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About Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887 | View This Issue
TFE HoplE ClrCLl.
The Village Church.
Tho titer flowetU soft below,
Tberuibes murmur on the brink;
At noon tbe women fill tbelr palls,
Thethlr.tj cattle come to drink;
At nlfht the stars look down alway
Into the heart of each blue bay.
Tbe village stands above tbe stream.
On a fair slope tbat come- to meet
Tbe limpid watera; trees are round
The village green: and all things aweet
Gather and grow. Peace seems to stand
Smiling upon the smiling land.
God In the midst, she shall not move;
This little place is holy ground
One Qod one Faith, one Hope, one Love,
The simple people gather round
The house of prayer. Tbey lovo to be
Under its shadowing canopy.
Each home springs up beneath the shade,
Of tho old steeplo that ha) seen
A BCore of generations pass.
A thousand children on the green,
Tbe grandelre and tbe little son.
Through the long years that time has run.
A hundred stones with names out-worn,
A thousand graves ire round Its feet,
And death has little fear for these,
Who know so well and think so sweet
Tbe garden of tbelr dead tbat lies
Under the blue and smiling skies.
O bappy place, where children grow
To lore God's houie and know It well I
O holy wisdom of tbe bird
That near Ills altar loves to dwell I
Long may true homes keep watch around.
This fairest spot of billowed ground.
Teaching Children Courtesy.
Many mothorri forbid their toddling children
any intercourse with other little people, because
tbey suppose it is not time for them to fully
comprehend tbe courtesies of life. This is the
very reason why they should be taught to be
polite and considerate at tho earliest possible
moment. We have seen parents who seemed
to suppose that tho first lesson bestowed upon
a child 1b exactness of statoment, and that a
falsehood is a cardinal Bin. But to teach tbe
child to tell the truth, requires a process of In
comprehensible reasoning, while an infliction
of pain upon another child has its immediate
TPonltn. ftnH Ihn nlilM mn hnth , and fl rhn
consequences of its nnkindneas. It is very
curious to obsorve little people when tbey first
meot. They usually look at each other sharply,
but speculatively, and, afierproperdeliberatton,
decide upon their line of action. It is either
war or peace, but novor entire indifference.
Even the peace may be but temporary, provi
ded one possesses that which the other covets.
Doubtless this covotousness is not so much
duo to original sin as to that deep law of human
cxistenco self-proservation. The child who
sees an article in another's possession imagines,
vaguoly, perhaps, but positively, that it is a
thing tbat is nocossary to his own welfare and
happiness, and instinct teaches him to soize it.
Now this is not unfrequently set down as an
unpardonable sin, and an omen of future
wiokedness. Nothing can be more unjust or
VltlVaaonnnhla Tt la a ntinuntflnioiln nrVitnlm
when Dronerlv culded. will le nd to bonurable
worldly success. Misdirected or uuourbed,
without being taught a proper reverence for the
golden rule, the young creature may fall into
positive crime. Manliness in a boy corre
sponds with womanliness in a girl, and the no
bility of unselfishness cannot be too early taught
to children, nor can this quality be learned
praotioally nnloss association with other chil
dren is not only enoouraged, but used as a con
stant habit of instruction.
Colon of tub Hair. The Transactions of the
British Boyal Socioty, extending over two hun
dred yoars. contain no instanco of anv sudden
change in tho color of tho human hair a cir-1
cuniBtanco regarded as conclusive that no suoh i
change has ever occurred, for, had it evor been j
uiwuuuioui niuicoacu, n in um muuiy mat it
would have remained undescribed. The most-
cmlnont medical writers confess thomselvcs un,
aware that, irrospeotively of recorJed ovidence
anything in support of the popular notion on
this subject can bo adduced o physiological
grounds. It is well known that human hair
cannot be injected. Using colored fluids, such
as o solution of nitrate of silvor and a solution
of iodine, does not produco any change of
Whether it owes its color to a fixed oil, to a t
rt. .. v i' . av . ,.
iicuuuur ut.uuKeuiom ui in cuunuuuuuu uioi-
ecules. or to both, it resists decav in a remarks
ble manner; it resists the action of aoids and i
alkalies, except the strongest, which dissolve
it; it rosibts maceration, aud oven boiling wa-.
ter unless for a long time applied and under !
pressure, when it suffers disintegration and de
composition. Exposure to tbe sun will bleaoh
hair, but this will not account for any very
suauen onange 01 ooior. ine popular notion.
however, is in favor of the affirmative of
this question, and Borne naturalists and phys
iologists adduco what they regard as credible
instances of hair changiug to white or gray in
the case of persons uuder strong emotions of
griof or terror.
