Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887, January 07, 1876, Page 3, Image 3

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The Philosophy of the Lungs.
The office of Iho lungs, in its relation to
health and life, is bo important in the human
organism, that everybody onght to understand
The work performed by the longs is of two
kinds. First, they endow with life the ele
ments which repair the wear and tear of the
body. The stomach digests the food we eat,
but has no power to make that food in'o blood.
The product of digestion is a while fluid, de
void of life, and possessing in itself no power
of assimilation. It is sent to the lungs to be
vitalized or, in other words, endowed with
life, and made capable of entering into com
bination with the tissues of the body. This
white fluid is ca'lcd chyle, and when the lungs
have acted upon it, becomes bright red blood,
in which condition it is sent to the henrt to
be distributed throughout the system. Every
breath we draw manufactures a certain quan
tity of new blood. It is in this way that, the
food we eat imparts strength and health to our
No sooner is one meal digested by the
stomach, and made into blood by the lungs,
than the sense of hunger returns to tell us we
must eat again. If we do not heed this de
mand for more food the making of new blood
stops and the body grows weak. This renova
tion of the blood is going on unceasingly. The
quantity of new blood made depends on the
size of the lungs. A man with small lungs only
breathes a small quantity of air, and can only
make a proportionate quantity of blood. With
large lungs more air is inspired, and conse
quently more blood is made. This is why
those having large lungs are strong, muscular
men, while others with small lungs are thin
and weak. It is a law of nature, and you can
not find in all the world an instance of a stout,
muscular man with small lungs. The nutri
tion of the body is governed by the size of the
lungs and the freedom of the breathing.
This being the case you can understand how
essential it is to health and strength that the
lungs should always be kept free from obstruc
tion. If you permit colds to settle on the
chest, and the mucous lining of the air tnbes
to become congested and inflamed, you by that
prevent the lungs from doing their appointed
work, and inevitably lose in flesh and strength.
This explains the reason why all lung dis
eases are characterized by loss of flesh. Tbat
malady called consumption is so named from
this very peculiarity. The body consumes or
wastes away, because the lungs are obstructed
by tubercles. So, also, of catarrh and bron
chitis, though in a less degree. They impair
tho blood-making power of the lungs by clog
ging the air tubes with phlegm and mucous,
and in this way injure the general health, and
weaken the body. To remedy this weakness
and increase the flesh, it is common to advise,
in these lung cases, all kinds of nourishing
food, under the delusion that the fault is in
the stomach. But they do no good for the
reason that assimilation does not take place in
the stomach. The stomach may be supplied
with the strongest nourishment, and may per
fectly digest it, and yet the patient will con
tinue to lose in proportion to the extent the
lungs are diseased. But improve his breathing,
and from tbat moment, without any change in
his diet, he will begin to gain.
Good health depends on tho rapid transfor
mation of matter on the constant introduction
of new elements of nutrition into the blood,
and the constant expulsion of old, worn out
elements from the blood. This brings us to
the second duty performed by the lungs. They
not-only give us our strength by making new
blood from the food we eat, but they purify
the old blood by casting out its most corrupt
ing impurities. Every breath we draw comes
back from the lungs loaded with carbonio acid.
Carbonic acid is formed by the combustion of
the fatty tissues of the body. In this way ani
mal heat is generated and the warmth of the
body maintained. Its formation is essential
to life. It takes place every moment of our
being and must be expelled by the lungs as fast
as it is formed or our health suffers.
Now, on the subject of treatment. Suppose
your general health to be impaired in the way
explained, you could not expect any permanent
benefit to result from treating the loss of flesh,
bad circulation, torpid liver, disordered nerves,
etc., while their cause remains in operation.
