Ep$- WaBggwrifrwrs-K- - w55!5SfS5r5?5yR? 1 s ""i1" WILLAMKTTE FARMER. I i I ( Qood HEALTH The Philosophy of the Lungs. The office of Iho lungs, in its relation to health and life, is bo important in the human organism, that everybody onght to understand it. The work performed by the longs is of two kinds. First, they endow with life the ele ments which repair the wear and tear of the body. The stomach digests the food we eat, but has no power to make that food in'o blood. The product of digestion is a while fluid, de void of life, and possessing in itself no power of assimilation. It is sent to the lungs to be vitalized or, in other words, endowed with life, and made capable of entering into com bination with the tissues of the body. This white fluid is ca'lcd chyle, and when the lungs have acted upon it, becomes bright red blood, in which condition it is sent to the henrt to be distributed throughout the system. Every breath we draw manufactures a certain quan tity of new blood. It is in this way that, the food we eat imparts strength and health to our bodies. No sooner is one meal digested by the stomach, and made into blood by the lungs, than the sense of hunger returns to tell us we must eat again. If we do not heed this de mand for more food the making of new blood stops and the body grows weak. This renova tion of the blood is going on unceasingly. The quantity of new blood made depends on the size of the lungs. A man with small lungs only breathes a small quantity of air, and can only make a proportionate quantity of blood. With large lungs more air is inspired, and conse quently more blood is made. This is why those having large lungs are strong, muscular men, while others with small lungs are thin and weak. It is a law of nature, and you can not find in all the world an instance of a stout, muscular man with small lungs. The nutri tion of the body is governed by the size of the lungs and the freedom of the breathing. This being the case you can understand how essential it is to health and strength that the lungs should always be kept free from obstruc tion. If you permit colds to settle on the chest, and the mucous lining of the air tnbes to become congested and inflamed, you by that prevent the lungs from doing their appointed work, and inevitably lose in flesh and strength. This explains the reason why all lung dis eases are characterized by loss of flesh. Tbat malady called consumption is so named from this very peculiarity. The body consumes or wastes away, because the lungs are obstructed by tubercles. So, also, of catarrh and bron chitis, though in a less degree. They impair tho blood-making power of the lungs by clog ging the air tubes with phlegm and mucous, and in this way injure the general health, and weaken the body. To remedy this weakness and increase the flesh, it is common to advise, in these lung cases, all kinds of nourishing food, under the delusion that the fault is in the stomach. But they do no good for the reason that assimilation does not take place in the stomach. The stomach may be supplied with the strongest nourishment, and may per fectly digest it, and yet the patient will con tinue to lose in proportion to the extent the lungs are diseased. But improve his breathing, and from tbat moment, without any change in his diet, he will begin to gain. Good health depends on tho rapid transfor mation of matter on the constant introduction of new elements of nutrition into the blood, and the constant expulsion of old, worn out elements from the blood. This brings us to the second duty performed by the lungs. They not-only give us our strength by making new blood from the food we eat, but they purify the old blood by casting out its most corrupt ing impurities. Every breath we draw comes back from the lungs loaded with carbonio acid. Carbonic acid is formed by the combustion of the fatty tissues of the body. In this way ani mal heat is generated and the warmth of the body maintained. Its formation is essential to life. It takes place every moment of our being and must be expelled by the lungs as fast as it is formed or our health suffers. Now, on the subject of treatment. Suppose your general health to be impaired in the way explained, you could not expect any permanent benefit to result from treating the loss of flesh, bad circulation, torpid liver, disordered nerves, etc., while their cause remains in operation. Their cause is the state of the lungs, and these are but the effects or symptoms. No cure ever yet resulted from 6uch a course. No remedy devised by man can cure the symptoms while their cause remains in force. Bestore the function of the lungs and all theso general ef fects will disappear of their own accord. Ihe most that is ever accomplished by treating symptoms is a little temporary relief, while, by coins to the root of the evil, and treating the lungs, the disease itself and the symptoms dis appear together, and the cure is radical. rf ..ni?,'nitif Hi matters I have endeav- ored to give the reader an insight into some of the higher mysteries 01 meuictu t.., . as yet are but imperfectly understood, even by the general profession. The philosophy of respiration teaches the paramount importance of the lungs over all organs of the body, the injury which results to health from even the Blightest obstruction of their function, and indi cates clearly tbo remedial means which alone can guide to success in tbe treatment of lung complaints.