How to OuitK a Srtiko Hkm. "T. F. P."
thus writes of setting hens in the Framingbam
Oaittte : "I've got a hon that would sot,
whether or no ; allers would set. I tried every
wav in the world to ston her and never could "le di'ty road to their new home and duties.-1 f,eoe.nt meeting of the Societe Centrale d'Hor
way in tne worm to stop ner, anu never could t , ,,( amirier..Inurnnl ticulture de France, Jeannel related the follow-
Jo it. But last Sunday, as I was oomln' home . ouluUle Uourur.Jownal. . ,...: ' .Jh
from meetiu'. an idee struck me. No. it wasn't I
nothin' in the sermon; uothiu' to do with the ,
-sermon ; it was ohestutit burrs. I went to tbe
'hen house, aud I pulled her off tbe nest and
just put tbreo likely lookln' burrs snug into tbe
uest, and waited to see what would turu up.
Well, sir, you would ha' laffed. Sbo glv' a
kquawk aud jumped onto the edgo o' the nest
aud looked round at the burrs. You ought to
ha' seen that heu look at them burrs ; and
there the sot and sot, and looked out o' the
door and considered ; and every now and tbeu
she'd look round at the burrs and consider.
"Well, sir, she considered for just exaotly two
hoars, and theu she came down amougst the
other hens, aud haiu't been nigh the nest since.
.Fact, just as I tell yo."
Xiu Comi-anv, The following beautiful al
legory is translated from the Garaan : So
phrooius, a wise teacher, would not suffer even
his own grown sous aud daughters to associate
with those whose o .induct was not pure and
bright. "Dear father," said the gentle Eulalle
to him one day, when he forbade her lu com
puy with her brothrr to visit the volatile Lu
olnda, "you must not think ui childish if you
oven imagiue Ih it we should be exposed to dan
ger by it." Tbe father took a dead coal from
tbe hearth aud reached it to bis daughter, say
ing ; "It will not burn you, my oblld; take it."
EuUlie did so, aud behold ber delicate white
bud was soiled ud blackened, and, as it
chanced, her white dress also. "We caouot U
too careful in handling coals." Mid EuUlie, in
Ttntloa. "Yes, truly,'' uld har father, "you
Mti, y child, itutooala, if they do not
bam. btaoktm. S i with the company of
Physical Phenomena in Dying.
A striking (act in connection with the dying
is, tbat tbey are not afraid of death. Yon no
tice this even in executions. The majority of
men who are hanged are reported to die
"game." Death following disease or injury is,
with the rarest exceptions, unaccompanied with
fears. Disease dulls the intelligence so tbat
the situation is not folly comprehended ; or
there may be pain, and death is looked ution as
a relief. Nature, by a kindly provision, seems panions, lovers as it were. By and by tbe in
to prepare for the flight of the spirit j as the ,Ie haD& are folded, tbe sweet lips still for
hni.i r.1 Ufa ornaa nrenbar Bn Jiu. ih. laoira ever. The mother, bereft, cherishes the living
, for life grow less J and in scarcely a single in-1 reminder, and when it dies, who shall enter
I stance within my own experience, or within i n ber gnef? .... , ,
that of my professional brethern, with whom I ' Seemingly we do not half appreciate the
have conversed up jn this point, bas not the'lue, of pets in the formation ef character.
dying man relinquished life at the last without . Dignity and strength challenge admiration, yet
seeming reluctant'or fearful. The several phys- divested of sympathy the combination becomes
l ical phenomena which accompany the act of ,be coldness of stolidity or the recklessness of
1 dying vary considerably in the earlier stages I 'atadsm. Jf pets can do anything towards cul-
, with the causes that produce death ; there is I ";$ this sympathy, shall not voices be
much similarity in the later steps. Death of- rn'8!? ,n thelr behalf? The genial, the happy
Iters them a physiognomy, which, once wit- and the prosperous, find the capacity for a large
Inesaed, Is not hard to recognize again. Among and loving chanty bioadened and deepened.