Their cause is the state of the lungs, and these
are but the effects or symptoms. No cure ever
yet resulted from 6uch a course. No remedy
devised by man can cure the symptoms while
their cause remains in force. Bestore the
function of the lungs and all theso general ef
fects will disappear of their own accord. Ihe
most that is ever accomplished by treating
symptoms is a little temporary relief, while, by
coins to the root of the evil, and treating the
lungs, the disease itself and the symptoms dis
appear together, and the cure is radical.
rf ..ni?,'nitif Hi matters I have endeav-
ored to give the reader an insight into some of
the higher mysteries 01 meuictu t.., .
as yet are but imperfectly understood, even by
the general profession. The philosophy of
respiration teaches the paramount importance
of the lungs over all organs of the body, the
injury which results to health from even the
Blightest obstruction of their function, and indi
cates clearly tbo remedial means which alone
can guide to success in tbe treatment of lung
complaints.- Robert Hunter, H. D.
DopES-pc EcoopiT-
Choice Treatment of Foods.
In the choice of foods we cannot exercise too
much care. It is cheaper to procure only tbe
very best articles. All vegetables and fruits
should be grown on the Dest soils, and the
fertilizers used Bhould be well decomposed and
not fresh and rank. Partially decayed food of
whatever kind should be avoided. For breads,
the best white wheat is none too good. If
crown in new soil it is likely to be better and
to contain abundance of the mineral matter so
needful to health. Fiuils for eating without
cooking should be ripe, tender and not too tart;
while those for cooking may be either Bweet or
soor, but they must possess the peculiar quality
of retaining when oooked their best flavors.
Potatoes should be fresh and ripe old ones
are less wholesome, especially when they have
been exposed to the light and air. and bruised
by much handling, or long exposed to tbe cold.
Animal food suould be ehosen with great
caution. Only healthy animals should be
used for eating. Tbey should neither be too
old nor too young, too fat nor too lean. In
butchering, all the blood should be removed
from the body, as otherwise the flesh putrefies
readily. It should be thoroughly cooled before
eating. It is also desirable that tbe animal be
not killed for several hours after eating or after
fatigue. The long journeya animals are sent
on crowded, filthy cars, render their flesh un-
The treatment of animal food is a matter of
importance. Why do we cook iv at an r rmi,
to render it more pleasing to the light; second,
. j. , it. Iu.t H..AN. and third- tA rADOAr
it digestible and palatable. Flesh cooked too
much is rendered innutritions and Indigestible;
if cooked too little, it is disagreeable eating.
Lieblg said he would never have flesh subjected
to a higher temperature than 17(P F., except
for a few minutes after it is put into tho pot,
when it may be submitted to a temperature of
boiling water in order to coagulate the albumen
into a sort of crust on tho outside to hold in the
flavors that might otherwise be evaporated. In
roasting meat, also, let the heat at first be high,
and gradually decrease to the boiling point for
the same reason. Stewed meats ire more
wholesome and nutritious than any other. The
process renders flesh tender and succulent and
easy of digestion.
Fish Floub. A novel and remarkable arti
cle of food, prepared from tho products of the
ocean, has lately been brought prominently
forward this is fish flour. .It is not as yet
manufactured in any great quantity, as the
article is still new in the market, and conse-
Suently there is no great demand for it. The
our is prepared in Norway, from dried cod
fish of the first quality; it is thoroughly desic
cated and then ground in a mill. There are
two qualities, the coarse and the fine-ground.
It is especially the former which has found
favor with the public; from it an excellent dish
of preserved fish can in a sbott time be pre
pared; while the finest ground is used for fish
puddings, a dish highly appreciated in isorwoy
and Sweden. In Catholio countries, in locali
ties where there is no regular Bupply of fresh
fish, it is presumed this article will be more
particularly important.
Barley and Bread Soup. Take three ounces
of barley, one and a half ounces of stale bread
crumbs, one and a half ounces of butter, one
half ounce of salt, and one quarter ounce of
parsley. Wash and steep the carley for twelve
hours in one-half pint of water, to which a
piece of carbonato of soda, the size of a pea,
has bi en added; then pour off the water not
absorbed, and add the crumbs of stale bread,
three quarts of boiling water, and tbe salt.
