Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, May 05, 1876, Page 3, Image 3

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Regulating the Bowels.
It is best that the bowels should act every
morning arter breakfast; therefore, quietly re
main in the house and promptly attend to the
first inclination. If the time pas.es do not eat
an atom nntil they do act; at least not until
breakfast tbe next day, and even then do not
take anything except a single cup of weak cof
fee or tea and some bread and butter, or dry
toast, or fthip biscuit.
Meanwhile arrange to walk or work moder
ately for an hour or two each forenoon and af
ternoon, to the extent of keeping up a moisture
on the skin, drinking as freelv as desired
much cold water as will satisfy the thirst, tak
ing special pains as soon as the exercise is over
,to go to a good fire or very warm room in win
ter, or, if in summer, to a place entirely shel
tered from any draft of air, so as to cool off
very slowly indeed and Ihns avoid taking cold
or feeling a " soreness " all over next day.
Remember that without a regular dally
healthful aotion of the bowels it is impossible
to maintain health or to regain it if lost. The
coarser tbe food the more freely will the bow
els act, suoh as corn (Indian) bread eaten hot,
hominy, wheaten grits, bread made from coarse
flour, or " shorts," graham bread, boiled tur
nipp, or stirabout, or grapes, or dried figs, or
slewed tamarinds. A handful or two of raw or
boiled chestnuts eaten during the day; a table
spoonful, more or less, thrice a day of white
mustard seed swallowed whole, in water or
otberwise; eating freely of parched corn; tak
ing on rising a tumblerful of cream which has
been allowed to stand until it has thickened,
whether sweet or sour, are means which are
sometimes successful in keeping the bowels
acting freely once a day, without the necessity
of taking medicine. When one fails to keep
up a good effeot, try another, in the hope that
when the bowels have got into a habit of reg
ular action it may be kept up by the judicious
employment of such daily food as observation
may show is best adapted to the object. The
habitual use of pills, or drops, or any kind of
medicine whatever, for the regulation of the
bowels, is a sure means of ultimately under
mining the health, in almost all cases laying
the foundation for some of the most distressing
of chronio maladies. Hence, all the pains pos
sible should be taken to keep them regulated
by natural agenoies, such as the coarse foods
and exercises above named, or stewed prunes,
or a glass of water on rising, into which has
been stirred a teaspoonfnl of salt or a heaping
tablespoonfol of corn meal. Reliance on in
jections is disastrous eventually.
It the bowels aot more than twice a day
live for a short time on boiled rice, farina,
starch or boiled milk. In more aggravated
cases keep as quiet as possible on a bed, take
nothing but rice, parched brown like ooffee,
then boiled and eaten in the usual way; mean
while drink, nothing whatever, but eat to your
fullest desire bits of ice swallowed nearly
whole, or swallow ice cream before entirely
melted in the mouth; if necessary wear a band
age of thick woolen flannel, a foot or more
broad, bonnd tightly round the abdomen; this
is especially neoessary if the patient has to be
on nis ieet muon. ah locomotion snould De
avoided when tbe bowels are thin, watery or
n nAsutu! aium 0 ivuf iiui vj xicuttf
The Scarlet Fever.
It is as unnecessary for a child to die of soar-
let lever as It is that it should be blind with
cataraot. Let us see: At any time before the
body has finished its ineffectual struggle we are
aoie to neip it, not Dy wonderful medioines
but by the Knowledge of anatomy and the appli
cation of common sense. We consult the sym
Sathetie nerve and do what it commands us to
o. We must give this child salt when it wants
it; we must give it acid when it has fever
not vinegar but lemon jaic, because the first
coagulates albumen and the latter does not, on
account of the surplus of oxygen which it con
tains. To imitate the soothing mucus in the
intestines, which is now wanting, and to give
some respiratory food at the same time, we add
some gum arabio. To restore and relieve the
injured nerve we apply moist warmth. In
practice we can fulfil all this with the follow
ing simple manipulations:
Undress the child and bring it to bed at the
very first sign of sickness. Give it, if it has
already fever, nothing but warm, sourisb lem
onade with some gum arabio in it. Then cover
its abdomen with some dry flannel. Take a
well folded bed sheet and put it in boiling hot
water; wring it out dry by means of dry towels
and put this over the flannel on the child's ab
domen. Then cover the whole and wait. The
hot cloths will perhaps require repeated heat,
According to the severity of the case and its
stage of progress perspiration will commence
in ine cnua in irom iu minutes to two Hours.