the more constant signs are the failing pulse, Not In every home is there a child; not every
which gradually becomes imperceptible, first hear wins ne love of his fellows. To Buch,
! at the wnst and lastly at the breast itself ; the I '? tne. eccentric, to those who walk apart,
i extremities grow cold ; the countenance changes
I as the venous blood courses through the arte -
I ries ; the skin crows clammy as the vessels re-
i lax ; tbe eye glazes ; tbe jaw drops ; the fluids
accumulate in the windpipe, causing the ,g"iiuae ior me msmiesi love ot mute mends;
"death rattle" so called, af the air passes , Character is developed through responsibil
through ; the breath comes short and finally , lties- A P.eri,on 'bo a3 n ambitions Bnd no
ceases. As the red blood leaves the brain jadg-
ment becomes obscured, and the senses defl -
Mont. SneecOi la innnor.nf. lVUnv time
"last words" are imagined bv affection to mean
more than intended, if there was any intention
at all. "It grows dark" or "more light" are
common s tying?, as the optio nerve loses its
stimulus. Or strange sights may ba seen and
sounds heard, as occurs sometimes in the still
twilight. The hallucinations of the dying may
be olten explained upon natural causes.
Prof. 0 li. Cowling.
I Benefit of Social Pleascm. That nature
is defective which has no love or capacity for
, social enjoyment. Social powers should be
developed and provided for. ine blgber
powers are stimulated or refreshed by the
proper exorcise of all tbese bummer members
I "' luB .'" iui miuseuuiu wiiicu,
assuming the rule, are yet an indispensable part
of tbe family. To most of us these remarks
are truisms, but what are we doing about it ?
Do we appreciate tne necessity ot social amuse-1
Xhfnf dZll'SYr, Ja . 6i.i ZH l
youthful enjoyment in congenial society?
Many a weary brain-worker has been ready to
place among tbe benefactors of mankind those
who opened to him the treasures of an elegant
home and surrounded bim, for an hour, with
genial and cultivated spirits, with whom to en -
joy thorn. It is a great mistake to suppose
that tbe old. or those past tbe meridian ot life.
are unfitted by their ago for pleasures of this
kind. In Germany, persons of three genera
tions may often be seen enjoying the same
amusements, the pleasures of those in each ex
treme of see being augmented bv the presence
of those in tho other. Not only tbe highest
but tbe greatest benefit of cheerful
Intercourse, results from the mingling of old
and young in the same company. A party of
old people crooning over their infirmities and
the degeneracy of the times, is no more demor-
alizing than one composed wholly of the very (
young, whose ignorance and indiscretion may I
lead to follies for which a life-long repentance i
cannot atone. The necessity for mutual eater. I
tainment which a company of mingled old and I
young calls forth, is tbe best discipline for both i
morals and manners, and, like most other dis-!
cipline of one's self, 1b attended with a pleasure ,
which mere selfish indulgence can never give, i
I dav to a little inland town In Kentuokv a vniino I
iibidal xoun fob une. more came one '
rural couple who had just been bound by the
"silken bonds,' Their destination was the '
uoioi, anu tne uriuegroom was evidently quite ,
impatient for fear the train should arrivo be-
fore ho could reach the office. Buying one
ticket they Btood on the platform until tbe train ,
had stopped. When they entered tho car the i
bridegroom found his bride a teat, kissed her '
most affectionately, bade her " good bye," and
going out, seatod himself on a box and cowmen-'
ced whittling most vigorously. Ho watched tho I
train out of sight, regret depicted on his f ice, '
wucu " "yauwMwr, uuaKingiue wuuiu proceed-1
ing rather strange, resolved to interview him. ,
Approaoning mm carelessly and chewing a
straw to keep up his courage.be said:
-iieen oettin- married lately?"
"Yes," said he," me and Sallle got spliced '
"Was that her you put on the train? "
"Yes," with it sigh.