Digest these in a salt-glazed covered jar, in the
oven, or boil them slowly in a well tinned
covered pan, for from four to six hours, add
ing the chopped parsley, with the butter, thirty
minutes before the expiration of the time of
Horseradish Sauce. Grate as much horse
radish as will fill a breakfast cup, mix with it
two teaBpoonfuls of powdered white Bugar and
one each of salt and pepper, a dessertspoonful
of made mustard, and enough vinegar to make
the whole as thick as tbick cream. A small
cupful of cream is also a great improvement.
To use with roast beef the sauce is heated by
being placed in a jar in tbe oven till warm, but
it must not boil; and it is very good cold, to
eat with various cold meats. Double the quan
tity may be made at a time, and it will keep
for some weeks if bottled.
BucKWHEAif Cakes. One quart of buckwheat
flour and a half a pint of Graham meal. Mix
with lukewarm water into a batter, stir in a
teacupful of good yeast sponge or a half cent's
worth of bakers' yeast; mix in an earthen or
stone vessel, and set over night in a warm place
to rise. If the temperature and yeast have
been just right, the batter will be light and
sweet, and not need soda. It BUould be con
sidered a mistake when the ferment needs neu
tralizing, and care taken to set cooler or correct
the yeast
Cheese Sandwiches. Take two-thirds of
good cheese, grated, and one-third of butter;
add a little cream; pound all together in a
mortar; then spread it on slices of brown bread
or gems; lay another slice over each; press
them gently together, and cut in small square
Mininq the Gbeat Civilized. The London
Mining World discourses on the effects of min
ing on civilization at considerable length, and
very legitimately concludes as follows: It is
not too much to say that all the civilization of
wbioh we boast may be traced to the application
of the metals and to the use of coal. Wherever
nations have learned to mine and work metals,
they have become powerful and rich, subduing
their neighbors eitber by force of -arms or by
greater industrial activity, and in either case
acquiring their wealth. In the earlier stages,
those who possessed tbe metals made an easy
prey of their rivals, and in the present day
nations mining their coals aud metals do in a
better and more elevated sense outstrip their
competitors and become the masters of tbe
world. All history teaches that those nations
which learned to mine aud work metals btcanie
wealthy, powerful and civil!zed, whilst those
which have bad no mining industries or no
metallic manufactures have remained in a state
of barbarism, and that such at the present day
is the distinguishing feature of savages. Min
ipg industry is, indeed, tbe foundation of nil
civilization and the chief basis on which all
industries must rest, as well as being at tbe
same time tbe principal element of progress.
Without it the working class could gain little
beyond the mere necessities, and, as we have
often shown that coal and iron are the first
requisites of national prosperity, so it is to
mining that we must refer tbe advancement of
the present age.
A Substitute fob Hydraulic Lime. Ztiod
elite is a comparatively new material, which
las latterally come largely into use in France,
as a substitute for hydraulio lime. It is said to
be much superior to that material for uniting
stone and resisting the action of water. It is
'made by mixing together sulphur and pul
verized stoneware and glass, in the proportion
of nineteen pounds of tbe former to forty-two
of the latter. Tbe mixture is exposed to gentle
beat, which melts the sulphur, and then the
mass is stirred until it becomes thoroughly
homogeneous, when it is run into suitable
moulds, and allowed to cool. This preparation
is proof against acids in general, whatever
their degree of concentration, and will last an
infinite time. It melts at about one hundred
and twenty degrees Cen., and may be re
employed without loss of any of its qualities,
whenever it is desirable to change tbe form of
an apparatus, by melting at a general heat, and
operating as with aspbalte. At one hundred
and ten degrees it becomes as bard as stone,
and therefore preserves its solidity in boiling
water. Slabs of zeiodelite may be joined by
introducing between some of them paste heated
to two hundred degrees, which will melt the
edges of the slabs, and when the whole be
comes cold it will present one uniform piece.