- Robert Hunter, H. D. DopES-pc EcoopiT- Choice Treatment of Foods. In the choice of foods we cannot exercise too much care. It is cheaper to procure only tbe very best articles. All vegetables and fruits should be grown on the Dest soils, and the fertilizers used Bhould be well decomposed and not fresh and rank. Partially decayed food of whatever kind should be avoided. For breads, the best white wheat is none too good. If crown in new soil it is likely to be better and to contain abundance of the mineral matter so needful to health. Fiuils for eating without cooking should be ripe, tender and not too tart; while those for cooking may be either Bweet or soor, but they must possess the peculiar quality of retaining when oooked their best flavors. Potatoes should be fresh and ripe old ones are less wholesome, especially when they have been exposed to the light and air. and bruised by much handling, or long exposed to tbe cold. Animal food suould be ehosen with great caution. Only healthy animals should be used for eating. Tbey should neither be too old nor too young, too fat nor too lean. In butchering, all the blood should be removed from the body, as otherwise the flesh putrefies readily. It should be thoroughly cooled before eating. It is also desirable that tbe animal be not killed for several hours after eating or after fatigue. The long journeya animals are sent on crowded, filthy cars, render their flesh un- wnoicauuic. The treatment of animal food is a matter of importance. Why do we cook iv at an r rmi, to render it more pleasing to the light; second, . j. , it. Iu.t H..AN. and third- tA rADOAr it digestible and palatable. Flesh cooked too much is rendered innutritions and Indigestible; if cooked too little, it is disagreeable eating. Lieblg said he would never have flesh subjected to a higher temperature than 17(P F., except for a few minutes after it is put into tho pot, when it may be submitted to a temperature of boiling water in order to coagulate the albumen into a sort of crust on tho outside to hold in the flavors that might otherwise be evaporated. In roasting meat, also, let the heat at first be high, and gradually decrease to the boiling point for the same reason. Stewed meats ire more wholesome and nutritious than any other. The process renders flesh tender and succulent and easy of digestion. Fish Floub. A novel and remarkable arti cle of food, prepared from tho products of the ocean, has lately been brought prominently forward this is fish flour. .It is not as yet manufactured in any great quantity, as the article is still new in the market, and conse- Suently there is no great demand for it. The our is prepared in Norway, from dried cod fish of the first quality; it is thoroughly desic cated and then ground in a mill. There are two qualities, the coarse and the fine-ground. It is especially the former which has found favor with the public; from it an excellent dish of preserved fish can in a sbott time be pre pared; while the finest ground is used for fish puddings, a dish highly appreciated in isorwoy and Sweden. In Catholio countries, in locali ties where there is no regular Bupply of fresh fish, it is presumed this article will be more particularly important. Barley and Bread Soup. Take three ounces of barley, one and a half ounces of stale bread crumbs, one and a half ounces of butter, one half ounce of salt, and one quarter ounce of parsley. Wash and steep the carley for twelve hours in one-half pint of water, to which a piece of carbonato of soda, the size of a pea, has bi en added; then pour off the water not absorbed, and add the crumbs of stale bread, three quarts of boiling water, and tbe salt. Digest these in a salt-glazed covered jar, in the oven, or boil them slowly in a well tinned covered pan, for from four to six hours, add ing the chopped parsley, with the butter, thirty minutes before the expiration of the time of boiling. Horseradish Sauce. Grate as much horse radish as will fill a breakfast cup, mix with it two teaBpoonfuls of powdered white Bugar and one each of salt and pepper, a dessertspoonful of made mustard, and enough vinegar to make the whole as thick as tbick cream. A small cupful of cream is also a great improvement. To use with roast beef the sauce is heated by being placed in a jar in tbe oven till warm, but it must not boil; and it is very good cold, to eat with various cold meats. Double the quan tity may be made at a time, and it will keep for some weeks if bottled. BucKWHEAif Cakes. One quart of buckwheat flour and a half a pint of Graham meal. Mix with lukewarm water into a batter, stir in a teacupful of good yeast sponge or a half cent's worth of bakers' yeast; mix in an earthen or stone vessel, and set over night in a warm place to