"A likoly lookln' gal," said our questioner,
Anybody sick, tnat alio bad to po away?
me and Bailie bad heard tbat everybody, when '
'.No, Here ne grew confidential
4lV.. .. 1
they cot married, took a bridal tour.
So I told
same l nadn't
eUOUdh tOt both Of US tO CO
k . im .
The Folly of Pride. The very witty and
sarcastic Bev. Sydney Smith thus dlscourseth
on tbe folly of pride in suoh a creature as man :
"After all, take some nuiet, sober moment of
life, and add together the two ideas of pride
and ot man; behold him, creature of a span
high, stalking through infinite Bpace in all the
grandeur of littleness. Perched on a speck of
tbe Universe, every wind of heaven strikes into
his blood the coldness of death; bis soul floats
from bis body like a melody from the string;
day aud night, as dust ou the wheel, heis rolled
along the heavens, through a labyinth of
worlds, aud all the creatures of Qod are flam
ing above and beneath. Is this creature to
make himself a crown ot glory, to deny his
own flesh, to mock at bis fellow, sprung from
that dust to whioh both will soon rsturn?
Does the proud man uot err? Does he not
suffer? Does be not die? When he reasons,
is he never stopped by difficulties? When he
acts, is he never tempted by pleasure? When
he live, is ho free from pain? Wbeu he dies
oan be escape the common grave? Pride is not
the heritage of man; humility should dwell
with frailty, and atono for ignorance, error and
ArrKCTlNo 8cns There was a strange,
pathttlo scene at tbe Milwaukee depot, a little
while ago, A young Qeruiau, who by four
yeais' hard work in a brewery had saved
enoegh money to make a home, was waiting
for his betrothed, who was to arrive from Ger
many. She came, all radiant, to his arms,
there was a oloae embrace, but wbeu tbe young
man tried to disengage himself, the girl's bands
were firmly clasped about hi neok ; nhe moved
not, spoke not ah bad literally broken her
heart with joy.
uui sue buuuiuu i ue Biiuc&eu out oi nern. steam and tbe exterior surface exposed to the
So I jlst brought her down here, bought her a . air. M. Tomasi ought to be able to reverse
tioket and sent her ou a visit to some of her ' the current, and consequently the poles, bv
folks and thought I might get some work har- , causing the heat to act so as to warm the exte
veatin' till sbo got back." , rior surfaces, at the same time maintaining the
That afternoon found him busily at work, , interior surfaces coldfr." Engineer.
and when, in a day or two afterward, Sallie I
came baok, he weloomed ber cordially and af- , "T I 3
feotlonatel v. and hand in hand thev started down Action of Plants on Impubk WATEB.-At a
Influence of Pets.
" Nature never betrays the heart that love her."
There is something exquisitely touching in
oar attachment to pets. Back from tbe long
ago come tender memories of Ood's lower cre
ations. It may be the waif of a dog, crouch
ing in mute appeal to our childish generosity;
or a pair of tiny existences, tne one human, the
iotne.r brute, commencing life together com-
I """K" Bre jwruwaui jiecuiianiies oi miuu,
1 Pe" come with double solace. Who has not
8een 'ne cross-grained visage relax, the zealous
i month grow almost tremulous with affectionate
h" " j.fi uw.-ucuwm, M.um,.
lno ties of home or social relations, bas no
. character is a neutrality whom the world
scarcely knows. He has set no long-lived forces
in motion and is, in death, forgotten.
Remembering the law ot early development,
we should, at the earliest period, coner upon
the child responsibility. Farmers, to whom
poultry raising can be made so lucrative, are
grossly to blame in not granting the best oppor
tunities in this line to amuse and discipline
their children. The young untrained mind
seeks something upon which to fasten. Shall
it take an erratio course, missing every mark,
or pursue steadily a tangible purpose? If
your boy's fowls are better and handsomer than
his neighbor's, pride will be an Incentive for
him to strive for their still farther advance
ment. Kindness will be fostered things de
pendent upon us we love. Industry becomes
a habit from the daily care necessary for suc
cess. Exchanges and trades render business
i transactions familiar. The books and journals
they get will be a nucleus around which will
' ubiects thttt wi sorely propose themselves in
the coming years.-iuro ifrurnaf.