To Fix Magnetic Ccbves. The following
neat methods of fixing tbe beautiful curves
made by iron filings on paper, under the influ
ence of a magnet, are from an interesting ar
ticle in the Electrical Neics, describing the prac
tical instruction in electricity and magnetism
at the South Kensington science school :
1, Make a solntion of gall nuts. Brush
over sheet of paper with solution ; remove su
perfluous moisture by blotting paper. Place
damp paper over curves, press evenly, care
fully lift paper ; dry quickly, and shake off fil
ings. A permanent impression in ink will be
left on tbe paper. 2. Fix pair of magnets to
one aide of square of glass, coat other aide with
very thin gum water ; when plate U quite dry,
dust fine iron filings over gummed surface, Up,
then breathe gently on plate. Gum i thereby
softened and curves fixed.
McCloud River Salmon Fishery.
Work Done by U. S. Fish Commission Under Super
intendence of Deputy Commissioner L. Stone.
Part First-Historical.
Far off as any such result may seem cow, it
is nevertheless true, that were the salmon rivers
of this coast left to take care of themselves
they would in a few years be despoiled of their
inhabitants and therewith loose their obief
value. Such has been the result in the Eastern
States, where salmon once sfcarmed in the
streams, and it is only after long years of al
most utter barrenness tbat they are now being
fitted for the reception of and restocked with
the fish that once made them their homes.
This work of preparation is one of great
trouble and expense. Fish-ways have to be
built over dams and falls; manufacturers have
to be compelled to keep tbe injurious drainage
from their factories from polluting the streams,
and many a suit has to be instituted and car
ried on to bring about all the results necessary
to fit the water for the reception of tbe fish.
When their home is ready tbe fish have to be
put into it and protected for a number of years,
to be allowed to breed and restook the waters.
The stocking of livers by catching and trans
porting the fish alive is a slow and tedious pro
cess and one unproductive of quick results, and
in its place quicker, safer and cheaper haB
grown up the new art of fish hatching. Tbe
art, as it is cow practiced, has in truth grown
from seeds sown hardly more than ten years
ago, when the attention of legislators was most
forcibly called to the condition of tbe fish
rivers of the East.
Although the process of the artificial impreg
nation of fish eggs was discovered in 17C3 by
Jacobi, a German, yet it bad undergone no
change of any great note till about twelve
years ago, when tbe thoughts of many intelli
gent Americans were turned to It. Then it was
taken up in good earnest, and like tbat of many
other Old World inventions, its history in
America is but a record of rapid and continued
improvement, and here In California it has
made, within the last four years, some of its
most rapid advances, and has adapted itself to
the scale of grandeur characteristic of all things
in the land.
The Rise of Fish Culture.
About 18GG almost all the Eastern States
passed laws providing for the protection and
propagation of fish within their limits, and
appointed commissioners to take charge of the
work. Very good work has been done by these
commissioners, and the Western and far West
ern States have taken up tbe work, and many
are now reaping the fiuit of their wisdom.
In our own State much good has been done by
the State Commissioners and tbe Acclimatiza
tion society; white-fish have been put into
Clear lake, shad into the Sacramento, and
salmon into Lake Merced, tbeTruckee, the Mo
Cloud, etc., and the work of protection carried
on as thoroughly as possible.
In 1871 a United States Fish Commission
was organized, with Prof. Spencer F. Baird as
chief commissioner, and a fishery was estab
lished, in conjunction with several State Com
missions, on the Penobscot river in Maine,
under the superintendence of Mr. 0. G. Atkins,
where salmon were caught and their eggs taken
and prepared for shipment. This was, till tbe
establishment of the McCloud river fishery, tbe
largest salmon fishery in the world, and great
good has been done by it.
There are there, however, several disadvan
tages that are not experienced on the McCloud.
As tbe fishing grounds on the Penobscot are
all owned by private parties, tbe Government
has no right to use them for procuring salmon
eggs; all fish, therefore, have to be bought
from owners of the grounds at $3 a piece.