The child then is saved; it soon falls
asleep. Soon after the child awakes it shows
symptoms of returning inclination for food;
help its bowels if necessary with injections of
oil, soap and water, and its recovery will be as
steady as the growth of a green-house plant if
well treated. Of course if the child was already
dying nothing could save it, or if it has effu
sions in the lining of tbe heart or brain it is
much better that it should die. But if the
above is applied in due time, under tbe eyes
and directions of a competent physician, I will
guarantee that not one in a hundred children
will ever die of scarlet fever.
I know this will startle some of my readers,
especially those who bave lost children already,
bnt I shall go still further. I maintain that a
child will nevertget scarlet fever if properly
treated. If a child has correctly mixed blood it
will not catch the disorder if put in bed with a
sick child. This is still more startling, but
nothing is easier of proof. Oood Health.
Beds and Bedrooms.
Never use anything but light blankets as a
covering for the sick. The heavy, impervious
cotton counterpane is bad, for the reason that
It keeps in the exhalations from tbe pores of
the sick person, while the blanket allows them
to pass through. Weak persons are invariably
distressed by a great weight of bed clothes,
which often prevent their getting any sound
sleep whatever. It is better to sleep in a cool
room and dress in one that is well warmed, than
the opposite. If it is necessary to heat the
bedroom, let it be by means ot an open grate
fire, rather than by a register or flue.
In view of the fact that most people pass one
third of the 21 hours in bed, the importance of
having only the best bedding needs no argu
ment. There is no wisdom, therefore, in buy
ing cheap or second-class articles for the sleep
ing room, but true prudence directs to get the
very best bedding that your means will com
mand; first-class hair mattrass will outlast
two of inferior quality. The same difference
will also be found in respect to feathers, and
with the Utter as with hair, the best is always
cheapest. Too many young housekeepers
neglect to follow this rale, and pursue a penny
wise and pound-foolish policy, when they
might just u well have adopted the opposite
Scablet Feveb. In this disease the parent
and the cohool teacher are often concerned to
know how long a time must elapse before it is
Bate to admit the convalescent children to min
gle with other children. And the answer is,
that for a month, at least, the body of a scarlet
fever patient is o isting off scales from tLe skin,
and from tbe nose, throat, bowels and kidneys
discharges which are poisonous and convey the
disease. The chief danger, however, arises
from the skin, as this is the main outlet for the
blood poison to escape; hence every scale it
throws off can carry the infection.
UsEfllL lfJrOEP4T,ON-
Lubricating Oils.
" A simple method for testing the hydrocar
bons or mineral oils in lubricators is to fill a bot
tle with the oilinqnestion, moistening the cork
and inside the neck of the bottle, and then
twisting the cork about its longer axis. The
best lubricating oils produce no sound, but tbe
more the oil is adulterated with hydrocarbons
aud products of dry distillation, tbe louder
the noise produced. Au oil that gives a loud
cry is most unfitted for a lubricator."
Upon the above item, which has gone the
round of all the scientific papers in tbe coun
try, ine American Manufacturer comments as
follows: The method proposed is indeed "sim
ple" we have been submitting some oils to
this test, not, of oourse, to prove the correct
ness of the test, for with tbe endorsement of all
the scientifio papers we should not presume to do
that but we find that we must change some
what the estimate in which most oils have been
held to make them conform to the standard
set up in this Bimple test. A few example
will show what we mean.
Pure sperm produces no sound, therefore it
is .a good lubricant. Pure sperm mixed with
an equal quantity of parafflne oil produoes no
sound, therefore it is as good a lubricant as
pure sperm. Pure rosin oil produces no sound,
therefore it is a good lubricant. Pure fish oil
Eroduces no sound, therefore it is a good lu
ricant. Coal tar produces no sound, there
fore it is a good lubricant. Downer's best
spindle oil gives a "loud cry," distinctly heard
at 100 feet distance, therefore it is " unfitted
for a lubricant." Parafflne oil gives a distinct
"cry," therefore it is a poor lubricant. (N. B.
