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About Willamette farmer. (Salem, Or.) 1869-1887 | View This Issue
Character or (he Great Halt Lak'c.
The water of this remarkable in
land .ea an; of tliu moftt lntciiHO blue
wo over behold, with rippling
changes from light to almost bluo
blaek as tlio waves approach and re
cede in tho sunlight. In gazing at
this gorgeous sheet of water from tho
south, tho oyo wanders on mid on
until tho waters seem blended in tho
horion, giving tho blue arch of licuv
on a deeper hue. Tho density of
this lake Is remarkable, requiring
little or no exertion to propel through
It, and (ho body will iloal about upon
its surface with ease. About seven
miles from tho .southern .shore there
!h n bold mountain more than half n
thousand feet high rising abruptly
from tho water. The character of
tho rocks Is mostly carboniferous
limestone, finely crystalline In home
Instance", bill mostly of u coarse mid
irregular character; tho iiiiisos are
pilled up in weird and castellated
form", adding beauty, picturesque
noss and grandeur to the -eene.
Tliis water N almost as Kiliuo as
tin most IiiteiiM' hrlno eould render
It : at certain seasons of the year
myriads of gnat" are hutched from
.muill maggots that occur In tlio wa
ter, that for tliu time are disagreea
ble Utile pc-ls. There In no shell or
other (Mi of any kind that can exist
in its waters; the only animal life
existing in It l,s the little worm or
maggot named, which seem to be
produced from eggs deposited upon
it HiiiTacc. The shores of this lake
do not Indicate or present to mo the
theory thai It Is unly the existing
remnant of u vast Inland sea, wlio.se
chores extended hundreds of miles
beyond their present limit". With
a rldo of eighteen miles from the
city hearing Its name over a smooth
bottom road the lake is reached, and
a lovely .scene is presented to tho
tourist, mid the Mirrouiidlug country
contains many objects Interesting to
I'lKLII .MM'II INKS IMI IMN.KMK.NTH.
I'liny. the elder, who was born it
r.. ...i ..i - . I
m ouinri'ii uiMMii mo year oi our
Lord IKI, speaks of tho method of
Reaping grain in tho low lands of
OiihI. Tlie com was cut by an ox
yoked inn reverse position, (all kinds
of cereal" were then called corn.)
Palladlus, writing over threu hun
dred years after, al-o speaks- of an
expeditious method of reaping, re
quiring the assistance of a single
ox, during the whole harvest.
Over twelve hundred years passed
before a single mention was mode of
reaping by ixiwor. In 178.1, a miner
Is spoken of In Hrltuln, and in 171H)
another Is spoken of as being pro
(mlleil by a horse hitched behind It,
which cut ami laid the grain in n
swnth on one hide the reaper. In
lK and IS07 further mention Is
made, and from Is'up tolS'Khitteu
became directed to this brunch or
husbandry. MeCornilck and Obed
llus-soy astonished North America
by their Inventions The former by
the general ground plan of a machine
and implication ofn reel, and the Int.
ter by the Invention of the open
.-.very one who remembers an old
MeCornilck or .Manny, will remem
ber the enormous motive (tower re
quired to reap and mow. It was
heavy woik for four horses, requir
ing two to counteract tlio side draft.
They were, to use a homo expression,
"hor.o killers." From ISM), onward,
attention was directed to lessening
tho draft, and wo llml Whltlev,
Wheeler, Hall, .Miller, Aultman mid
other", directing their minds and
mechanical Ingenuity to this end,
with what htuve.ss tho liuudredH
of thousands of farmer ti.sing ma
chines can best attest.- llural 1?m.
narrative, and held that It could now
bo told whero tlio Garden of Eden Is
situated. IIo said there were great
objections to tho fact that tho face of
tho Garden of Eden was so ehaged
by tho flood as to bo Irrevocably lost.
In the first place It was by no means
certain that Noah's flood was univer
sal In such a Reuse. .Second, that It
is contradicted by almost cvory geol
ogist; and third, it is inconsistent
with tlio narrntlvo written nrtcr tho
Deluge. Tho speaker traced tho
sources now nl our command for as
certaining tho site nnd locality of the
Garden of Eden, among which ho
gave the Ilible tho first place. He
reviewed tho composition or the Mo
nde account of tho Holy Land. Ho
hays tho historical narrative gives us
n key to the locality; llr-t, that It
was eastward from tho writer's loca
tion, second, wo luivo tlio names of
lour rivers given iih flowing through
tho L'urden. Two of these still iro
under tho same name, and tho other
two wo are probably uhle to deutifv.
Tho Euphrates and Tigris aro known
to liolwoortho'-o rivers. They point
usM'i-y decidedly to the highlands
or Armenia as tlio location of tho
Garden of Eden. They rise In Ar
menia within as hurt distance or each
other, anil How Into three different'
sea-. Tlio first named in tlio text
I'lson or I'ishou, has u name and his
tory thai identity it with the Phase."
or Hidys or our day. Its source Is
near the head of (ho Kuphmtc", audit
flows northwesterly 700 miles into
tlio Hlack Ken. Tho second is the
Glhon or Aruros or modern times.
It rises ten miles from the sources of
tho Hri'tihrutos. nnd Hows 1.000 mlli.
a little north of east into tlio Casiiliin
Sea. The third Is tho HIddekel or
Moses and or Daniel, nnd is almost
universally believed to bo tliu Tim-is.