Then, as there are laws prohibiting the capture
of salmon for some time before the spawning
season, all the fish have to be caught five
months before tbey are ripe, transported to a
pond a mile from the river and there kept till
ready to spawn. The consequence of all this
handling and interference with nature is that
the eggs are toft shelled the shell of a salmon
egg is a tough membrane and consequently
very difficult to handle. Notwithstanding these
disadvantages, tbe Maine fishery bas done an
immense amount of good work, and millions of
young fish from it bavo been put Into the Con
necticut and other Eastern rivers.
Numbers of private persons have also gone
intofi-h culture with great success, and to
many of them tbe eggs from California are sent
to be batched out for tbe different States, by
whom the cost of the packing, transportation
and batching is paid.
Successful as were the results obtained at
the Maine fishery, yet tbe number of eggs was
found so inadequate to the demand that it be
came necessary to provide some other source
of supply, and California being well known as
having rivers well filled with salmon, was
selected as the new field of operations.
The McCloud Fishery, 1872.
In tbe summer of 1872, Mr. Livingston Stone,
Deputy Fish Commissioner, came to California,
in compliance with orders from Professor
iiurd, to inspect tno salmon rivers 01 me
State, to find a site for a salmon fishery, and to
commence work immediately if possible.
Strange as it may seem, he could find no one
in San Francisco who could answer bis inquir
ies as to the time and place of the spawning
of the Califotnia salmon. It was generally
known that tbey were most abundant in tbe
Sacramento and tbat tbey ascended it in the
fall; but no one to whom he applied had ever
seen them on their spawning beds. After
many days of fruitless inquiry, Mr. Stone
learned from Mr. Montague, Chief Engineer of
the Central Pacifio railroad, that he hod seen
salmon in great enmbers in the McCloud river,
and he pointed out on a map a spot that be
thought would do for the site of a fishery.
ThitberMr Stone and his assistant, Mr. J. G.
Woodbury, proceeded, arriving September 1st,
They found tbe salmon abundant, but on ex
amination it became apparent tbat almost all
had spawned, and that the number of eggs
would necessarily be but small tbat year. Tbey
established themselves at a stage station, about
three-quarters of a mile from tbe river, by a
small brook, and in three days by bard labor
built a house and troughs, and were ready to
set to work to collect eggs. Here came trouble
for them. They experienced great difficulty
in obtaining fish. Tbey tried many nets, but
all failed, except tne sein, ana tneir s was not
snited to tbe rapid current and did not work
well, and most of their fish were got by watch
ing the Indians, and as toon as any one speared
one to rush and take it from him and take tbe
eggs. But the fall run was nearly over, and
twelve ripe females, yielding 60,000 eggs, were
all that could be obtained.
The cow old style of troughs, with charcoal
and gravel bottom, were then in use, and Into
such the eggs were put, out in tbe sun. with the
thermometer sometime at 110, with only a
board to cover them, for there was no time to
build a roof. There many died, bat the re
mainder prospered till the water, stirred by
animals, began to deposit on them a coating of
hard mud tbat could'not be washed off. No
remedy could be lound for this, and it went on
till not an egg was visible and all were in im
minent danger of snffoo lion. All hope was
i given up at one time, cut air. nooaoury ae-
I cided to ran tbe risk of killing tbem immedi
ately in washing off the dirt. Taking the eggs
' in a buclet, be put in a handful of sand and
held them under a Btreani of water, that stirred
them gently till all were scoured clean. Of tho
eggs thus treated, only a small percentage died
from the rperation and most of those were un-
limpr.gnated. Of the ordinal 50,000, 20,000
died from heat and other causes, and 30,000
were shipped East, hatched and put into East
ern witter, and last Tear the crilse were taken,
, being three times as large as Eastern grilse of j
tne same age.
Theso eggs were packed in wooden boxes,
i instead of tin or glass jars; this was then nto
jessary from the length of the journey, and
more so since from the immense number of
eggs and tho rapidity with which it is neces-
sary to pack them. The results, too, are more
favorable with wooden than with tin boxes.
