Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, November 03, 1876, Page 6, Image 6

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SALEM, FRIDAY, XOV. 3, 1870.
Durine Professor Huxley's recent brief so
journ In America, ho dellvored three lectures
(the only scientific discourses given by him
in this country) on " Tho Theory of Involu
tion," Thoy were spoken nt ChickorinB
Hall In Now York, on the evenings of Sept.
18, 20, and 22, before largo and appreciative
There was a sbado of dlsappointmentvislhle
on the laces or not a few of Prof. Uuxloy's
hearers as they left tho hall at tho close of
his first lecture It had not been all what
thoy had come to hear. Tho absurd reports
which certain or the dally nowspapers had
circulated with regard to Prof. Huxley's at
titude toward religion had led many to an
ticipate something startling. As the "arch
enemy of Christianity," he could not do
otherwise than run a-muck with Genosls,
and say things very oflenslvo to theorthodox.
So, when tho speaker finished his calm,
straightforward, logical, and perfectly rea
sonable revlow of the thr60 conflicting theo
ries of the origin of animal forms, a dis
course in which there bad been no exciting
language and no effort to say smart things,
they were disappointed, and Inclined to
blame him for not being the sort of man thoy
had come to boo. Otbors, unablo through a
lack of knowlodgo of tho subject in hand lo
appreclato tho mastorly mannor In which
Prof. Huxloy clovo to tho hoart of tho mat
tor, nnd quietly took possoseiou of tho much
contested Held, missed tho real point of the
lecture, and came away half persuaded that
soi johow thoy had been imposed upon. Any
body, they complained, could hnvosald the
samo, and more than one popular speaker
known to the American platform could have
said It moro oloquontly , Still another class,
and that, wo fuar, not a small ono, shared
tho disappointment, natnoly, thoso who had
but a vague Idea of the scope and purport of
geological ovidonce, and no Idoa at all of the
enormous mass or facts boarlug directly or
indirectly on tho theory or evolution, who
yet expocted to be told, In tho coursoofan
hour, preolsely how ovorythlng came about.
Judging from remarks wo overheard among
tho retiring audionce, moro thon ono of this
class must have come away feeling that tho
lectuie had boon altogothor different from
what it ought to have boon.
To thoso, however, who understood the
situation or affairs, and woro proparod to ap
preclato tho beauty and success of tho meth
od which Prof. Huxloy choso for clearing
tho way for an unobstructed view of the ovl
donco bearing on tho problems of evolution,
to bo sot forth In succeeding lectures, tho first
oyonlng'a discourse was as satisfactory as an
introductory lucturo could woll bo. Partic
ularly happy was tho cornering of tho
Biblical theory or creation iu " Paradise
Lost." Tbero tho creation or living things Is
dojcrlbod procisoly as all moil rend 11 In (Ion
osls botoro geological revolutions cauipelled
thoologiaus lo vary thoir Interpretation or
tho Korlpturos, n.s occasion might require.
Tho uttor Inconslsteuoy of tho " Miltonlo
hyjiotlicsls," tested by tho goologlcnl record,
both as regards tho luauuor and tho order of
tho origination or plantH and animals, was
shown conclusively: buttho lecturerdocllnod
to commit blmseir In any way by calling
that vlow of croatlou the lllbllcnl view. It
was true that Milton's Recount of tho six
days of uroatiuii was considered to bo iu per
fect accordano!) with Ciouesls, by all Wbllcal
scholars of his day, and for nearly two con
tuiius thoroaftor, It was true that Unit Inter
pretation had most likely been taught as
scriptural, lu childhood, to every ouo or his
hearora. Hut Prof. Huxloy would not for a
moment venture to say that It could propor
ly be called tho Biblical doctrine.