Parafflne oil is in general use either alone or
"adulterated" with sperm in nino-tentbs of
the cotton factories in this country, and gives
entire satisfaction, but then the "test" says it
is not a lubricant.) Pure West Virginia oil
gives a Blight cry, therefore it is not as good a
lubricant as petroleum residuum, whioh gives
no sound, and is therefore a good Inbrioant.
We need not continue to record our tests.
Every one who knows enough to handle a pen
or a pair of scissors for a scientifio paper must
admit that the publication of such things only
adds to the world's ignorance, not to its knowl
edge. Mace and Nutmegs. Most of our readers
doubtless know that the nutmeg, like all other
spice, grows in tropical countries. The fruit
of the nutmeg tree, especially as it approaches
maturity, is very like a large yellow peach. At
maturity the outer hull opens, and if not gath
ered the valuable product would soon fall to
the ground. The maoe is the second coat whlob
covers the nutmeg, and almost envelops the
dark, impervious hull, or third covering of the
nutmeg. When the product is gathered the
maoe is of a deep red color, and is taken care
fully from the hull which still incloses the nnt.
Then the hull is broken and the nut taken out,
when it is ready for market. In the palmy
days of tbe " Hon. East India company," all
the company's possessions were soverned bv
21 gentlemen in London, called the "Hon.
Court of Directors," who had spent their lives
from early manhood to middle age in India,
were usually tbe company's most distinguished
civil and military servants, and were supposed
to know everything pertaining to the interests
f .!.. -.. .1 mi !i j. i
ui iiio Bcub uurpurauuu. xuey superintended
the sale of all Indian products, and, finding at
one period that the mace sold more readily
than tbe nutmeg, tbev wrote to the Government
in India to cultivate more of the mace and less of
ine nut i
Bicycle vs. House. A ten mile race, be
tween a fast horse named Happy Jack and a
velocipede rider named Stanton, recently took
place at Lillie Bridge, England, for $250. For
the first three miles the horse kept level with the
bicyclist. Tbe ground was rather sticky, owing
to tbe late rains, for both, and Stanton seemed
laboring, but this is his peouliar way of riding.
Stanton was the favorite at as much as three to
one, for tbe start allowed him was generally
considered too much. For three miles the horde
went easily; where he lost at the corners he
made up in the straight. This style he kept up
until the sixth mile, when his stride began to
falter, not being ridden so well as on the last
occasion, combined with the effect of the extra
weight he was carrying. Stanton from this
point gradually went ahead, and in the next
mile he gained 50 yards. The horse was now
beaten, and after going another lap was pulled
up at eight miles. Stanton went on and finished
the distanoe, 10 miles less 761 yards, in 34
minutes 31 seconds, being at an average veloc
ity of nearly 18 miles an hour. He rode a 53
inoh machine made by Keen, weighing 10 lbs
He seemed to have a good deal more in him
had it been required.
LianTHousE White-Wash. The following
are the ingredients which compose tbe white
wash sent out by the Lighthouse board of the
Treasury Department, and which, it may
reasonably be supposed, is tbe preparation
which the best knowledge and fullest experi
ence bas selected from the many which are
used for the purpose indicated: Slaek one-half
bushel of unslacked lime with boiling water,
keeping it covered during the process. Then
strain it, and add a peck of salt, dissolve in
warm water, three pounds of ground rice put
in boiling water and boiled to a thin paste, half
pound powdered Spanish whiting and a pound
of clear glue dissolved in warm water. Mix
these well together and let the mixture stand
for several days. Keep the wash in a portable
furnace, and when used put it on as hot as
possible with either a painter or white-wuah
brush. Thus prepared, this wash has been
found, by experience, to answer on wood, brick
or stone nearly aa well as oil paint, and it is
much cheaper.
Keboseme is making rapid advances against
coal gas all over the country. The cost of oil
light is about one-sixth the cost of gas light,
and there is no doubt that it affords a far bet
ter light for tbe eves. We do not see how the
gas companies are to stem the tide that seems
to set against tbem, exoept by adopting petro
leum themselves and thus enabling themselves
to reduce the price of gas to a point nearer the
cost of oil light.
A New Muotlaoe. The 'journal dt Phar-
made states that if, to a strong solution of gum
araDio, measuring eigntand one-tbiid ounces, a
solution of 30 grains of sulphate of aluminum
dissolved in two-tbiids of an ounce of water be
added. very strong mucilage it formed,
capable of fastening wood together, or of mend
ing porcelain or glass.