' Season of 1873.
j After a season's experience, Mr. Stone de
I elded, as there was no clear spring water avail
able, to move his whole establishment down to
the river, near the seining ground, and, con
trary to all precedent, to use tbe water from
the river in the trongbs. This was done, a
dwelling house erected, troughs put up under
a tent sixty feet by thirty feet, and an under
shot wheel, twelve feet diameter and eleven
feet shaft, was made and set up to raise water,
a fish barrier put in the river to Btop the
salmon, and by August 19th, all was in readi
ness to begin the work.
The McCloud.
The McCloud river, on which tbe fishery is
situated, is a tributary of tbe Pit or Upper
Sacramento. It rises in two forks in the foot
hills of Shasta butte, and nearly half its volume
comes from a spring that rises in tbe bed of the
stream, coming underground from the melting
snows of Shasta. This is very cold ond gives
the river a low temperature tbat it never loses,
running an icy flood to its mouth. The tern
peratnre of the water in mid-summer is never
above C3, though the air is sometimes 130,
and at night it generally falls to 40"; in the
winter it is still lower, but it never freezes, on
account of its rapidity. The descent of tbe
river is very swift about forty feet to the mile
and every few hundred yards there is a rapid,
where the water boils and surges over the rocks
with tremendous force. At the fishery the
stream is from thirty to fifty yards wide with an
average depth of seven feet. About sixty miles
from its mouth the river passes over a perpen
dicular fall about seventy feet high, said to be
one of the most beautiful in tbe State. The
edge of the fall is perfectly even, and the water
passes over it in one unbroken mass, twenty or
thirty yards wide.
Tbe valley of the McCloud is shut in by high
hills, or, more properly, mountains as some
of them rise 4,000 feet high that rise but a
short distance from it, leaving but little low
land that is of any value; this is covered with
oak, pine, ash and underwood, and was once
thickly inhabited by a tribe of superior Indians,
but tbey are nearly extinct, and none are to be
found more than twelve miles from the mouth.
Tbe banks of the river are fringed with a water
plant, bearing large green leaves. This lives
naturally in higher altitudes, but has become
naturalized to the McCloud valley from the
coldness of the stream.
The river is one of the chief spawning
grounds of the Sacramento salmon, and so long
as its waters are kept clear and unobstructed
there can be little fear of the extinction of this
fish. To this end all miners must be kept from
it, and the wisest use that tbe Government can
make of tbe whole valley is to appropriate it
for an Indian reservation.
Inventions and Improvements.
In 1872, Mr. Woodbury, the foreman, had
experienced great inconvenience from tbo crack
ing of the charred bottom and sides of the old
troughs, and experimented with various sub
stances in the endeavor to find something that
could be used in place of the charring to pre
vent tbe growth of fungus, tbat would have no
harmful effect on the eggs. All others seeming
useless and thinking of the insolubility of as
phaltum, he experimented with it witu favor
able results, and the second year part of tbe
troughs were coated with it. No harm resulted
from it, and ever since it has been used exclu
sively with the greatest success. It gives a
hard, glosby coating to the wood and can be
very easily cleaned of any dirt deposited on it,
and renders the trough perfectly water-tight.
In 1873 some of the then new trays of wire
gauze were used to hold the eggs and the ac
companying double dams to secure complete
circulation of water. These were found to be
an improvement on tbe gravel, but had to be I
bandied with care, as tbe eggs rolled off from I
them with Derfect ease. From this oircum-1
stance Mr. Woodbury decided to put sides to
these trays, and contiary to tho directions of
fish culturixts, to put in several layers of eggs.
This was done in 1874 with purl of tbo trays,
all charcoal and gravel being done away with,
and 25,000 eggs were placed in a tray two
feet by one foot and six inches deep; the double
dams being also used.
This invention was a great success; the eggs
were more healthy and could be bandied with
great ease and rapidity; by moving tbem gently
up and down all dirt could be freed from theu;
ond it is principally by the use of tbem that this
fishery bag been able to send away such large
numbers of eggs.
Season ol 1875.