in tho first plaoo, it was not bis business to
say what tho Uobrow text coutalued, or
what It did not, and lu tho second place, were
ho to say that this was tho Hlblloal hypothe
sis, ho would be mot by tho authority of
many emluont divines, to say nothing of
men of Selouco, who in rocout times have
dnulod that this doctrine N to bo found In
(louoals ut all. Koh 11 nil i In the Hlbllcal
rooord Just what ho rcqulr&s to make It har
monize with his particular scliouio of goology;
titty may inoaii twenty-four hour:i,or a porlod
us lougas convenience requires; tho creation
of a species may bo directum! Immodlato,or,
according to tho samo rocord, tho species may
have been ovolvad front simpler rudlmouU
by natural processes, lasting millions of
years. Whou the accredited Interpreters or
Sorlpturo could cotuo to any agreoiuout with
regard to what tho llthllcal uccouut really
meant, It would be time enough to oompaio
(JonesU with geology; meantime " a person
who U not a Hebrew scholar can only stand
by and admire the marvelous flexibility of a
language which admits of such diverse inter
pretations." Tbaapplausi which followed
this remark was evidence eucugh that the
majority of the audience were iu sympathy
with the speaker.
The aecoud lecture was devoted to a con
sideration of two lluMorgvologloil evidence,
tho first liu'ludlug such fc:s as uio ueutral,
whloh neither help evolution nor are Incon
Uteut with It; and the second, thosti facts
which give htroug probability to the theory
but do not prove It. A Ihirdlluoof ovldeuce
t'aat which, being as comtleto as any we
can hope to obtain on auoh a tubject, and en
tirely in for of exolutlon, may fairly bo
o tiled demonstrative of evolution was ro
nervod for tho (hint and lait lecture.
Illitorlcally Imrottsnt among neutral
facta aro thewe whloh Itnl Cuvlor to prououneo
asaintt the theory of evolution as prostitut
ed by Lamarck, Tho Kreuch expedition to
"Kgspl had brought from that country tho
tuummled reunlni of many aulmsh, msw.
uials, birds, and reptiles. Cuvler argued
that, If evolution were true, the Egyptian re
mains, which were certainly three or four
thousand years old, ought to be measurably
unlike tho birds, crocodiles, and so on, now
Inhabiting the valley of the Nile. Ho found
on close examination that throe or four thou
sand years had brought no important change
to the animal forms or that region, and ac
cepted tho evidence as conclusive against tho
doctrine or Lamarck. Tho progress or re
search since Cuvier's tlmo has furnished far
stronger cases than those which he drew
from tho mummified bodies of Egyptian an
imals. As wo work our way through tho
geological record, wo find at every age, oven
the remotest, animal forms scarcely distin
guishable from thoso which now exist. We
also find great groups or animals, like the
reptiles or the tnesozolc period, abounding
In vast numbers in strata representing pe
riods or immense duration, yet presenting
no Important modification from first to last.
Facts liko these are often cited as fatal to the
theory of evolution; but they aro not at all
in conflict with any intelligent view of that
theory, though thoy are " fatal to any form
of the doctrine of evolution which supposes
an intrinsic necessity, on the part of animal
forms which once come Into existence, to un
dergo modification; and they are still more
distinctly opposed to any vlow which should
load to tho belief that modification in the
different types of animal and yegetable lire
goes on equally and evenly." Thero Is a
manifest tendoncy on the part of living
forms to vary; but whether such variations
persist and accumulate, or die out sooner or
lator, depends altogether upon surroundlag
conditions. Tho persistence of old forms
simply shows that they are better fitted for
tho conditions undor which they flourish'
than any modifications of thoee tortus havo
been; and that, slnoo their origin, the earth
has not failed to furnish somewhere just
such conditions. Facts of such a character,
and they are numerous, furnish no objection
to o volution, nor any support to it; tbey are
simply neutral, though porfoctly capabloof
being Interpreted in consistency with it.
or like naturo are the numerous facts
showing the apparently sudden origin of
forms, like the permian lizards, with no
traie of antecedent forms. Such tacts would
bo fatal to tho evolutionary theory, if the
geological record as it stands were complete.
Hut tho exceeding Incompleteness or the
record Is a necessary condition from the
manner of its formation; and besides, thero
is abundant evidence of enormous gaps. A
striking Illustration was furnished by the
Hrontozoum tracks in the sandstones of Con
necticut tho only vestiges thus far discover
ed, or likely to be discovered, of the numer
ous and variod order of (probably) reptilian
Ufa which for a long porlod inhabited the
shoros of tho ancient sea which oxlsted there.