Shabf-inino) Eboe Toots. We copy tbe fol
lowing recipe for sharpening edge tools from a
Oerman selentifio journal, for the benefit of
carpenters, machinists and laborers: "It hat
long been known that the simplest method of
sbsrpening a razor is to put it lor nan n nour
in water to which has been added one twentieth
of its weight of muriatio or solpburio acid, then
lightly wipe it off, and after a few hours set it
on a hone. The acid supplies the plaoe of a
whetstone bv corroding the whole surface
evenly, so that nothing further than a smooth
polish is necessary. The process never injures
good blades, while badly hardentd ones are
generally improved by it, although the cause of
improvement remains unexplained." The
cause of this improvement is simply that those
particles which are softer contain less carbon,
are most attacked by the acid?, and thus re
moved by them; while the harder particles
the more perfect steel is richer in carbon,
wntcn cause it to resist tne action oi tbe acid
better, and they remain. For the same reason,
old rusty tools, when cleaned and sharpened,
are always better than when they were new.
Cherry Culture.
From the Paelno Bunl Press.
Gum is a substance which belongs to all
pitted fruits, more or less, but the cherry tree
possesses a great quantity ot this material,
which Bometlmes works sad havoo with its
growth, oausing the bark to blister and burst
open, making bad looking sores that are very
bard to heal over. Why this is so is one of tbe
things, as the little boy said to the miller, I do
not know; but it is a fact, nevertheless, and
there is no remedy that I know of to prevent
it. Indeed, I do not know that there is need of
one, if one could be found, if care and watch
fulness are maintained in the orobard. There
is a right place and a wrong place for gum to
exude. If it comes out at the crotch or fork of
the tree that is right and proper, but if it Issues
from smooth bark, either on the trunk or large
branches, it is wrong and something is the mat
ter. It should be looked after at once. The
tree has either been bruised or punotured
by some kind of insect. If let alone it will, in
all probability, make a bad sore. If taken in
time and the remedy applied no harm will be
done. No remedy need be applied, to tbe fork,
for you cannot stop its running out if you were
to try, for there is a cause at that point which
we cannot remove. That cause I will explain
in a little while.
Gum on Branches or Trunk.
The remedy to be applied where gum is found
either in the form of a blister or suoh as a sharp
pointed stick would make, I use a compound of
resin and gum shellac, two parts of resin and
one of sheila o, melted together, adding a small
piece of tallow to tbe melted mass. Apply it
wsrm with a small brush or a stick with rags
tied on the end, making what I call a " swab."
If the wounded part is a blister take a sharp
knife with a smooth edge, carefully remove the
outer bark, for that is as deep as a blister goes,
and you will see a small opening in the inner
bark, from a qtrarter. to half an inoh long.
When the blister is first out the gum will run
out dear as tbe white of an egg and about the
same consistency. Have a wet rag with yon to
wipe the wound dry and clean. After this is
done take your knife and pare the inner bark
at the opening very thin, being careful not to
go through to the wood. Put on a good coat
of your mixture and that is the last of that
place. Now. if the wound is a puncture, the
operation is about the same. Flatten the bark
at tbe wounded part, being careful not to frac
ture or tear the outside bark and not go through
to the wood. Put on your salve and the work
is done, uo and see tbe trees occasionally.
Gum in the Crotch
Or fork of oherry trees. In this case we must
let Nature take her own way. As I said a while
ago, there is a cause existing here that wo can
not remove; for the cherry tree is different from
all other trees in its growth and habits. Some
varieties are worse than others. In the forks
of cherry trees there are two barks on the in
side of the wood, consequently there is a space
of wood from three to twelve inohes long that
does not unite. This spaoe or length of wood
not united varies according to the age of the
tree. Henoe comes the liability to split open.