rise. If the temperature and yeast have been just right, the batter will be light and sweet, and not need soda. It BUould be con sidered a mistake when the ferment needs neu tralizing, and care taken to set cooler or correct the yeast Cheese Sandwiches. Take two-thirds of good cheese, grated, and one-third of butter; add a little cream; pound all together in a mortar; then spread it on slices of brown bread or gems; lay another slice over each; press them gently together, and cut in small square pieces. Mininq the Gbeat Civilized. The London Mining World discourses on the effects of min ing on civilization at considerable length, and very legitimately concludes as follows: It is not too much to say that all the civilization of wbioh we boast may be traced to the application of the metals and to the use of coal. Wherever nations have learned to mine and work metals, they have become powerful and rich, subduing their neighbors eitber by force of -arms or by greater industrial activity, and in either case acquiring their wealth. In the earlier stages, those who possessed tbe metals made an easy prey of their rivals, and in the present day nations mining their coals aud metals do in a better and more elevated sense outstrip their competitors and become the masters of tbe world. All history teaches that those nations which learned to mine aud work metals btcanie wealthy, powerful and civil!zed, whilst those which have bad no mining industries or no metallic manufactures have remained in a state of barbarism, and that such at the present day is the distinguishing feature of savages. Min ipg industry is, indeed, tbe foundation of nil civilization and the chief basis on which all industries must rest, as well as being at tbe same time tbe principal element of progress. Without it the working class could gain little beyond the mere necessities, and, as we have often shown that coal and iron are the first requisites of national prosperity, so it is to mining that we must refer tbe advancement of the present age. A Substitute fob Hydraulic Lime. Ztiod elite is a comparatively new material, which las latterally come largely into use in France, as a substitute for hydraulio lime. It is said to be much superior to that material for uniting stone and resisting the action of water. It is 'made by mixing together sulphur and pul verized stoneware and glass, in the proportion of nineteen pounds of tbe former to forty-two of the latter. Tbe mixture is exposed to gentle beat, which melts the sulphur, and then the mass is stirred until it becomes thoroughly homogeneous, when it is run into suitable moulds, and allowed to cool. This preparation is proof against acids in general, whatever their degree of concentration, and will last an infinite time. It melts at about one hundred and twenty degrees Cen., and may be re employed without loss of any of its qualities, whenever it is desirable to change tbe form of an apparatus, by melting at a general heat, and operating as with aspbalte. At one hundred and ten degrees it becomes as bard as stone, and therefore preserves its solidity in boiling water. Slabs of zeiodelite may be joined by introducing between some of them paste heated to two hundred degrees, which will melt the edges of the slabs, and when the whole be comes cold it will present one uniform piece. To Fix Magnetic Ccbves. The following neat methods of fixing tbe beautiful curves made by iron filings on paper, under the influ ence of a magnet, are from an interesting ar ticle in the Electrical Neics, describing the prac tical instruction in electricity and magnetism at the South Kensington science school : 1, Make a solntion of gall nuts. Brush over sheet of paper with solution ; remove su perfluous moisture by blotting paper. Place damp paper over curves, press evenly, care fully lift paper ; dry quickly, and shake off fil ings. A permanent impression in ink will be left on tbe paper. 2. Fix pair of magnets to one aide of square of glass, coat other aide with very thin gum water ; when plate U quite dry, dust fine iron filings over gummed surface, Up, then breathe gently on plate. Gum i thereby softened and curves fixed. ffllSCELLEOjS, McCloud River Salmon Fishery. Work Done by U. S. Fish Commission Under Super intendence of Deputy Commissioner L. Stone. Part First-Historical. Far off as any such result may seem cow, it is nevertheless true, that were the salmon rivers of this coast left to take care of themselves they would in a few years be despoiled of their inhabitants and therewith loose their obief value. Such has been the result in the Eastern States, where salmon once sfcarmed in the streams, and it is only after long years of al most utter barrenness tbat they are now being fitted for the reception of and restocked with the fish that once made them their homes. This work of preparation is one of great trouble and expense. Fish-ways have to be built over dams and falls; manufacturers have to be compelled to keep tbe injurious drainage from their factories from polluting the streams, and many a suit has to be instituted and car ried on to