parts ot
the Sound region in such convenient prox
imity and great quantity that thoy insure in
th? future the manufacture of iron on an ex
tensive scale. The time will come when tho
shores of Western Washington will resound
with labor that shall convert their native re
sourasintj every sort of manufacture, and
rival the products of any other portion of tho
world. Iron and coal mean wealth on on ex
tended scale, and tho land which hold them
will some timo have millions of mouths to
feed. But we only touch this theme lightly,
as important in its beatings to the settler
whose children aro to come after him and
gather where ho shall plant. Nature has
given to this wild region resources that time
can hardly exhaust. Its shores aro stored with
wealth that rivals the stories of Kastcrn
fable, and that in te coining time can dwaif
the wealth of " Onr.us and of Intl."
rnonrcTs of ivkstkrn WAsin.siiro.N.
A few words will recapitulate some of tho
leading products of the Sound country. Lum
ber and coal go forth by shiploads every day ;
iron is manufactured near Port Tovvnscnd,
and this work is only in its infancy. Oats,
potatoes and hay form tho great staple of
farm products, but hops aro becoming an im
portant product, Thoy havo been grown suc
cessful near La Conner as well as at Puval
lup. The fisheries of the Sound may easily,
in due course of time, grow to be as valuable
as those of the whole New England States.
Oysters como to us from Olymp-n, and aio
successfully grown at Samisli, far down the
Sound. Fish and fish oil, products of the hog,
the fruits of the dairy and the orchard all
these swell the commerce ot this region, in
addition to many other articles we cannot
name. Sheep and wool and stock and their
i crease constitute a growing increase of
wealth and prosperity.
hOMK EM'EIUEVCK IIVKN
Mr. Conner, founder of La Conner, and Mr.
Walter Crockett, of Whidby Island, were on
board the Welcome on our return to Seattle,
and we gleaned some valuablo facts from
them. Tide lands near La Conner, redeemed
and 111 cultivation, are valued at 530 to SCO
per acre, and pay a fair intero-t at $100.
Farms on Whidby Island aro valued at 10
to $20 per acre. There is plenty of good land
yet to be taken in Whatcom county, and it is
a very inviting region for settlers in seaich of
homes. The Skagit delta low laud is not
favorah'o for potatoes, but grows 2J to 4 tons
of the best quality of hay per acre ; 3,000 lbs
barley, or 4,000 lbs of oats per acre is a com
mon thing on the La Conner tide lands. Pota.
toes, 011 the sandy ridges neir there go 300 to
000 bushels per acre, and 700 hushls per acre
wasoncerealteed. O. Paulsen came there eight
years ago, without means, but with strength,
energy .and good judgment, and is now worth
SIH.OOO. and owns two good farms. This year
he sold his crop of oats, and has $3,000 clear
of all expenses; besides which ho has yet to
sell SO tons of hay, 2,000 to 3,000 lbs of but
ter, the increase of cattle and a fine lot of hog
to make into bacon. Father and son ech own
half of a steam threshing outfit. This year's
income will give them all this property clear
of debt.
VALUE OF CASH IS IIANB.
Wherever we went on Tuget Sound we
Asked the question, how a man could do who
came there w ith a little money ! and always
received the same answer that a man with
money and good judgment could generally buy
out some settler for less money than he can
maki) improvements. The same is true of
ever)' portion of the country, and even of the
illamcttc Valley. It is beeauso there are
on the frontier alwavs men who have not the
judgment snd perseverance that wins success,
but spend their lives paving the way for
others. They do what they can, become iu.'
volvctl, and prefer a sum of cash in hand with
which to make a new start, to woikiug on
under pressure of debt. The wilds are all
alike to them, and they pack their traps ana
move off to a new prospect with a much in
difference a they would remain at the old
home. It is, then, always potsib e for a n. w
comer, who ha moderate means, to buy out a
pre-emption to fair advantage, And go to work
without having to make all his improvement
now. Of course this may not occur without
ome delay And quiet management, but it may
be set down a a rule that all new couutne
contain niAny who will sell out their claims
And improvements at fair price.
LAND MO.SOroUSTS.
Land (peculator Are rapidly gettinr hold
of Ttluibl lands everywhere, ajJ getting
them, too, at tho expense of common honesty
and the cost of somebody's perjury, We will
explain : A single milling firm owns 5," ,000
acres of Land that is known of, and perhaps
much more. Theso irrcat lumricriiirr Rrm. ......