-"""" "' Kmy i"ji.
Japanese Perspective. Thoughtless Deonle.
I scrutinizioga bit of Japanese ware, are diverted
' with what they are pleased to call "the comi-
I ical lack of perspective" in the ornament. Tbe
Japanese artist does not undertake to produce
aerial effects or linear perspective on plates,
bowls, and vases. We must look to European
art for such absurdities as landscapes and archi
tectural drawings on spherical surfaces. In a
Japanese workshop, the decorator feels just
i where a bright mass of color or a flowing line
is wanted. He knows exactly where a single
spot of gold or crimson will be most effective.
He seems to have an intuitive appreciation of
the relation which color and line have to the
general mass before him. Therefore he makes
no mistakes. The bunch of brilliant azileas,
the flight of storks, or the floating butterflies,
are each placed where they belong on the ob.
ject; with unerring accuracy, each ornament
hnds its true position in deoorative art. The
space left undecorated is only an intellectual
balance to the weight of color or mass on the
other side. Precisely what geometrical ruleu
determine the value of these lines, or govern
the disposition of masses, we may not be able
lu say. iiui we may do sure tnat sucu aereea
ble. harmonious, and comnletn riasicmn na thnsn
furnished by Japanese artists, are the result of
serious study of certain fixed principles.
CoprEa Pipe Ecectmfied bt Steam. M.
Donato Tomasi savs in a late nnmbflr of Camn
on" lomasi says, in a late number ot Oomp.
tes Jitndas "When a current of steam is made
to traverse, under a pressure of five to six at-
mosphsios, a copper tube of two to three mm
diameter wound spirally around an iron cvlin-
der, the Utter becomes so strongly magnetic
tnat an iron needle placed some centimetres
away from the steam magnet is energetically at
tracted, and remains magnetized during the
whole passage of tbe steam current through the
tube." In continuation of this, M. Maumene,
in the same journal, quotes the following oh-
servations : "The important experiment of M
JJonato Tomisi should, it seems to me, ba in
terpreted by a very different consideration from
that of the author. Heat does not act so as
to produce 'a new source of magnetism.' It
TJ.. .1 ... 0-. ...
the observed maenstiam. unrt u ' l v,l
difference of temDerntiirna liof umon ! inta.ln.
surface nf thA mrnur cnirol l.n...,.J I,.. .!.
- wMgv i?uaa,u4 UtllU4QWU V J t I rt
niatter: In the month of May, Blxty grammes
m water, woicn nad oeen used ior steeping ban
cots until it had become offensive, and which
tbe microscope showed to be full of bacteria,
small animalculiu, supposed to be tbe ordinary
agents of putrefaction, was placed in a glass,
and the root of a yonng growing plant plunged
therein. An equal quantity of the same water
was placed beside it in a teat glass at the same
time, without a root. The water in the second
glasa remained infected; that containing the
living root, on the contrary, was pure at tbe
end of the fourth day; all the bacteria had dis
appeared, and had been replaced by Urge infuso
risl anlmaloulio of kiuds found only iu potable
water. Water containing putrid meat was
treated in the same way, with the same results.
It was found that it was only necessary te im
merse tbe root of a living plant therein for five
days, to remove all the ill odor aud render tbe
water pure ana sweet.
Matcu Masks upon hard-finished walls may
be removed by rubbing the waUs with a bit of
pumice stone. Prevention is better than oure,
and if mats made of sandpaper, cut in circular
or hexagonal shapes, fastened upon pasteboard,
and bound with bright colored braids, with a
riug attached to a aaok, are hung near the
match box, these unsightly disfigurements may
be entirely prevented.
Amkbican Plate Glass. The production of
pUte glass, but recently introduced into this
country, is making very rapid progress. There
are now three polished putte glass mannfac
toilet) in the United States one each at New
Albany, Ind., LouUvUle, Ky., and St Louis,
Mo., and one rough plate
glass factory, at
YoUHQ Folks7 Cot-df.
Who is It?
Surely a step on the carpet I hear,
Some quiet mouse tbat is creeping so near.