bring about all the results necessary to fit the water for the reception of tbe fish. When their home is ready tbe fish have to be put into it and protected for a number of years, to be allowed to breed and restook the waters. The stocking of livers by catching and trans porting the fish alive is a slow and tedious pro cess and one unproductive of quick results, and in its place quicker, safer and cheaper haB grown up the new art of fish hatching. Tbe art, as it is cow practiced, has in truth grown from seeds sown hardly more than ten years ago, when the attention of legislators was most forcibly called to the condition of tbe fish rivers of the East. Although the process of the artificial impreg nation of fish eggs was discovered in 17C3 by Jacobi, a German, yet it bad undergone no change of any great note till about twelve years ago, when tbe thoughts of many intelli gent Americans were turned to It. Then it was taken up in good earnest, and like tbat of many other Old World inventions, its history in America is but a record of rapid and continued improvement, and here In California it has made, within the last four years, some of its most rapid advances, and has adapted itself to the scale of grandeur characteristic of all things in the land. The Rise of Fish Culture. About 18GG almost all the Eastern States passed laws providing for the protection and propagation of fish within their limits, and appointed commissioners to take charge of the work. Very good work has been done by these commissioners, and the Western and far West ern States have taken up tbe work, and many are now reaping the fiuit of their wisdom. In our own State much good has been done by the State Commissioners and tbe Acclimatiza tion society; white-fish have been put into Clear lake, shad into the Sacramento, and salmon into Lake Merced, tbeTruckee, the Mo Cloud, etc., and the work of protection carried on as thoroughly as possible. In 1871 a United States Fish Commission was organized, with Prof. Spencer F. Baird as chief commissioner, and a fishery was estab lished, in conjunction with several State Com missions, on the Penobscot river in Maine, under the superintendence of Mr. 0. G. Atkins, where salmon were caught and their eggs taken and prepared for shipment. This was, till tbe establishment of the McCloud river fishery, tbe largest salmon fishery in the world, and great good has been done by it. There are there, however, several disadvan tages that are not experienced on the McCloud. As tbe fishing grounds on the Penobscot are all owned by private parties, tbe Government has no right to use them for procuring salmon eggs; all fish, therefore, have to be bought from owners of the grounds at $3 a piece. Then, as there are laws prohibiting the capture of salmon for some time before the spawning season, all the fish have to be caught five months before tbey are ripe, transported to a pond a mile from the river and there kept till ready to spawn. The consequence of all this handling and interference with nature is that the eggs are toft shelled the shell of a salmon egg is a tough membrane and consequently very difficult to handle. Notwithstanding these disadvantages, tbe Maine fishery bas done an immense amount of good work, and millions of young fish from it bavo been put Into the Con necticut and other Eastern rivers. Numbers of private persons have also gone intofi-h culture with great success, and to many of them tbe eggs from California are sent to be batched out for tbe different States, by whom the cost of the packing, transportation and batching is paid. Successful as were the results obtained at the Maine fishery, yet tbe number of eggs was found so inadequate to the demand that it be came necessary to provide some other source of supply, and California being well known as having rivers well filled with salmon, was selected as the new field of operations. The McCloud Fishery, 1872. In tbe summer of 1872, Mr. Livingston Stone, Deputy Fish Commissioner, came to California, in compliance with orders from Professor iiurd, to inspect tno salmon rivers 01 me State, to find a site for a salmon fishery, and to commence work immediately if possible. Strange as it may seem, he could find no one in San Francisco who could answer bis inquir ies as to the time and place of the spawning of the Califotnia salmon. It was generally known that tbey were most abundant in tbe Sacramento and tbat tbey ascended it in the fall; but no one to whom he applied had ever seen them on their spawning beds. After many days of fruitless inquiry, Mr. Stone learned from Mr. Montague, Chief Engineer of the Central Pacifio railroad, that he hod seen salmon in great enmbers in the McCloud river, and he pointed out on a map a spot that be thought would do for the site of a fishery. ThitberMr Stone and his assistant, Mr. J. G. Woodbury, proceeded, arriving September 1st, 1872. They found tbe salmon abundant, but on ex amination it became apparent tbat almost all had spawned, and that the number of eggs would necessarily be but small tbat year. Tbey established themselves at a stage