That we havo oven so much as a footprint to
hint of that mysterious horizo.i of life de
pends on tbo purely accidental circumstance
that tho sand, since hardeued into rock, was
accumulating undor conditions whloh allow
ed tho tracks to bo proserved.
Much more Interesting, on tbo whole, was
tho ovldeuce In favor of evolution derived
from transitional forms, or, moro correctly,
forms standing botweon groups now distinct,
and partaking of the characteristics or each.
For the most part, tho ovidonce or this sort
was drawn from recent discoveries tending
to till up ouo of tho largest gaps In existing
animato nature, that betwoeu reptiles and
birds, and hinting bow tho ovolutlon of
birds from reptiles may havo taken place.
Tho ovideuco ombraced au array of facts, of a
fresh ami Intonsely Interesting character, re
lating to the archtoptcryv, a feathered ani
mal, bird-liko In most ros poets, but having
clawed wings and a reptillnu vortebral
column, prolonged into a long slondor tail
frlngod with feathors; to UespcrornisrcgaUs
a grobo-Uke bird six feet high, with n long
jaw thickly set with tooth; to tihthymim
tlinpar, a est 111 moro roptiliau bird, with teeth
lu distinct sockots; and to tho bird-like mod
ifications of dlnosaurlan reptiles, culminat
ing lu tho compsoqnathus longiprs, a type,
possibly, of the reptilian blpedo which made
the mystorlous tracks fouud lu Connecticut
aud lu similar strata In England.
Tho third and llual lecture was begun by
pointing out an element of weakness lu tbo
ovideuco prosouted In the preceding lecture.
It was true tho mesozeio rocks furnished
fossil forms so completely bridging over tbo
gaps letweou reptiles and birds that It would
bo vory hard to say whoro tho reptile ends
aud tho bird begins. It was true that ovi
deuco of that sort is far weightier than that
upon which men undertake to say thoy be
lieve many Important propositions. Hut it
could not bo considered demonstrative evi
dence, for the loasou that tho intermediate
forms were found in contemporaneous de
posits, whoroaa the requirements of demon
stration demaud that tho gradations between
one group of animals aud another should
appear iu such order as they muU have fol
lowed If thoy had constituted a succession of
stages, In time, or the development or the
form at which they ultimately arrive. Such
demonstrative evidence haa been obtained in
lute years In considerable and continually
iucreasiug quantity. Indeed it is aouiowhat
surprising how largo is the quantity or that
evidence aud how satlatactory Is Its nature,
whou wo consider tho exacting uharactor or
the condition of its preservation nud dls
coxory. Ah an illustration of that kind of
evidence, thodWooverios with regard to the
pedlgreo of tho horse wore chosen es special
ly approprlato frr the attention of a popular
Having traced nt groat length the evolu
tion of the hone from tho four-toed liorte
liko creature of the ooctnio period, and show
ed that tho history of tho horso, as recorded
lu tertiary strata, U precisely that which
could havo been predicted from a knowledge
of the principles of evolution, the lecturer
said: "If that U not tuleutlfia proof, thou
there are no inductive conclusions which can
be said to be scientific. And the doctrine of
evolution at the present time rests upon as
secure a foundation as the Copernican theory
of the motions of the heavenly bodies."
Inclosing, the speaker took tho precau
tion to observe that his purpose had not
been to enable those who had not made a
study of these subjects to leave the room In
a condition qualified to decide upon the
validity or the invalidity of the hypothesis
of evolution, but to put beforo them the
principles by which all such hypotheses
must bo judged, and to make apparent the
nature of tho evidence rind the sort of cogen
cy which is to be expected and may bo
obtained from It: and he should consider
that he had done his hearers tho greatest
service it was in his power to do, if be had
convinced them that the question under dis
cussion was not one to be dealt with by
rhetorical flourishes or by loose and super
ficial talk, but one that requires the keenest
attention of the trained intellect and the
patience of the most accuiate observer.
Scientific American.
,SJA full report of the three Lectures of
Prof. Huxley is contained In the Supple
ment to the Scientific American, Vol. 2, No.
11. Price ten cents. Address Munn fc Co.,
Publishers, 37 Park Row, New York.