The seasons of 1873 and 1874 were very suc
cessful in their results, and tbe latter in par
tirnlnr nntnworthv for the laree cumber of
eggs taken, but the season of 1875 has far sur
passed any preceding in au ruspouia. uv
only bas the number of eggs been larger, but
they have been much healthier, and although
tbe water brought down more sediment for
there was no freshet last winter to clear tbe
river bottom of last year's deposit the eggs
at packing were noticeably clean, having no
fungus attached to them and as bright as when
first taken.
Whether it was the natural result of exper
ience or some favorable condition of the work
is not evident; but this year it was found that
two men, with Indian assistants, could spawn
twice aa many fish as in any previous year, and
tbat tbe eggs taken thus rapidly were in no
wise inferior, but rather superior to those of
former years. The greatest number taken In
one day was 690,500, and more fish could have
been spawned but could not be obtained. Tbe
largest number taken from one female was
The Result.
The whole number taken in 1875 was 7,822,
900; of these about four per cent., H14.900, died
and were picked out; 0,058,000 were shipped
East, and 1,850,000 left for California. Of
those left for California 240,000 were sent to
the Truckee river and hatched, and as many
to Kern river, but tbe Utter were killed by the
alkali water. 1,370,000 were hatched on and
put into the McCloud. 50,000 eggs were sent
to New Zealand by the Acclimatization Society,
and as every effort has failed to get them from
England, if this succeeds as it can be made to
with sufficient care there will be quite a de
mand for eggs from the countries beyond the
equator. Those sent East went to various
States as follows: Utah, 160,000; Colorado,
240,000; Iowa, 300,000: Minnesota, 400,000;
Illinois, 80,000; Wlscon.in, 40.0C0; New York,
80 000; Pennsylvania, 480,000; Michigan, 800.
000; New Jersey, 320,000; Maryland, 560,000;
Virginia, 320,000; Connecticut, 480.000; Bhode
Islaud, 200,000; Massachusetts, 80.000; the
Canadian Government, 80,000; N. W. Clarke,
forU. S. Fish Commission, 988,000. Those
first sont arrived in good condition, the others
have not been heard from. The following is a
comparative table of tbe four j ears' work.
Twice as many males were taken as females.
1872. 1873. 1871. 1875. Total.
Females. 12 5.00 1,050 1,702 3,654
Hafched 50,00 2'000'000 3.C75.000 7,821,900 15,547,900
8b?p d 30,000 1,500,000 4,100,000 5,658,000 11,488,000
HatM at 850,000 1,370,000 2,220,000
Fltliery. I
Future Work.
It is now evident that the fishery, as now
arranged, bas nearly reacbed is maximum of
productiveness, and "that tbat can only be in
creased by the establishment of new seining
grounds, above and below the present one, and
the building of a permanent hatohing house.
Both of these are of easy performance and will,
in all probability, be carried out next year. The
batching tent, as now situated, is in the
bed of the river in wintrr lime; but about a
hundred yards up stream, close to the hill, a
permanent batching house can be built, that
will be out of the reach of tbe floods, and op
posite is a rapid where a wheel can be placed
to raise water to it.
As there is plenty of timber, of all binds, on
the hills around aud numbers of Indians ready
to work for moderate wages, one white man
can, during this winter, get out all timbers
necessary for the frame, and next summer all
the hands can be employed in putting up this
building, instead of the tent that has to be
taken down every year. Perhaps it may
seem strange to speak of taking bands from
raising a tent to a building; but, be it known
that to put up and take clown every year the
tent, boxes and flumes, oosts between one and
two thousand dollars. Thus the building ex
penses for not more than two years would
easily pay for any hatching house that is needed
on the McCloud. All the sawn lumber needed
will be shakes for roofing aud sugar pine boards
for boxes, flumes, etc and it this is ordered
and sawed a month before it is wanted, so as
to have time to season, the expense of haul
ing will be but small.
After tho troughs have been once erected
there would be no need of tearing tbem down,
which cracks and injures them ; but tbey could
remain for years with no repairs but a ooat of
ii-.pUaltum annually. If this houso were erected
Ub cost of the eggs would bo very small
and the usefulness of the fishery greatly in
creased. Asono of the men is to remain at the fishery
all winter, there is all probibillty tbat this
work will bo done next year,
Future Hatching on the McClond.