station, about three-quarters of a mile from tbe river, by a small brook, and in three days by bard labor built a house and troughs, and were ready to set to work to collect eggs. Here came trouble for them. They experienced great difficulty in obtaining fish. Tbey tried many nets, but all failed, except tne sein, ana tneir s was not snited to tbe rapid current and did not work well, and most of their fish were got by watch ing the Indians, and as toon as any one speared one to rush and take it from him and take tbe eggs. But the fall run was nearly over, and twelve ripe females, yielding 60,000 eggs, were all that could be obtained. The cow old style of troughs, with charcoal and gravel bottom, were then in use, and Into such the eggs were put, out in tbe sun. with the thermometer sometime at 110, with only a board to cover them, for there was no time to build a roof. There many died, bat the re mainder prospered till the water, stirred by animals, began to deposit on them a coating of hard mud tbat could'not be washed off. No remedy could be lound for this, and it went on till not an egg was visible and all were in im minent danger of snffoo lion. All hope was i given up at one time, cut air. nooaoury ae- I cided to ran tbe risk of killing tbem immedi ately in washing off the dirt. Taking the eggs ' in a buclet, be put in a handful of sand and held them under a Btreani of water, that stirred them gently till all were scoured clean. Of tho eggs thus treated, only a small percentage died from the rperation and most of those were un- limpr.gnated. Of the ordinal 50,000, 20,000 died from heat and other causes, and 30,000 were shipped East, hatched and put into East ern witter, and last Tear the crilse were taken, , being three times as large as Eastern grilse of j tne same age. Theso eggs were packed in wooden boxes, i instead of tin or glass jars; this was then nto jessary from the length of the journey, and more so since from the immense number of eggs and tho rapidity with which it is neces- sary to pack them. The results, too, are more favorable with wooden than with tin boxes. ' Season of 1873. j After a season's experience, Mr. Stone de I elded, as there was no clear spring water avail able, to move his whole establishment down to the river, near the seining ground, and, con trary to all precedent, to use tbe water from the river in the trongbs. This was done, a dwelling house erected, troughs put up under a tent sixty feet by thirty feet, and an under shot wheel, twelve feet diameter and eleven feet shaft, was made and set up to raise water, a fish barrier put in the river to Btop the salmon, and by August 19th, all was in readi ness to begin the work. The McCloud. The McCloud river, on which tbe fishery is situated, is a tributary of tbe Pit or Upper Sacramento. It rises in two forks in the foot hills of Shasta butte, and nearly half its volume comes from a spring that rises in tbe bed of the stream, coming underground from the melting snows of Shasta. This is very cold ond gives the river a low temperature tbat it never loses, running an icy flood to its mouth. The tern peratnre of the water in mid-summer is never above C3, though the air is sometimes 130, and at night it generally falls to 40"; in the winter it is still lower, but it never freezes, on account of its rapidity. The descent of tbe river is very swift about forty feet to the mile and every few hundred yards there is a rapid, where the water boils and surges over the rocks with tremendous force. At the fishery the stream is from thirty to fifty yards wide with an average depth of seven feet. About sixty miles from its mouth the river passes over a perpen dicular fall about seventy feet high, said to be one of the most beautiful in tbe State. The edge of the fall is perfectly even, and the water passes over it in one unbroken mass, twenty or thirty yards wide. Tbe valley of the McCloud is shut in by high hills, or, more properly, mountains as some of them rise 4,000 feet high that rise but a short distance from it, leaving but little low land that is of any value; this is covered with oak, pine, ash and underwood, and was once thickly inhabited by a tribe of superior Indians, but tbey are nearly extinct, and none are to be found more than twelve miles from the mouth. Tbe banks of the river are fringed with a water plant, bearing large green leaves. This lives naturally in higher altitudes, but has become naturalized to the McCloud valley from the coldness of the stream. The river is one of the chief spawning grounds of the Sacramento salmon, and so long as its waters are kept clear and unobstructed there can be little fear of the extinction of this fish. To this end all miners must be kept from it, and the wisest use that tbe Government can make of tbe whole valley is to appropriate it for an Indian reservation. Inventions and Improvements. In 1872, Mr. Woodbury, the foreman, had experienced great inconvenience from tbo crack ing of the charred bottom and sides of the old troughs, and experimented with various sub stances in the endeavor to find something that could