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About Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887 | View Entire Issue (April 11, 1874)
A Paper and Glass Debate.
A correspondent gondii a couplo of Interesting
questions, which ha informs us nro to bo tbo
subject of a debate, relating to tbo merlin of
apor nnd glass. Tuo first is : " Providing wo
ad no tinner, what other substances mnv bo
menuonm mat wouiu taKo its piaco r ' Ana,
second, " Providing wo hud no glani, what are
its posiiiblo subttltutis 1" Of course, tho idea
Is to bring out, In tho present connection, not
names of subtlnnccs, which rimy bo ndviintn
coously lined Instead of tho above-named nlmoiit
indispeUHiibla materials, but of such us v. ft
probably would employ (and of many of which
In fact our nnccHtors did avail thernsehes), did
glass or paper cease to exist or become mint
tnlnabla. Tho caio is Imaginary, but leads to
much iustructivo thought.
In lieu of glass, wo can And material sultablo
for window patios, for drinking vessels, and, in
some cases, oven superior to it for small lenses,
but nothing that combines all its properties, or
is capablu of its ready manipulation Into do
sired forms. Tor windous, perhaps tho best
aubstanco othir than glass Is simple mica,
which may bo readily nplt from tho rock in
thin, translucent sheets. It is now usid for
doors of Htovis, to protect paper shades around
gas lights, and in other common omploMiients.
Tlio ltomatiH filled their windows with tuph
sptculurh, a fossil of tho class of mica, which is
nattily clot on lino unit smooth inuilniu. ilio
Hamu Htibstanco is found In tho Island of
UyprtiH, in masses a foot in breadth, and tlino
inches in thickness. It is used for the con
struction of hot houses, and for thu protection
of tlcllcato plants. Up to tho present day it is
also much employed in Kussia, in plncu of
glass for windows.
Horn rut into sheets Is sltll used or lanterns,
and for drinking ossels; and, if mado hiiMcI
ontly thin, would utiswir for illuminating pur
poses, Oiled linen, or otlur fabric, similar to
that now ustd by draftsmen for tracing, would
bo alio aMillablo, Htul so would very ilelicato
sheets of India rubber. Kklns, prepared like
parchment, or ellum, would bo translucent
though not transparent. Gelatin, however,
might bu treated with bichromate ol potash, t.o
lis to bo insoluble; and, If it would stand the
weather, would glvu qiiltii char window lights.
Collodion Ilium, wo khould imnginv, if miiilu
thick i nuugh, could also bo used for thu pur
pose, as also iiuliiutl mvuibrami.
In addition to mica, the mineral Kingdom
offers n vatii ty of substanci s. Tliero is the
Ilnirilinii pi hole, impii'Iim of ipunt, now used
In an Ilium nsn iali lit for spi ttaelcs and other
lenses. We lmo seen pctfict spheres of lids
iiiateriid Ihren iueluH in iliiiinutir, without it
single spi ck or Ihtw to bhiiiiisli its complete
ruusparelicy. Hock crystal and other varieties
of quart, might also bu unplug id if mians
could bo din isi'd to out them nroperlj ; so could
platos of Hi'leiiltii, thin iitaliaster, or neti of
rook salt, though the lattir uoiiM not bo very
durable, Soino slulU mu siillleiently thin to
bo ttaiisliii'i'iit, and ivory could bo made into
plates having thu miinu prnpirix. Amber would
lie traspari'iit I'liough, but dillleult to obtain,
while, llko Itory, it would bu rather eovlly.
liirgo haves nl tries, if eliemically treated,
might hiitu their totttirn preserved and serve
to cover windows, if other means failed ; or if
(lied willing'' were! mated in polar latitudes, one
might follow tlm example of tho lNqilimiiiix
lilid Use blocks of clear ice.