English railways are well built, without
shary curves as lu this country, and still col
lisions happen upon them more frequently
than in America. Trains seeing each other
at a long distance in England still often col
lide, because the brake system is not so per
fect as in the Unltod States, where a train
was recently prevented by our brakes from
running Into a river through an open bridge.
It Is likoly to deficiency in the brake that
must be attributed the awful collision on tho
Somerset and Doset railway. And again
the British roads are deficient In safety sig
nals. Tho latter Improvement in that line
is too expensive to be supplied oxtensively,
and is not perfect in itself as tho American
automatic safety signal, which works also by
a system of springs placed under the rails
aud communicating with dials by the side of
tho road, and which has been successively
operated for two years upon tbo New York
Central and other railroads in this country.
The Aqe or MAn. Lyell having, in a
positive way some forty years ago, put back
tho birth of man to an Indefinite period, tho
anthropologists are endeavoring to throw
further light on the nntiquity of man on
earth. The researches made In Kent's
cavern seem to show that at that far distant
ponod, when geographically France and
England were joined, tho primeval man ex
istod. EQorts havo recently been made to
fix man's recognized presence on this earth
as far back as S0O,O00 yoars ago. The theory
which gains grouud in some minds, every
day, Is that of tho gradual development of
man from soml-human form through count
less ages of barbarism. If, however, our
present type is not persistent, perhaps in the
ton millionth year, from now, future an
thropologists will be In the same troublos as
thoy are to-day.
More Canneries at AbToniA. Next sea
son there will be ten canneries at Astoria.
In addition to the fivo that were in operation
here this seaspn, tho following are to be add
ed to next season's business: Tho Fisher
mon's Packing Association; Wadhams and
Hanthorn ; the Anglo-American Packing Co.,
Corbitt aud Macleay et al: Robert Watson of
tho Manhattan Cannery, is to build another
cannery hero; and Messrs. Bradley, Davis &
Co., also a cannery. These are severally to
bo located in upper Astoria. Astonan.
Thunder and Hail. On last Wednes
day, about noon, as a variety to the rain
storm which had continued from the pre
vious twonty-four hours, preceded by thun
der for an hour or two, there came a shower
of ball which drifted in places to six or
eight inches deep of slzos from a musket
ball to buck-shot, the larger predominating,
Tho ball fell only about tlvo or six minute,
but in quantity and size heretofore uuknowu
to tho experience of tho oldost Inhabitant.
During the past summer farmers In the
vicinity f Booue's Ferry havo had their
stock Injured by romo person shooting them
with flue shot. Last week complaint was
made and a Mr. A. B. Stronp was arrested,
charged with malicious Iniury to animals.
Tho case camn up before Justice Athey last
Saturday, aud the defoiulout waived exami
nation aud was bound over to appear beforo
the next grand Jury in tho sum or foOO.
To ZincUos.
JUIIS. OH. CItAIG l haw prepared to re
ceive piticnU at licr oftlce. la Saiera. Daring tho
pat jear fl'.e linn had cxtciulve practice at Dr.
Adams' popular Medical lunltute at Portland, In
trcatlug ladles, and feels confident of affording relief
In most cae of a chronic cnaracter. tjpeclal atten
tion paid to female weakneuand nctvoas 1 rostntton.
lu conucctiou with her treatment, the u.ei tho cele
brated Medicated Electric Vuyor Itattif, which
aid VMtly In effecting enres. Oftlce and rcldenct,
s, e. corner of Center and bummer Directs Salem.
X. -u. Sxk3.1tl3., .ductlat,
Salem, Oregon, dealer In Stereoscopes and Stereo
scopic Views, anl s-ccues of Salem and tho (urround
Ing country. Ltfe.sUe I'aotoraphs, In Iudla Ink. Oil
orVater Color. U
For Old and Young.
Far-Sighted and Nenr-SigUtcd.
Miooflnx-niaaara tor Spottmcu,
I AM preptml toupplr Spruc! to tit all eyes, tt
price U suit. V. V. SlAliriiV,
Jew oler OptUUn, Bank IllocS, Mate M,
Salem, May Jf.lbTtl. 6m
Storage at Portland.
i on thomoit fo.rabl terms, cltacr In our sr
proof mow, cr In our fram Warehouse mi the wharf,
kitsornilco ho not uoublcd grata or.ilour in el-ttu-r.