be used in place of the charring to pre vent tbe growth of fungus, tbat would have no harmful effect on the eggs. All others seeming useless and thinking of the insolubility of as phaltum, he experimented with it witu favor able results, and the second year part of tbe troughs were coated with it. No harm resulted from it, and ever since it has been used exclu sively with the greatest success. It gives a hard, glosby coating to the wood and can be very easily cleaned of any dirt deposited on it, and renders the trough perfectly water-tight. In 1873 some of the then new trays of wire gauze were used to hold the eggs and the ac companying double dams to secure complete circulation of water. These were found to be an improvement on tbe gravel, but had to be I bandied with care, as tbe eggs rolled off from I them with Derfect ease. From this oircum-1 stance Mr. Woodbury decided to put sides to these trays, and contiary to tho directions of fish culturixts, to put in several layers of eggs. This was done in 1874 with purl of tbo trays, all charcoal and gravel being done away with, and 25,000 eggs were placed in a tray two feet by one foot and six inches deep; the double dams being also used. This invention was a great success; the eggs were more healthy and could be bandied with great ease and rapidity; by moving tbem gently up and down all dirt could be freed from theu; ond it is principally by the use of tbem that this fishery bag been able to send away such large numbers of eggs. Season ol 1875. The seasons of 1873 and 1874 were very suc cessful in their results, and tbe latter in par tirnlnr nntnworthv for the laree cumber of eggs taken, but the season of 1875 has far sur passed any preceding in au ruspouia. uv only bas the number of eggs been larger, but they have been much healthier, and although tbe water brought down more sediment for there was no freshet last winter to clear tbe river bottom of last year's deposit the eggs at packing were noticeably clean, having no fungus attached to them and as bright as when first taken. Whether it was the natural result of exper ience or some favorable condition of the work is not evident; but this year it was found that two men, with Indian assistants, could spawn twice aa many fish as in any previous year, and tbat tbe eggs taken thus rapidly were in no wise inferior, but rather superior to those of former years. The greatest number taken In one day was 690,500, and more fish could have been spawned but could not be obtained. Tbe largest number taken from one female was 9,000. The Result. The whole number taken in 1875 was 7,822, 900; of these about four per cent., H14.900, died and were picked out; 0,058,000 were shipped East, and 1,850,000 left for California. Of those left for California 240,000 were sent to the Truckee river and hatched, and as many to Kern river, but tbe Utter were killed by the alkali water. 1,370,000 were hatched on and put into the McCloud. 50,000 eggs were sent to New Zealand by the Acclimatization Society, and as every effort has failed to get them from England, if this succeeds as it can be made to with sufficient care there will be quite a de mand for eggs from the countries beyond the equator. Those sent East went to various States as follows: Utah, 160,000; Colorado, 240,000; Iowa, 300,000: Minnesota, 400,000; Illinois, 80,000; Wlscon.in, 40.0C0; New York, 80 000; Pennsylvania, 480,000; Michigan, 800. 000; New Jersey, 320,000; Maryland, 560,000; Virginia, 320,000; Connecticut, 480.000; Bhode Islaud, 200,000; Massachusetts, 80.000; the Canadian Government, 80,000; N. W. Clarke, forU. S. Fish Commission, 988,000. Those first sont arrived in good condition, the others have not been heard from. The following is a comparative table of tbe four j ears' work. Twice as many males were taken as females. 1872. 1873. 1871. 1875. Total. Females. 12 5.00 1,050 1,702 3,654 Hafched 50,00 2'000'000 3.C75.000 7,821,900 15,547,900 8b?p d 30,000 1,500,000 4,100,000 5,658,000 11,488,000 EggR HatM at 850,000 1,370,000 2,220,000 Fltliery. I Future Work. It is now evident that the fishery, as now arranged, bas nearly reacbed is maximum of productiveness, and "that tbat can only be in creased by the establishment of new seining grounds, above and below the present one, and the building of a permanent hatohing house. Both of these are of easy performance and will, in all probability, be carried out next year. The batching tent, as now situated, is in the bed of the river in wintrr lime; but about a hundred yards up stream, close to the hill, a permanent batching house can be built, that will be out of the reach of tbe floods, and op posite is a rapid where a wheel can be placed to raise water to it. As there is plenty of timber, of all binds, on the hills around aud numbers of Indians ready to work for moderate wages, one white man can, during this winter, get out all timbers necessary for the frame, and next summer all the hands can be employed in putting up this building, instead of the tent that has to be taken down every year. Perhaps it may seem strange to speak of taking bands