As tbe fish hatched from the eggs taken here
will, in due time, grow up and spawn in
Eastern rivers, and their eggs can then be
taken and hatobed there, tho demand on Cali
fornia will, before long, be over.
As the State Commissioners havo every year
numbers of eggs hatched, on the McCloud, as
soon as this establishment is suspended, there
will be need for them to bavn a fishery of their
own on the McCloud; and Mr. Woodbury, the
superintendent of their works, bas found a
place that seems to possess all the advantages
that can possibly b) imagined for hatching
salmon, and collecting the eggs of the "Dolly
Varden" trout.
The Dolly Varden or Wyedar-d'ee-klt
Is a trout indigenous to the McCloud and Little
Sacramento. There nro reports of its having
been found in some other streams, but tbey are
not well authenticated. It is peculiar in shape,
having a largo head and mouth, and iucreases
in size regularly from the tail to tbo head. It
is bright yellow in color and has along its back
rows of large dark spots, and on its Bides
spangles of red, silver and gold; presenting al
together a very beautiful appearance. Its tail
and fins are of the most beautiful construction,
giving it great power and rapidity in the water.
They are frequently caught of eight and ten
pounds weight, and there are rumors of larger
ones, but only rumors. It is comparatively
rare, being usually found near the head waters,
and only in cool water. It is altogether, per
hups the finest trout in tbe world, and if it
were once known there would bo an increasing
demand for it. It is the intention of tbe com
missioners to obtiia eggs, if possible, and in
troduce tbem into other streams.
The Place for a Fishery.
But the work of obtaining these eggs from
tbe river will be attended with greit ditnoulty.
as tbey prob ibly spiwn in the winter, when tbe
river is high; but there is a place ubotit eight
miles xbove the fishery, where a brook comes
down from tbo mountains. On this brook, near
where it eruption into the river, lives an old
California!), Mr. J. B. Campbell, who has there
a garden and orchard watered by the water
from the brook. This is a flpo, cold s t roam
at all seasons, and the only one on the river
available tor hatching purposes, as above it all
is an uniuhabited wilderness for sixty miles.
In this stroam, every winter, spawn the
Dolly Yarden and otber trout, and their young
are fre quently seen in the Irrigating ditch in
summer. Here then is tho place, and the only
place ou the McCloud, to establish a,perinanent
State batching houso and fishery for trout
nnd salmon; and the conformation of the
brook bed is such that a large fish pond for
breeding trout could be built tbero at a trifling
Mr. Campbell favors tbe establishment of a
fishery there; and as be has been, during Ibis
whole season, assisting at the fishery, under
stands the business thoronghly and could thus
render valuable assistance. Tbe only trouble
in having a fishery there would be the necessity
of widening tbe present trail into a road, as ft
is eight miles from tbe stage road; but as this
runs along tbe valley bottom, it can be done at
no great expense. It will be done sometime,
and tbe sooner the better, ierman Dulnellt in
Rural Prtss.
Stkki, Wide Boris. Steel wire rope has re
nliicpii Iron wire roDe with advantuae in several
colleries in Prussia, particularly in Westphalia.
In all tbe pits, nowever, it nas ueen louna mat
cast steel rope must be lubricated at least once
a week, and laid on one side on tbe least ap
pearance of fraying. At tbe Saarbruok col
leries tbe experience, of otber places was re- ,
peated, that steel rope could be used of a
smaller strength than iron, but required a
greater drum oylinder.
T)nna,Hfll P V VrPnrit BIlOOAfltfl ttlA fnllnUT-
ing optical experiment: Observe a white cloud
tbioagh green glass with tbe otber eye. After
some momenta transfer both eyes to tbe red
glass, opening and closing each eye alter
nately. The strengthening of the red color la
the eye, fatigued by its complementary green,
is very striking.
tl'tCG ."- jJ , ill
'AL. i.MtJ&L'ML.