Ill recalling Hiilnlitiiti h (or paper, many ol
tho materials suggested in plaeoof glim, owing
tu their traiiHluceiiuy, would, from their llexi
bio nature, answer ui u more suitably (or til
ing purposes. Hueli Is evidently Iho ease with
parchment, membrane, cloth, horn, ru'itx r.
collodion, or gelatin sheds. Wo might go
back In graven tablets, like tho Mmliitn stone,
nr write with I lie sljlus upon wax, as did the
ancients; in fuel, llnrn iitoiiiiiiiberlesHinodis of
inscribing our thoughts mi solid substances
Hut imtier has u multitude o( oilier ttsis. is
petiall) in tin mi tints n( paper clothing, paper
liirnllure, paper cuurriies ami paper money.
Hence matt rial Is liiedul with more n( its at
tribute s than siniplj Its use ut 11 vehicle, (or the
dlshcmin itlou o( our Ideas. Tlio same souico
n( supply, open thousands o( jears ago, Is still
at hand, for tlio papjrus tree still llourislies in
IvQpt and Sicily. '1'lie bark o( the eoniiiiou
whltn biroh may also bo mi plowed; or by in
gt nioiH machines wo can cut shavings o( linn
grained wood to hi rvn in place of hangings for
our walls, Nlucts oi metal, rolled to itlmoAt
lulliiltn attenuation, would, lionet er, lirobibly
form (he most favoud substitute. About two
vniirs ago tho Upper l'orest Tin Works, in
NValis, rolhd the most dehcato shed of Iron
titer made, Tho iron was workid in u lluery
with ehurioal, and the usual blast, then (urged
Into a bar, and Jl I mil hikoiI through tho tin
lolling mills. Whin lliilslud Iho sin it was
HI inches by fi1, inches in dimensions or Wi
inches hi nurlaie, and weight d but 'JO grains.
It would take, l,MH) such latum to uiiiku up u
mass duo Inch in thickness Letters have bit u
Kent across Iho Atlantic on iron thinner than
ordinary papir mid mail) us light Mul,
iron mid copper, could thus bo presstd lulu
service; mul where llexlbilitv win iuvessar,
tilths could be made in answer tho purpose.
NKW TllKOIlV JtllOt'T t'OMKTS.- At I) IliVIlt
inietiiigof the l.iwrence, Kansas, Academy of
Science, u paper mtltlod "Speculations on Hie
Nature of I'tiiuels' TalU" was read by 1'rofeH.
sor 1', W, llardwell, who took the ground that
it comet's tail U no more a part of Iho comet
than Is a shadow apart of lite object which
gius It form, lie supposes that Iho nsisllng
medium unrounding tho sun (or a gnat ills
lance Is itself holMiiiuiuous in a degno, as lit
tllcales by the itodi icul light, that (he nucleus of
it comet is merely a large meteorite; that In its
rapid motion through Iho resisting medium
near the sun, gre.it heat is thereby developed,
increased by the heat of the sun, causing some
of the elements of (ho nucleus to become tola
tallied, and Ihiw to present the phenonnna of
tho com with its glowing gas; sud, thull),
that the bright train called the tall U merely an
t tied of an lucrraacd luminosity of tho portion
of the resisting medium behind tho comet,
caused by thu Motion of tho sunlight ami puss
through tho glowing gas of thu coma mid pro
jected tet mid ill it form usually approached
that ol it conlcAl surface. He poll els that, on
the iippeurmicu of comet with a bright Haiti,
the tests ol pectrtltu aualyid will show tint
this train Is not in bilious, its llessel mid others
have supposed, ud not ol mrteorio character
like Ibut of the nucleus, its Scbiaparelli mid l.e
Veriier upoa), but cbietly of a nodUcnl ua
turf, niiil probably, tu a slight degree, rtileet
i tig sunlight
WATimuooriM) Doors ParsiUue is recom.
tueuded for this purpose in u Kuehsh journal.
The writer )t Melt thoroughly the par
a rtlne, mid, having well warmed tho Kiot. ap
ply tho psratUue with a brush or piece of tlsu
uel Islore a Are, to allow ol tlm leather
nbsorbtug tho liquid, 1 have tiled thu aboto,
and it auswor admirably, rvaistiug mow. water
durlug a week's shooting,"
Data roa Oil Couim and Vaunisiim, .