... . . o-- - e -i-iiio aic
constantly buying up timber lands, and they
cannot ilo it without perjury on the part of
the seller. They have searchers conqtnnil,.
out looking up the best timber land. For in
stance, there is excellent timber on the Skagit,
about the best known, ro they locate tho same
and then lino men to pre-empt it. Tho pre
emptor is permitted, after six months resi
dence on 100 acres, to enter it and pay the
money. Ilo swears, when he makes his irt
entry, that ho has no design to sell, but in
tends it for his own use and occupancy, all
the time intending to perfect his title as soon
as possiblo and deed it to the milling coin
piny, who pay him well for tuminir tho laud
over to them. It is estimated that thn Innd
so boucht costs the milliner comnanies S3 nn
acre, so they are rapidly buying, "by means of
n sjstcm of perjury, all tho valuable timber,
and the soil with it, and open perjury has be
como a common ocelli renco. The fault lies
with tho government, which should have
passed an act to sell timber, and give the
uuyer so mucn tune to take it off. Such a
" stumnaee" act would bo accented, if if. .t
the lumber men $0 an acre for timber, aud
the government would make more out nf th-
timber than it gets now for tho land with the
timber on it. All the good timber would be
taken off immediately, and then the settler
could buy the land, and after burning off the
rubbish, could become a producer. By the
present mismanagement perjury is an every
day occurrence ; all the best timbei lands are
bought up and held at the pleasure of these
saw-mill kings, for sawmills rule the desti
nies of Puget Sound.
Around La Conner a single man own 700 or
800 acres of land, and ho laughingly says he
got it by perjury. He hired people to pre
empt it and deed it to him. So we see one
man owning, hut not working, the richest soil
in tho world, and on his possessions ten good
fanners could make an abundant living.
There is too much ease in locating land, even
without this perjury, forono'man can take a
pre-emption of 100 acres, make a homestead
of another 100 acrea, and enter another 100
acres under the timber culture act, which
gives him 480 acres of land without any neces
sity for paying others. The publio domain is
not so abundant as it was only a few years
ago, and somo restriction may well he placed
on land monopoly, for 480 acres of rich land
should make a homestead for an ordinary
family. Before another generation the people
of America w ill find it difficult to locate a
homestead of good land in any direction.
AflRICULTTKE OF TIIK FUTURE.
Taking into consideration the certainly
great future of tho Sound country, and the
nearness to tide water of all its arable lands,
ono must concede that in tho not distant time
all the fertile lands we havo described will
possess a good value, and ho worth from $25
to 100 per acre. The demand for room along
the Sound will increase yearly, and must in
time bring into market the denuded shores
where now stand tall forests. So far as these
lands are fertilo and capable of cultivation
and bearing good crops they will be in de
mand. Grass can be grown everywhere;
orchards can be planted on all good uplands j
so we view it that grazing and dairying will
bo great features in tho future, and that fruit
will be grown extensively. The soil and the
climate favor plums aud prunes, we were
often told, and that being the case, they can
prepare them for foreign markets. There is
much inferior soil, a fair portion of good soil
on which forests grow, and hundreds of thou
sands of acres of tide lands and river bottoms
of unequalled fertility. Dairying and stock
raising will ho important features in the
future. Oats, hay, vegetables and hops will
be Btaple articles of production for all time.
SCENEUV OF rUGlT SOLViD.
While this article treats of the Sound coun
try from a utilitarian point of view, and more
especially as to its agricultural capacities, it i
woith while to allude to tho beautiful scenery
that is everywhere present. From the town of
Taeoma tho errand mountain called Eanier
but whose more appropriate name is Taeoma,
as that name was given it by the Indians
looms up to the south of east with unap
proachable majesty. From different parts of
the Sound country view of this great snow
mountain the.greatest of all and the grandest
of all are to be had, and it is inspiring of the
purest emotions. Bock of Whatcom, withim
thirty miles of it, rises Mt. Baker, another
grand snow summit, that was only a short
time ago emitting smoke and flame from it
crater. These two great peaks dominate the
Ca-cade ranee, and are features of a magnif
icent landscape that once seen can neve be
forgotten. Over on the broad peninsula, that
separates the Sound country from the ocean,
close to the shores of Hood's Canal, rise the
serrated points of the rugged Olympic range,
which are never dectitutc of snows, and equal
in grandeur any mountain scenery upon the
continent. While not so lofty as Taeoma,
they form quite as impressive a vision, be
cause, instead of a single Loint, however illus
trious, their continuous range of summit
with snow cliuging to them in the suu of Au
gust, with points that touch the sky and ex
tent that walls in tho western landscape, com
pel excl. mations of delight from all beho'ders.
In Summer the snow grow-scanty, and the
liare, black ridges come into sight, while in
Winter these mountains are covered with an
unblemished rolie of snows ami glaciers. From
the knoll on which La Co. ner stands, one ha
a prospect of far-reaching hiauty and grand
eur. Back, to the a- uth, the crown of old Ta
eoma ia seen one hundred aud twenty mile
away; across the waters to the westward are
the suow wreathed peak of the w ide Olym
pic mountain; over the. flat aud forest of
Fidalgo Island, the 8trait Je Fuca opens
broadly to the tea, while to tho northward th
islands thicken into an archipelago and li
ike geiu a poo the wWr. Back of all thia,
O
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