The issuing of gum from tbe fork depends upon
the relative position the branch sustains to the
trunk of the tree. Thus in the accompanying
The Formation of Oum.
illustration you see that it is tbe branches that
grow nearly perpendicular wnn eacn otber Wat
gum the woist at tbe two barks, wbiie those
that grow more hoiizontally do not gam at all,
because the wood is united, consequently there
sre not two barks, the wood being solid. It is
tbe same with those on the right of the illus
tration. The two barks are caused Jiy the branches
growing so close together, and by the expansion
of the large limbs in their growth tbe bark of
both is forced in between the two woods, so
that it is impossible for tbe wood to grow to
gether. The sap is forced in between these two
barks and pursues a downward course until it
arrives at the lower edee of tbe bark, where the
wood is sciid, and is then foreed out of Ha nat
ural place between the barks and bo finds its
way out, and then we bave it in the shape of
gum in tbe fork of the tree, Tbe cherry tree
always issues its gum just under tbe bark, and
not in the wood, aa some people think.
Cleaning the Gum off
Is absolutely necessary. In a great many cases
the rain will wash off a good deal of it, but not
all clean. In places where two or three limbs
come out close together it forms a kind of cup,
wbicb will bold tbe gum irom one years' end
to another, and Id its soft state every leaf, stiok,
cherry pits, dust and dirt will stick and hang,
and sometimes I have seen them so fool that
the stenoh oouli hardly be endured. By this
collection also, a nest is made for all manner of
insects, bogs and worms, Another evil in let
tins? tbe gum stay on is, if rain does not wash
it off clean, it runs down the trunk of the tree
and ii'akes tbe bark look tad, and if it is very
thick on tbe bark when it dries it will contract
and crack tbe bark crosswise, and is very
injurious to the tree.
In Clean'ng off
I VB9 very simple and cheap machinery. Get
some bamboo from China baskets, such as the
Chinamen use to carry their goods in. cut them
eight or 10 inches long, until you get a, bunch
abuut one inch in diameter. Tie some' twine
about four inches from one end and two inches
from the other. Take a case knife, one that is
not very sharp, and split the long end down to
the twine, until you nave a ooarse brush. I
then take an old grain sack and open it and
cut off strips about as wide as my two hands. I
am now teady to go a gumming when the first
rains come ana tbe leaves are all on. 'ine gnm
is soft now, and two or three brushes will throw
the most of it out. Take a strip of the saok and
draw it two or three times through the fork
and it is nice and olean and the job is done.
Removlrg Large Limbs.
To remove limbs without having them gum,
great care must be taken not to tear the bark,
and it must be done at the right time, lhat is,
fiom the time the buds are large and plump
until tbe blossoms are open. But it should
not be done later. Take a fine, sharp saw, cut
the limb off t.t the base, not too close to the
trunk, so as not to make a large sore, then take
your knife and pare the surface nicely and
smoothly, and give it a good ooat of the com
pound wbioh was used for blisters and it is
finished and will heal over without a particle of
mm nnw.nn An. -
Cherry Vale, Ban Jose Uo., Mar. I3lb, ibyu,
Already swarming has commenoed among
the Italian colonies in the valley apiaries. In
the Los Angeles apiary for the past week the
Italians have been throwing off swarms as if
they proposed to sweeten the world and the
rest of mankind. Early swarming is a peou
liar characteristic of the Italians. No black
swarms bave as yet made their appearanoe that
we have heard of.
There are two evils attending matured
Bwarming uncertainty and loss of swarms by
absconding to tbe woods or to eurioh some
neighboring apiary, and unceitainty on account
of the state of the colony, the season or
weather. Some seasons they will not swarm
at all; others tbey will swarm toomuob, so that
they become very weak and sometimes de
stroyed or beoome worthless. They require
constant watohinp, and should the apiarian nave
many of them, several swarms may issue at the
same time and perhaps Bettle together, or may
come out so olose to eaeh other that he cannot
attend to hiving all and thus- some are lost..
Artificial swarming or dividing obviates all
these difficulties. We will briefly describe the
If you wish to divide but one swarm, re
move from it about one-third ot the frames that
are filled with oomb, with the queen and bees
adhering. Place them in the middle of your
new hive, aud empty comb or frames on either
side. Then remove the old hive two or three
rods, and plaoe your new one where the orig
inal one stood. This should be done about the
middle of tbe day when the bees are out at
work, so as to catch them when they return.
Care should be taken to leave plenty of eggs
and young brood in the old hive, bo that its
occupants oan rear another queen. It you bad
four or more oolonies, take two or three frames
with the bees adhering from eaoh ot four hives,
taking care that you do not remove a qneen.