Two little feet mount the rung of my chair;
True as I live, there Is somebody there 1
Ten Illy fingers are over my eyes.
Trying to take me bv sudden surprise;
Then a voice, calling In merriest glee,
"Who Is It 1 Tell me and you may go free."
"Who Is It ?" Leave me a moment to guess.
"Some one who loves me?" The voice answers,
"Some one wbo's fairer to me than the flowers,
Brighter to me than the sunBhiny hours 1
Darling, whose white little bands make me blind
Unto all things that are dark and unkind;
Sunshine and blossoms, and diamond and pearl,
Papa's own dear little, sweet little girl 1"
A Short Talk with the Boys.
Boys, did you ever feel when you went to
town and looked upon the well-filled stores,
and fine business houses and beautiful resi
dences, costly turn-outs and the well dressed
men of your own age, that tbe old farm with
its hard labor and your rough work clothes
were not just the things? Haven't you won
dered, while looking at the clerk who puts up
the pins and tape mother sent for, with his
fine clothes and huge watch and chain, if his
place was not a great deal easier than yours?
Haven't you wished you, too, were able to ap
pear gay and stylish like him, with his hair
parted on an equatorial line? Yes, you have.
You have said to yourself, " These fellows
have a good time and I am a slave."
Now see here, boys, let's look over this mat
ter. There are two sides to the many, many
honest efforts men and women put forth to earn
their livelihood. When the tired and worn-out
clerk is able to get off at eight, nine or ten
o'clock to bis bed in the room above the store
or down in his cheap boarding house, after a
long day's effort to pleaseevery body with some
appropriate speech, trying to look pleasant
over the grossest snubbing, boning gracefully
tne many wno doubt every word be says,
and declare he lies to sell his pins and ribbons,
he lays down to sleep, wishing be was among
tbe green fields. If be is a poor boy, he looks
off into tbe future, hoping some day to be a
merchant among whom five in a hundred suc
ceed. The business man working late and early to
meet bis obligations, envies tbe farmer, whom
bo surrounds with an ideal independence as
far from tbe every day fact as vour dream, mv
young friend, is from tbe real labors of over-
worKed belps in all Kinds of city business
Blight young men of all ages fill tbe towns
looking for easy, respectable work thousands
have come West to grow up with the country
trusting to luck to get into some employment.
Many are forced to accept work they never sup
posed they would do, others drift about until
they find themselves loafers, bummers, gam
blers.preying upon society, trying to extort a liv
ing without moderate labor. It won't do, boys
whether it's law, medicine, merchandizing or
farming genuine, honest success comes only
through long and laborious exertion, and don't
you be fooled by the glib talk, stove-pipe hat,
or big, cheap cbain; they don't signily that
life is easier or better to him than yours is to
you. We don't mean to say to you that every
boy born on a farm ought to stay there. Far
mers reqnire special fitness for success in farm
ing, as men do in law, medicine, ministry or
mechanics, all have many blunderers in them.
The point we are driving at is that success
comes from especial fitness, application and a
great deal of square, hard work, that there are
no royal roads open to agriculture, or any other
honest calling by which men suddenly become
rich. And now, boys, we only ask of you in a
common sense way not to imagine you ought
to be a lawyer because you can repeat a passage
from Burke, Clay or Web3ter. There is no
profession in our opinion, that presents great
opportunities to young men of courage, ability
and clear grit than the study of agriculture as
an honest calling f jr profit and reputation and
uappiness'. iiememner, nowever, just one tbing,
boys, viz: that the dienitv of labor of which
we road so much, lies in the brains and heart of
tne laborers, and not in the sou. Kansas Far
mer. Molecules Theib Rslation to Pbessube.