For further partlcuUrf appl to
anlStf Ibt:-nd, On.
My feet are wearied aud my hands aro tired
My soul oppressed
And with desire have I long desired
Rest only rest.
'lis hard to toil when toll is almost vain
In barren ways;
'Tjs hard to sow and never garner grain
Iu harvest: days.
The burden of my day Js hard to boar
But God knowH best;
And I havo prayod, but yain has been my
For rost sweet rest.
'Tis hard to plant in spring and novor reap
The autum yield;
'Tis hard to till and when 'tis tilled to weep
O'er fruitless field.
And so I cry a weak and human cry,
So heart oppressed ;
And to I sigh a wi-hI: and human sigh
For rest for rust.
My way has wound across tbo desert years,
And cues In test
My path; nnd through tho flowing of hot
1 pinch for rest.
'Twas always so; when still n child, I laid
On mollier'r) breast
My wearied little head; e'en then I prayed,
As now, for rest.
And I am restloss still. Twill soon bo o'er;
For, do xa tbo West
Li'e's sun is eotting, and I seo tho shore
Wbaro I shall rest.
Tho ancient kingdom of Poland is
now for all purposes an integral part of
tho Russian Empire, tho hist remaining
vestige of its semi-autonomical charac
ter having been" swept away through
the recent abolition of Secretary of
State for Poland.
Letter from a Postmaster.
" Ahtiocii, III., Doc. 1, 1871,
" Jters .T. H. Rise & Co.:
" Mv wife has, for a Ion,? tlmo, boon a terrlblo suf-
f,rni frnm 7! h prnn n H am . KhA lias trlflrt mflnv nhrsl-
clans and many remedies The only thing which has
given her relief i Centaur Liniment. I am prepared
to say this has cured her. Iamdoln? what I canto
extend Its sale. W. n. RING."
This a sample of many thonand testimonials re-
cel cd, of wonderful cures effected ly tho Centaur
Liniment. Tho lugredients of this article aro pub.
llshcd around each bottle. It contains Witch Ilazel,
Mentha, Arnica, Itnck Oil, Carbolic, and Ingredients
hitherto little known. It Is an Indisputable fact that
tho Centaur Liniment is performing moro cures of
Swellings, StllT Joints, Eruptions, TChcnmatlsm, Neu
ralgia, Sciatica, Caked Breasts, Lock jaw, &c, than
all other Liniments. Kmbrocatlons. Extracts. Salves,
Ointments, and Plasters, now In use,
For Toothache, Earacho, Weak Back, Itch, and Cu
tihieous Eruptions, it Is admirable. It cures burns
and scalds without a scar. Kvtracts poison from bites
and stings, and heal fiojt bites and chilblains, in a
short time. No fimlly can afford to bo without the
Ccntanr Liniment, whito wrapper.
TIio Centnur Liniment, Yellow Wrap
per, Is adapted to the tongh shin, mucles, and flesh
of tho animal creation. Its effects upen severe cases
of Spavin, Sweeney, Wind Gall, Big Head, and Poll
Ell, arc little Uss than man clous.
Messrs. J. JlcCluro Co. Druggists, cor. Elm and
I'ront streets, Cincinnati, O., say:
"In oar neighborhood a number of teamsters aro
ulngthu Centaur Liniment. They pronounce It su
perior to anvthlng they havo ever used. Wo sell as
high as four to uio dozen bottles per month to thoso
Wo havo thousands of similar testlmanlals.
For Wounds, Galls, Scratches King-bone, &c, and
for Screw Worm In Sheep, It has no rlial. Fanners,
Livery-men, and Stock raisers, havo in this Liniment
a remedy which Is worth a bundled times Its cost.
Laboratory of J. 15. Rose & Co.,
40 Dev St., New York.
Pitcher's Castoria,
Mothers may havo rest and their babies may havo
health, ir they will nsc Castoria lor Wind Colic,
Worms, rcvertshncsa, Soro Month, Croup, or Stom
ach complaints. It Is entirely a vegetable prepara
tion and contains nilthsr mineral, morphine, nor al
cohol. It Is as pleasaut to tako as honey, and nei
ther gags nor gripes
Dr. E. Dlmooa, of Dupont, O; says:
I nui nstng Castoria In my practlco w 1th tho most
signal bemilts and happy lesults."