Three or four of the combs thus transferred
should contain eggs and brood. After placing
tbem in your new hive remove the fifth col
ony, which should be a strong one, and place
your new one in its place. In about ten days
tbe queenless part will bave finished their
queen cells, when all but the largest and bst
formed should be destroyed for fear of swarm
ing. Do not divide too muoh so as to weaken
your colonies. You should remember that the
great success in bee keeping is in strong
Bees oonsume large quantities of water when
building comb and rearing brood. Want of it,
it is said, will produce dysentery among them.
Los AngeUs Herald.
New Cask Making Macninery.
An invention, the result of which may here
after have a very serious effect on the skilled
labor market in certain departments of trade,
was recently exhibited at the works of Messrs.
Itansome & Co., sawmill engineers, King's
road, Chelsea, Eng. The Invention referred to
is a series of improved maohines, about a Bcore
in number, constructed for making casks for
beer and hogsheads for wine. The great mer
its of Messrs. Ransome's patent are not only
an improvement upon former patents which
they have pressed into their service, but the
combination of their own inventions with those
ot previous date, and tbe formation of the whole
into one general system.
Practical Illustration was given tbat caBks for
holding liquids of all kinds can be produoed
entirely without tbe aid of the skilled cooper
at less tnan nan tne cost ror moor, anu wben
it is stated that one machine alone, worked by
a lad, will joint in tbe most perfeot manner six
staves in a minute, while another will turn,
bevel and oval a head with mathematical accu
racy in less than tbat space of time, the great
eoonomy is at once apparent. Apart from tbe
utility of the invention, or combination of in
ventions, it is a true artistio treat to witness
tbe working of this massive clookwork machin
ery, and visitors were loud in their admiration
ot a mott interesting and, indeed, educating ex
hibition. Iron.
"What is Steel" seems to be an unanswer
able conundrum just now among metallurgists.
Sir Joseph Wbitworth proposes tbe following:
"With so many rival and unsatisfactory defini.
tions of steel, tbe writer would do away with
all tbe different names by which various kinds
of steel are known, such aa blister, shear,
double shear, common steel, spindle steel, sil
ver steel, cast steel, etc. which carry no pre
cise deniuite meaning; and would express what
is wanted to be known by two numbers which
should represent tensile strength and duo tility."
Tbe rinderpest has
broken out in Japan
among the cattle.
The Temple of Belus Some Interesting
Mr. George Smith states, in the London
Alhtneum, that he has recently discovered, in
his researches amid the ruius of Nineveh, an
ancient tablet which gives a remarkable acoount
of the temple of Belus (the anoient tower of
Babylon), In which are given the principal
points of arrangement and dimension of this
remarkable structure.
This temple was the grandest religious edifice
of the age the center of religious worship and
the wonder of the world. It was founded
centuries before Babylon became the chief city
and capital ot the State, and retained its fame
even down to the commencement of the Roman
Our knowledge of this structure has hereto
fore been ojnfined to what Herodotus and
Strabo have told us of it. They tell us that
the principal building was one stade in length
and breadth and higbt, and that it consisted of
eight stories or towers, one above another, the
whole forming a pyramidal shape the highest
being the chief sacotuary or holy of holies of
the Babylonish worship. A stade has been
supposed to be COO feet, whioh would give the
dimensions of the struoture as COO feet squire
and COO feet in hight.
But the tablet which Mr. Smith has brought
t light, and which undoubtedly gives the cor
rect measurement, changes those figures very
First, in the tablet we have the measure of
the outer enclosure, called the "Grand Court,"
which is given at 1,156 feet in length and 900
feet in breadth. The next court is called the
"Court of Ihtar or Zamtna," whioh is set
down at 1,050 feet in length and 150 feet in
breadth. Round this court were six gates, ad
mitting to the inclosed temples. Even the
names of these gates are given. The four walls
of the courts, like the great pyramid in Egypt,
faced the four cardinal points, and in this the
faoes or sides of all the other portions of the
struoture agreed. The extent of the next en
closure appears to be uncertain; it hid four
gates or entranoes the gate of the rising sun,
the southern gate, the gate of the setting sun,
and tbe northern gate. Eaoh of these three
enclosures seem to bave been on a level with
the general plain on whioh Babylon stood, and
were simply walled paved courts, open at the
top, and one within the otber.
In the center of the third enclosure stood the
"tower" or principal building, whioh was the
grandest portion ot the whole pile, the founda
tion of whioh was 300 feet square, and the en
tire hight. above the foundation, also 300 feet.