Every substance is now supposed to ba com
posed of an immense number of molecules,
which, even in the solid state, are never en
tirely at rest, and, in the gaseous, are in a
state of perpetual violent commotion, rushing
about in straight lines in all directions with in
conceivable rapidity ; and it is this perpetual
bombardment, as it has been called, by these
little particles, tbat explains tbe known press
ure of gas on the walls of any containing ves
sel?, the incessant impact of tbe molecules pro
dueing the effeot of one continual pressure,
just as upon the eye a Bucaessson of rapid
flashes of light have the effect of one continu
ous flame. Of course the molecules, although
they are supposed to be separated for a very
considerable distance from one another, are
perpetually meeting and rebounding, and thus
their velocity is interfered with, but there is a
certain residuum of speed left, resulting in a
mean velooity for the whole. This mean veloc
ity indicates also temperature, and, for tbe same
substance at one pressure, tbe same mean ve
locity is always accompanied by the same tem
perature. Dangers of Hidbooen Tox Balloons. Th
Abbe Moigno calls attention to the need of
placing restrictions on the sale of the miniature
balloons inflated with hydrogen, which have
lately appeared as a novelty in the Parisian
toy shops. The case of a cabman is instanoed.
who was very severely burned about tbe head
and eyes, by an explosion inadvertently caused
while reaching into his vehicle, by placing the
end of a lighted cigarette near to one of these
balloons that had been left therein by a child
An interesting experiment on the powers of
electricity is tried by suspending a ten cent
pieca by a thread and holding it inside of a
glass jar. The thread must be held tightly be
tween the forefinger and thumb, and the hand
kept steady. In a few niomentsthecoin.be.
coining charged with electricity from the hand,
will take an oscillating motion, swinging
rapidly to and fro, until it touches tbe side!
or the jar. Some of our young readers with
an eye to the curious may feel inclined to trv
benefit " mentiou il tot ,bel
Natobk of the Tails of Cojiets. U is
known that tbe iron-nickel meteorites often
conUln hydrogen in occlusion, but Wright has
discovered by meane of the spectroscope that
the stony meteorites contain the oxids of car!
bon instead of the hydrogen, and it is given off
at so low a temperature that it U often suffl.
cUnt to mask tie hydrogen. The Mount of
SJZJFrtTy"8 to WU sufficient
IS .?3l.0.,Ua ' C0,Be h"e peetrum
Notes on Iron.
A flanged tire bar, 5 in, x 1.8 in. and contain
ing 10.2 square inohes, requires upward of 200
tons pressure on a pair of ordinary shears to
cut it open. In one experiment 210.G tons were
A new railway bar bas been known to break
in three pieces on simply falling from a wagon.
A cast iron pillar, loaded with 97-100ths ot
its calculated ultimate breaking strain, bore the
load six months and then broke.
Locomotive tires are gradually extended in
ciroumference by the friction to which they are
subjected. They often become so loose upon
the wheels as to require to be taken off and set
Steel swells in hardening. Iron absorbs car
bon and swells in case-hardening, as well as in
conversion into steel. Forgings of scrap iron
are liable in case-hardening to absorb carbon
unequally, and to twist or vary, owing to the
irregularities of tbe iron.
In punching long angle iron with closely
pitched holes, as for riveting, the iron is
stretched, often half an inch in ten feet, and a
different template should be used iu laying off
tbe holes in such iron, so as to allow for the
Cast steel, when hardened to too great an ex
tent, has been known to explode violently. A
case was reported in the Franklin Institute Jour
nal, for 1814, where a hardened steel step or
bushiug Vt inches in diameter, having a one
eighth inch hole, exploded with a report like a
A steel wire or bar of steel of whatever diam
eter, having a tensile strength equal to 150,000
pounds per square inch, would just support its
own weight, if 8 3-5 miles (4C.1CG feet,) long
and suspended freely from one end,
Forgings which have been hammered when
nearly cold often prove very brittle, a quality
occasionally attributed to crystallization. Suoh
forgings, however, if brought to a good heat
and allowed to cool slowly, recover their tough
ness. Hard cast iron, when ca3t in very large
masses, and allowed to cool slowly, is found to
become soft. Heavy guns, when cast solid
from hard iron, are found to bore easily.
Tbe strength of i inch bolts made of a
given quality of iron, biing twenty-three tons
per square inch, Mr. Brunell found the
Btrengtb of one-inch bolts of the same iron to
be twenty-five tons to the square inch, while
three-fourth inch and five-eighth inch bolts of
the Bame iron bore respectively twenty-seven
and thirty-two tons per square inch.