Water, 11W rU ; gum lac, U parts ; borax, 4
Inland Navigation in Japan.
Quito a considerable number of tho rivers of
Japan are navlgabla (or short distanocs by ves
sels of light draught and small dimensions,
an 1 tbo Jup-i are nut slow In introducing s'tam
biats wherever practicable. Of course tiese
MllipuUui leviathans aro of tho cheapest and
flituHiiBt stylo of naval architecture, and quite
in accordance with tbo usual baby-play stylo of
things in uso by tbo natives. On Lako lilwa,
ut the tircsetit timo, no loss than soven steam
boats ply botwecu various points. Onoof them
is bo small that tbo "saloon" cabiu is but ten
(cot long, six feet wldo and tbreo ftet high. A
platform occupying half tho saloon mid covered
by it rug, is " first class," tho matted lloor Is
"second class," whllo n sort o( black hole in
Iho "forecastle " is assigned to " third class"
passengers. Tho cabin is furnlBht d, beside tlio
rug mid matting, with a once baudsomo mirror,
ces the suspicion that theydj not consider
themselves highly cltillzed unless they have a
few first-claBs explosions, If there is on in
Bpeclor of steam-engines and boilers in Japan,
wo bovo not yet beard of lihn. Jaicni Uatdte
In all tho appliances of chemistry to the re
quirements of man, there l-i none more inter
esting than that of dyeing. Almost everyone
knows something of tho art;aud yet be would
bo very much Burprised could be but seo a little
of that which be knoars not. Tbo dye bouse
is generally a very uninviting. looking phce,
tho air being filled with condensed steam, and
tho woodwork covered with moisture, which
often collects on tho lloor in quito largo pools,
and with stains of different dyes; tbo vats aro
but simply used to tell tho printer if the pat
tern fits properly. After printing it is left in
a warm, moist atmosphere, and aftorwards
passed through a bath ol cow dung, or dung
substitutes, ond washed until, In somo cases,
the goods cannot be toldfrom those just black
ed. It is then passed through the uye-wji
and when taken out, is found to be dyed in dif
ferent colors, according to the pittern which
has been printed upon it. The reason of this
is, that cotton will not take the dye like wool or
silk, but must have another substance, called
a mordant, used at' the same time. Different
mordants produce different colors with the
simedve; thus ncctnte of iron will produce
black w'ltb madder, while acetate of alumni
willproduceored, aud mixture of tho two
a chocolate. The moidants thon aro printed
upon the good, iu the required pattern, which
will appear niter coming (rom the vat. This is
by uo means a modern idea, since Pliny de-
TrtE Amo.i or Acids upon Ztsco. At the
recent meeting of tbo French Association for
the Advancement, oi ocicuce, u. uuuruou, oi
Lyons, described some novel facts which he
had observed in the action of acids upon zinc
covered with certain metals. Zlno plunged
into dilute solutions oi suipnunc, uyaroctilorlc
and acetio acids, is attacked only at the points
where other metals aro present. Tho metals
which produce this phenomonom with most
Intensity are cobalt, platinum, nlckeland iron.
Ammouiacal chloride of cobalt renders It possl
bio to perforate zlno with water containing only
one 10,000tb part of sulphuric odd. M. Qour
don applies these results to various procedures
for engraving. l)y writing directly upon zinc
with different metallic inks, making uso of the
most active, containing salts of cobalt for tho
blackest parts, and passing it then Into ocidu
1 tted water, on ngraved plato is obtained. To
rcproduco leaves or plants, they nro soaked in
Improve Yonr Pcmltry!
IT COSTS NO MOKE TO
KEEP GOOD FOWLS THAN POOR ONES.
Blooded Fowls! Fowls for Pleasure! Fowls for Profit!
UlkN. -F t
5rf- .Sv?,! ZW'
OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS,
CORNER OF 16TH AND CASTRO STREETS,
Constantly on hand and for Sale, tho following variotios of land and aquatic Fowls, viz.