The lower stage or story was 300 feet square
and 110 feet high. The next or second stage
of tbe tower was 260 feet square and 60 feet
high. The epithet applied to this stage is ob
scure; it bad probably sloping sides. 'Abe
third stage differs widely from the lower ones,
and cominenoes a regular progressive series of
stages, all of equal hight. ft was 200 feet
square and 20 feet high. The fourth stage was
170 feet square and 20 feet high. The fifth
stage was 110 feet square and 20 feet high.
Probably by Occident, the dimensions ot tbe
sixth stage ot the tower are omitted in the in
scription, but tbey can be easily restored in
accordance with the others. This stage must
have been 110 feet square and 20 feet high. On
this was raised the seventh stage, wbioh
was the upper temple or sanctuary of the god
This building had a length of 80 feet, by 70
feet broad and 60 feet high.
Thus the whole hight of this tower above its
foundation was 300 feet, exaotly equal to the
breadth of the base; and, as the foundation
was most probably raised above the level
of the ground, it would give a bight of over 300
feet above the plain for this grandest of Baby
lonian temples.
This grand central tower or temple was sur
rounded with a number of smaller buildings,
the chief of whioh, and the one whioh appears
to have been most intimately connected with
tbe principal structure, was 200 feet square.
Beyond this, and around the base of the tower,
were arranged the chapels or temples of the
principal gods, on its four sides, and faolng the
cardinal points. On the eastern side stood a
sanctuary or temple, 117 or 133 feet by 67 feet,
with 16 shrines, the principal being the shrine
devoted to the god Nebo and Urmit or Trasmit
his wife. Nebo was considered the eldest son
of Bel, the great deity of tbe temple. On tbe
northern siJe stood two temples, one devoted
to tbe god Hea, the otber to Nusku. Tbe tem
ple of Hea was 112 feet long by 50 feet broad,
and that of Nusku was a square, 58 by 68 feet..
On tbe southern side stood a single temple,
dedicated to the two great gods, Anu and Bel,
This was 117 by 50 feet. On the western side
were the principal buildings, consisting of a
double bouse, with a court between the two
wings. On the one side the wing was 166 by 31
feet, on tbe otber side the wing was 166 by 103
feet, and tbe space between tbem was 58 feet.
The uuildlng at the back was 208 by 60 feet.
The description of the position of tbe western
temples must be taken as oonjectural. In
these western chambers s'ood tbe oouub of the
god, and tbe throne of gold mentioned by Her
odotus, besides other furniture of great value.
The couoh is stated to have been 15 feet by 8
feet 8 inobes in area.
Tbe mound of Babil, wbioh is already iden
tified by ihe best authorities with tbe temple of
Belus, consists now of the lower stage of the
lower and the ruins of tbe buildings around
it. We can only conjecture that the magnifi
cent superstructure was removed by Alexander
in his operations for clearing the site and re
building the temple, a work be did not live to
The adornment of the temple of Belus with
gold and silver, the splendid colors of its fur
niture and statuary, oombined to make it one
of the grandest buildings of the anoient world,
and earned for it tbe name of tbe "Basis of
Heaven and Earth," and the "Glory of the Oily
of Babylon."
The disoovery of these and otber tablets
constituting tbe books and libraries of tbat an
cient people are among the most interesting
scientidodlsooveries ot the age. Their number
seems almost without limit, and the information
wbioh tbey are bringing down to us from those
far off ages is of tbe most important character.
The constantly recurring reports of new dis
coveries in this direction, keep up tbe inter
est, and will tend to secure, beyoud peradven
ture, the funds neoessary to continue tbe work
of exploration, so long as the discoveries con
tinue. This field ot research seems almost in
exhaustible. In referenoe to tbe amount of oarbonlo aold
excreted in the breath and perspiration by dif
ferent animal species under the same condi
tions, and by tbe same species under different
conditions, Dr. Pott finds that the greatest
amount of carboulo acid per 100 grins, of liv
ing weight is eicreted by birds (1.03 grms. in
aix hours); next follow mammals (2.95 grms.
In six hours), and then insects. Young ani
mals exerete a proportionately greater weight
than old ones. CAem. A'eics.
Thi floods bave destroyed a large portion ot
the crops in southern France,