By successively reheating and reworking
puddle iron, Mr. Wm, Clay found that while
its originaljtensile strength was 43,904 pounds
per square inch, its strength at the sixth re
heating was 01,824 pounds. Subsequent work
ings reduced the strength until at the twelfth
reheating it again stood at 43,904 pounds. Ex.
To Make Leather Wateb-Pboof. The
Bayerisches Industrie und Geicerleblatt contains
a proceeding, which bas been patented in
Bavaria, for rendering hose of fire engines
completely water-tight, so as to withstand the
greatest pressure. The hose are, after they
have boen cleaned and dried, impregnated with
a mixture of 100 parts of glycerine of 24u R.
and 3 parts of carbolic acid, which maybe done
either by drawing the hose through the liquid,
or, better still, by brushing it well in. Thus
treated, the hose are said to preserve a certain
degree of dampness, without, ho ever, being
liable to rotting in the least degree, and so suf
fering deterioration in quality and durability.
The brass fittings of the ho3e are attacked only
imperceptibly by the acid contained in the
composition; but even this may be easily pre
vented by giving them before impregnation a
coating of weak shellac varnish, or by greasing
them well with tallow. The hose must be
cleaned every time they have been used, dried,
and impregnated anew with the liquid. As
frost does not affect the mixture, hose pre
pared in the above manner do not freeze easily
at low temperatures. If the preparation named
is as affective as stated when used in connec
tion with hose, it should be especially valuable
as an application for leather boots for miners'
To Fix Papeb on Dbawino Boabbs. Take a
sheet of drawing paper and damp it on the baok
side with a wet sponge and clean water. While
the paper is expanding, take a spoonful of
wheat flour, mix with a little cold water, and
make it a moderately thick paste; spread the
paste round the edge of the drawing paper one
inch wide with a feather, then turn the draw
ing paper over and press the edgee down on the
board. After this take four sttaight pieces of
deal wood, three-fourths of an inch by two and
one-fourth inohes wide; place them on the edge
ot the drawing paper, and put a large book or
heavy weight on each corner to make the paper
adbere firmly to the board. la about an hour's
time the paper will be straight and even, and
auiteready for executing a drawing. When
le drawing is finished, take a sharp knife and
raise one comer of the paper, then take a scale,
run it around the edges, and tbe paper will
come off easily. Tarn over and take the dry
paste off with a knife, and all will be perfectly
clean, and no paper will be wasted.
New Speaking and Heabiho Tbummt fob
Diveks. An apparatus patented by Bremen &
U., of Kiel, and introduced for trial into the
uerman Imperial Navy, not only enables the
diver to communicate with those at the air
pump, but also to hear distinctly, to a depth of
sixteen fathoms, every word Bpoken at the
jurface. The absolute safety of the diver
tetog thus secured, it is expected that they
will be able to work for smaller wages, thus
rendering their services available in many cases
tmT ?tun7.u0terwi86 'ould be too costly.
Ill ?1lthtt e Mention is very simple, and
can be attached, without muoh expense, to any
S Jln5 8?PftratU8;, The main Principle in
lut!d .ue Wtotion of vibrating metallic
;. i r th PfpPagation of the sound, with-?u-;i?.r.1er'
awngthem to come in con
tact with tbe water.
n.? Us F0B MoLAas In consequenoe of
m!rf? f t'106 of rnolMse8, attsmpU are being
mn 7.ce toin,wduce it in the place of
StaE?" i.lltaMed either in form,
der, and just at this moment it is cheaper than
.i .i7 mannr. 'bile it contains all itseasen
tial elements in equal abundance. As soon,
moTaJ.6' a!i.,he .coid weatoer C0BIM ". "
S .wiU sgaJn qa"d for cattle-feed-i?8Jrases'
a?A'wi11 Probably rise tj a price
f$k jt,wonW be useless for manure.-5our.
t!nS,t?i0'.1f8aboTe tef" to is that ob
tauaed in the process of the manufacture of
ml?f m be?,g' Such molasaee at tbe Sacra
mento sugar factory U used for distilling pur
poses, and converted into brandy.
tJ'!mADT MUMUhed the fact that goes are
tolling Jw of liquids posseesing a very low
' tijfcj Vt'