Light Brahmas, Dark Brahmas, Buff Cochins, White Cochins, Partridge Cochins, White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns, Houdans, Golden Spangled Polish, Silver
Spangled Polish, White Polish, White Crested Black Polish, Golden Spanqlcd Hnmburgs, Silver Spangled Hamburgs, Aylesbury Ducks, Rouen Ducks
and Bronie Turkeys. Also, Golden Sebright Bantams, Black Red Game Bantams, Silver Duckwing Game Bantams
ANH 'I 111'. IUU.DW1NO VAlltr.TlKH OF l'ldhONH, WHICH
ham: Ji'sr nri.N uicinrn hiom oni: or iiiu
Hiwr r.t.M'ii.ns A'i tin: kaht, u.
Muck Carrlerx, White Curriers,
Almond Tumblers & Yellow Fantalls.
Thu nbovu Miriutk'H of l'ol cum bo seen on
iin.V day ut my jimlx, vtlioro tlicio it) a lecopor in
ooiihtiuit uttmiilauoo to conduct vinitora nrottml
tho promises, and I hIioiiM piofcr nil persons
wishing to buy nlock to Bolcot their own birds
I vtislt to Hny to my old patrons that I lmvo
tins year imported now stock of ouch of tlio
varieties of Vow Is mentioned iu this ndvortiso
inoiil, and can furnish to those desirinp; to intro
iliico " m:w iii.ooii" into their block, fowls
which I iriiitiiinteo to be uo kin to tltoso bought
of luo jmitioualy, I'm ties buying of mo luny
lio ussiirod tlmt they will lit. dealt with liberally,
mul Hint oviiry l'owl or 1'gg leaving tlio premises
will bo gtiiiimiteed trim to name II found to
bo otherwise, tho money will bo refunded im
mediately. My mlvortisomont will bo found
constantly on tlio last pago of this nnnor, and
nil now varieties of stock rocoived will bo duly
WnrrniUotl to fctuml Stoolt
1ILUE PIti: GAMUS,
KKD TILK GAMES,
BLACK RED GAMES,
WHITE GEOKGIAX GAMES,
EABL OF DEKBY GAMES.
Eggs, $12 per dozen.
Thoso games bavo just boon rocoived from tho
East, and bavo won 1st prizos whorovcr exhibit
ed. Tho Lino Piles won 1st jiromium nt Ilart
ford, St. Louis aud Uun'ulo, 1872; tho HontL
woods nt Dolroit, 1872; tbo Derbys at Hartford,
XlliH lH No IXuilllMltf.
THE DOCUMENTS CAX BE PRODUCED
WHITE LEGHORN COCK.
SEND IN YOUR ORDERS EARLY IF YOU DESIRE EGGS FROM SOME OF THE FINEST GAME BIRDS IN AMERICA.
I am this yoar brooding from my Prlzo Qobblor, " COL03SU3," weighing 47 1-2 lbs., and 4 Hens, averaging 22 lbs. each. Eggs, $12 per doz
EOtlS PACKED tUltEl'ULLY in my Patent Handled lloxes with Elastic Bottoms, and guaranteed to carry safoly to any part of tho couutry.
FOWLS CAREFULLY COOPED AND DELIVERED,
WITH KMTIOIEKT l'OOD POlt THE JOUKNEY, AT THE OITIOE OP WELLS, FAKQO Ar CO., IN OAKLAND.
NO FOM'LH Ol EGGH HKNT O. O 1 . E X O E 1? X TO OLD O U ST O E R H .
AYLES BURY DUCKS.
For furthor particulars send stamp for Illustrated Circular to
GEO. B. BAYLEY,
P. O. Box 659, San Francisco,
GENERAL AGENT FOR THE "POULTRY WORLD,''
A monthly magazine devoted entirely to Poultry; tells how to keep Fowls for pleasure
and profit. Subscription, $1.20 a vear. bend 10 cts. for a samplo number.