from raising a tent to a building; but, be it known that to put up and take clown every year the tent, boxes and flumes, oosts between one and two thousand dollars. Thus the building ex penses for not more than two years would easily pay for any hatching house that is needed on the McCloud. All the sawn lumber needed will be shakes for roofing aud sugar pine boards for boxes, flumes, etc and it this is ordered and sawed a month before it is wanted, so as to have time to season, the expense of haul ing will be but small. After tho troughs have been once erected there would be no need of tearing tbem down, which cracks and injures them ; but tbey could remain for years with no repairs but a ooat of ii-.pUaltum annually. If this houso were erected Ub cost of the eggs would bo very small and the usefulness of the fishery greatly in creased. Asono of the men is to remain at the fishery all winter, there is all probibillty tbat this work will bo done next year, Future Hatching on the McClond. As tbe fish hatched from the eggs taken here will, in due time, grow up and spawn in Eastern rivers, and their eggs can then be taken and hatobed there, tho demand on Cali fornia will, before long, be over. As the State Commissioners havo every year numbers of eggs hatched, on the McCloud, as soon as this establishment is suspended, there will be need for them to bavn a fishery of their own on the McCloud; and Mr. Woodbury, the superintendent of their works, bas found a place that seems to possess all the advantages that can possibly b) imagined for hatching salmon, and collecting the eggs of the "Dolly Varden" trout. The Dolly Varden or Wyedar-d'ee-klt Is a trout indigenous to the McCloud and Little Sacramento. There nro reports of its having been found in some other streams, but tbey are not well authenticated. It is peculiar in shape, having a largo head and mouth, and iucreases in size regularly from the tail to tbo head. It is bright yellow in color and has along its back rows of large dark spots, and on its Bides spangles of red, silver and gold; presenting al together a very beautiful appearance. Its tail and fins are of the most beautiful construction, giving it great power and rapidity in the water. They are frequently caught of eight and ten pounds weight, and there are rumors of larger ones, but only rumors. It is comparatively rare, being usually found near the head waters, and only in cool water. It is altogether, per hups the finest trout in tbe world, and if it were once known there would bo an increasing demand for it. It is the intention of tbe com missioners to obtiia eggs, if possible, and in troduce tbem into other streams. The Place for a Fishery. But the work of obtaining these eggs from tbe river will be attended with greit ditnoulty. as tbey prob ibly spiwn in the winter, when tbe river is high; but there is a place ubotit eight miles xbove the fishery, where a brook comes down from tbo mountains. On this brook, near where it eruption into the river, lives an old California!), Mr. J. B. Campbell, who has there a garden and orchard watered by the water from the brook. This is a flpo, cold s t roam at all seasons, and the only one on the river available tor hatching purposes, as above it all is an uniuhabited wilderness for sixty miles. In this stroam, every winter, spawn the Dolly Yarden and otber trout, and their young are fre quently seen in the Irrigating ditch in summer. Here then is tho place, and the only place ou the McCloud, to establish a,perinanent State batching houso and fishery for trout nnd salmon; and the conformation of the brook bed is such that a large fish pond for breeding trout could be built tbero at a trifling expense. Mr. Campbell favors tbe establishment of a fishery there; and as be has been, during Ibis whole season, assisting at the fishery, under stands the business thoronghly and could thus render valuable assistance. Tbe only trouble in having a fishery there would be the necessity of widening tbe present trail into a road, as ft is eight miles from tbe stage road; but as this runs along tbe valley bottom, it can be done at no great expense. It will be done sometime, and tbe sooner the better, ierman Dulnellt in Rural Prtss. Stkki, Wide Boris. Steel wire rope has re nliicpii Iron wire roDe with advantuae in several colleries in Prussia, particularly in Westphalia. In all tbe pits, nowever, it nas ueen louna mat cast steel rope must be lubricated at least once a week, and laid on one side on tbe least ap pearance of fraying. At tbe Saarbruok col leries tbe experience, of otber places was re- , peated, that steel rope could be used of a smaller strength than iron, but required a greater drum oylinder. T)nna,Hfll P V VrPnrit BIlOOAfltfl ttlA fnllnUT- ing optical experiment: Observe a white cloud tbioagh green glass with tbe otber eye. After some momenta transfer both eyes to tbe red glass, opening and closing each eye alter nately. The strengthening of the red color la the eye, fatigued by its complementary green, is very striking. '41 M &&. tl'tCG ."- jJ , ill I'VMbiSiC ' Ng&wJ&., 'AL. i.MtJ&L'ML.