This Is w hat every ono says. Most nurses In New
Yoik city use the Castoria. It Is prepared by Messrs,
J, 11, Hose & Co., lit Doy St.. New York, eucccssois
to Samuel Pitcher, M. D.
Dr. L. S. SKIFF,
481ft DENTIST,
Over til Tlnnli,
Tbe Autumu No. or VICK'S FLOBALl
(iiiliw coat-.' uu iiuHTipnuj. ol iDacintu
Tullpi, UllC. ua au. Uclb ami xdj r n Fai l
Plantin J In the 0rJen, and for Winter 1 Lwr In
the Route Jt pnUlitu-d. and ut tree to all. Ad-dr-
.JA.li It vine,
jepi UoctiCktcr, N. 1.
p--:ioR THE HOUSeT J
Mr. Watkluds lu the old established house in the
abovo line, the attention of the community is called
t'j tho stock of
3Cs32n. js
on hand, which Is offered at greatly reduced rates.
At lowest Granger prices.
Hardware, Whips, Hobos, oto.,
To suit everybody.
Salem. Feb. 12. 1S!5. wtfd
Mrs. Rohror's New Remedy
no equal In the relief and cure of Coughs. Cold.,
Asthma, Bronchitis, Croup, Whooping Cough, Mea
sles, &c. It has produced some remarkablo cures,
bold by druggists i-enenllv. Pi epared only by
Ilrs. ti. UOIIItlilt, Monmouth. Or.,
To whom all letters of business should bo addressed,
8. E. corner, at head of stairs. felly
Successor to J. M. Keeleb. & Co.,
9S Liberty Nt., - - NEW YORK,
Commitjgiou Agont
New York via Isthmus, Pacific Railrotd, end
Cape Horn, all kinds of Merchandise, and for the sale
of Products iroin the Pacific coast, for the collection
of moi.ev. &c. octstf
Buy and Soil City Property,
Rflake Collections.
Mutual Life Insurance Company
Union Fire Insurance Comp'y
lation. Their u Descrintlve Land Circular." aod
' Desci Iptive Circular and Weather Record of Or-
ccon '
Offlco on pronnd floor, OPERA nOUSE BLOCK,
Willamette Nurserv
Oswego, Olaokainas co., Oregon.
Growers of the Choicest Varieties of
ET.tri.T&ixBzss & i&zzurBEsin?
Particular attention given to Cherry, Prune and Plum
trees. ISt
Salem Flouring' Mills.
ConstR.ii.tly on Hmul.
HltjUest l?rieo In CAfdlX
Paid for Wheat
Acent 8. V. M. Co
Sept IStf
E. SHE3L, M. D.,
Oin-onio Siseasoa
Ilcnd, TUroaJ, Chest, and Diirest
ivu Organ, aud ot the Ner
vous iivRtetii generally.
Office Commercial Hotel. jelfiy
OK. A. . BELT. B. T. BELT.
(Successors to Cox Si Belt,)
Druggists and Apothecaries,
Chemicals, Perfumery, Patent
Medicine, Pure Wine
aud Liquars, lc,
Moorcs' Rlock, Commercial Srrect, SALEM.
Br-HARRY I1RAR will have have charee of the
Prescription Department. apHtf
Home Made and Hand-Made
ou can bo accommodated by calling
At Armstrong's Shop,
On State Street, opposite WILLIS'S BOOK STORE.
Ail WoaK Waiinanted. Prices RtAa-ABLz.
lieiialrms t.tittj and nn;rfy toif. Give Mb a
The Great Oregon Mety for
Diseases oftlio X.ui;k,
the raot delicate. The pore fjrap a ueaatlral
article pleasant to tho tatte prparcd with irrtat
rare can be had at both FRIEDitAN'S td COX &
UELT'S Drue Store salem. fUStf
l tM Marraln l.i,t tbflctrlr tivj
.--r 4rn-nriTTrmen,3' Imparl.
J i". '-' v. iu.u iuu. :