IMontw Mttt -wloro you miw HiIh AUvcitlhciueitt.
two (M't i)tlitrt, vtilh tbo Kilt rubbed oil. The
bout, iu itpllu of iu KOieou mirror, h not
citloiiltttod lo soothe IHTVOIH lOIll, it hits
llu hi'ittt iliiin tinilly, i. t ., Iho boiler loakii in
KoM'rtil phto, aud the muchiiu'ry jitrs nud
wiibbloa, Iu it maiiiu'r moro lively than secure.
Iu fair vtealher, tho length q( tho Uko, nlout
51 inllfK, is lumlo iu eight or nine hours
When contrary wind blow, two iln)nr r
iiuiroJ. It is not wonderful that bitch stiMtrners
eoiuo to griif otfcasloually. Though tho way
is Miuoothixl for tuolosiotis, )et a genuine blow
up it shy of iutrttdiiiK itself upon iho owners of
such craft; or, it victims low their lives, w do
uot hear of thetu,
Tho oft-repeated assertion (hy themselves a
well as others) that tho uatives of Dal Niphon
aro u brave people, ettua to have some truth
iu il, when we coualder with what rtoncAiiJii'ire
they go on loard ol these tloatlug traps; aud
the perfectly uativo uiu.uer iu which the
JapanoM) play with steaiu, aud uiachluery for'
I lUlvd vtithdirty-looVing liquids, tho color of
which it would be ilifflcult for an iucxperlenc
etl pe rsou to tell. Where the goods have simp
Iv to U dipied iu the requisite solutions, nud
tlio colors, if need bo, afterward brighteutdbv
tieing oapid, itc, wo are apt to loos upon it
as a mere matter of course, however great way
be tho nkill uecesbary to make tho aolution, or
perform tho different manipulations. That
which strikes tho strauger raoat with wonder it,
that t'u prints that he eea in the shopsauoug
the commonest kinds of dress goods, undergo
by far the most complicated process of dyeing.
Iu the first place he has seu them pa the
cloth over a red hoi plate, or through a gas
dame in a manner which, he thinks, would
damage it beyond redemption; but it simply
removes the fau, which woull interfeie with
tho prlutiug. When, alter bleacbiug, he sees
it ou the prtuting mtchiuo, aud remarks that
the colors aw not very pretty, he learn that
they are uot the iutended colors of the goods,
I kcribes It as liiiin.n,,l ,. 1,1., .1 . i.. 1.
, " -" '- mo UJ, UUI it 18 cu-
riou enough to be iuttrestiug to some of our
readers who have never vi.ited a dye house.-
Motm rnwiNTHK. The following recipe
for kiepiug moths out of clothing is a favorite
in borne fittnille.. Muhalfa pint of alcohol
tt fill lilt (lllAnfll nf ...1.1. ' a . . !
.. v.t.Mv x,i u(ii ui lurpemine. audi
uo ounces of camphor. Keep iu a stone hot
tie, anil shake before nsim?. Th in., .l
furs are to bo wrapped in liuen, aud crumpled,
up pieces of blotting pajw dipped In the liquid
are to be placed in the box with them, so that
it smells strong. This requires renewing about
once a j ear. Jour. cVheinUtry.
lUxvi -Krupp'sliutbig gun U 21 feet lone,
and throw s a ball of COO pounds, with a charge
of 120 pound of powder, and the l,ut grelt
ingot of bteel forged uuder his 120,000 pSnnd
steam hammer, weighs lW.OOO pound.
solutions of metallic salts and applied to the
jjinc, which is then treated with weak acids,
ine author has discovered a new kind of helio
graphic engraviug by transferring the sliver
from an ordinary photographio proof upon the
line, which can be attacked by the acids on the
Parts where tho silver has been deposited.
lMrsov.D Umbrella. A now invention con
sists of an arrangement of an umbrella top, so '
as to revolve upon the handle to relieve it when
"""8 '" 01 wind Wow against it quartering,
or when the top strikes against other umbrel
las, or other objects in crowded plices. The
said arrangement consists of a notched revolv
lug ring for the ribs, between two collars
on the handle, and a molying notched
nng on the runner, alao between two collars.
Tnsc is money in raising beam. Califor
nia "bayos" are said to be the most profitable.