Tho fourth is the Euphrates, about
which there is no dispute. .S. '. lid-Min.
Ish woman, under tho influence of
wiusKy, reels nnd rails. Mho is
roughly seized by n police officer nnd
hustled to tho nearest police station,
brought before tho Judge, nnd sen
tenced as n common drunkard.
James Smith is caught selling lot
tery tickets, and is condemned for a
violation of tho law. He Is con
demned as a felon, mid thrown into
Jail. At the samo time, Miss Jones
mm Mnunmo Prince put up nt a fair,
tliu proceeds of which will boused to
buy carpets for a church, or aid some
reform. TIiopo Indies coax men to
tako shares, and then tho nrizo is
awarded to tlio lucky ticket-holder,
amid the cheers of tlie excited ticket
holdorsund spectators. This Is called
a runic. Hut in tho sight of tho law
and morality, what Is tho difference
between tliu lottery and tlio rnflloV
I 'at rick Mahoney lielps himself to
a hundred dollars, and Is sent to the
.State Prison as a thief. Edward
Crafty placed in a position of great
trust, witli marvelous adroitness
take.s fifty or a hundred thousand.
This Is a "flnnnclal irregularity."
Tlieairalr is adjusted ; notwithstand
ing that ho is a criminal. It is soon
hushed up, and ho free, read v. like
as not, for another swindle.
Now why not call those thinirs bv
their right name.", mid then deal
witli the rascals uccordiiii'lv. Tliu
.shielding of great roughs and cover
ing up gross frauds with raise labels,
Is ratal to mercantile honor and per
United States will bo represented.
Essayists have been nppolnted, and
it is expected that tho occasion will
bo ono of great Interest to thoso en
gaged in agriculture. AH who want
more definite information can pro
cure n copy of the constitution and
nroceedinirs. bv nddrcssinir tlio See-
retnry, S. II. Klllobrcw, Nashville,
Tcnn.j 1-. Julius LcMoyne, Wash
ington, Pcnn., President.
M.unv'H Cnoi Him'oi.t. Tho
scheme proposed bv Com. Miiurv Tor
an international system of crop and
meteorological report is making its
way in the world. Tennessee nnd
North Carolina have endorsed it by
resolution pus'cd by their Lcgisla
ture,tho recent convention which as
sembled in Washington recommend
ed It. and now it Is announced
that tho Legislature of Mis
sissippi has adopted Commodore
Maury's idea upon this subject nnd
has passed an act Intended to .secure
accurate crop reports In the .State or
Mississippi during tho year 1872.
The act appropriates $:),000, and ap
points and empowers tho editor or
the ' titlit anil I'iwtnr),' tin agricul
tural Journal published In Jackson, to
collect statistics and nubllsii results
monthly from seed time until harvest.
I'nrn)- U the Head (hat Wear n
Till: (IIKIIK.N OF KIIKX LUIUTKU.
The Hev. W. A. Scott, D. 1)., do
liveredn lecture lust evening at the
United Presbyterian Church, Mason
btroet between Kills and Eddy, on
tho " llllile Lands and the Garden of
Edeu." Ho maintained that tho
history of tho Adumlc Eden is n true
Queen Victoria is, personally, per
haps, ono of tho host mid most iimia-
bio sovereigns that over occupied a
iiirone, yet she has been made the
victim of no less than five assault."
upon her person, which aro thus
enumerated by an exchange paper :
in IK 10, a pot-boy named Oxford shot
at her In tho samo spot on which Ar
thur O'Connor made tho hist attempt.
Prlnco Albert was in tho carriage
with her. Tho (lueen rose, but the
Prince seized her dress and pulled I
her down upon tho seat of the carri
age, which was a low one. Oxford's
ccond shot was aimed too high, and
thus the Queen's life was saved.
Two years afterward, one John Fran
cis shot at her on Constitution Hill.
Tho Queen, on this occasion, showed
great coolness, and ordered the
coachman to drive on. Francis was
transported for life, although sen
fenced to death originally. .Six
weeks afterward, a lioy named lleau
pointed a pistol at her, which nils-cd
fire. Ho was transported. The next
attack (in IfViO) was madu by an offi
cer of tho army named Plato, who
struck tho Queen in tho face and on
tho head with a heavy cane. The
Queen, on this occasion, was aNo
very cool, ealmlmr the fears of her
children, who were with her mid
thought her very liadly injured. On
one occasion, also, a youinr man se
creted himself in the Queen's njsirt
iiient In St. James' Palace, but did
not succeed in his attempt at as.as
sluatioii with a pistol. He was found
to be insane. So many attempts on
the life of an tinoH'cndlng monarch,
and that monarch a woman, form a
curious episode in the history of the
world. Hero wo have tlio most pop-
ularnf them all exposed to tho pUtolof
tho assassin a irreater number of In
stances, by rar, than the most ills-
plsod and hated.
It is by no means so easy to get a
manuscript printed as somo unso
phisticated authors Taney, Tor it has
to run tho gauntlet or thoso terrible
persons known as "readers." All
great publisher. Ilko the Humors.
the Applctoiw.otc, havosover.il reg
ular readers, besides sovoral other,
eminent in their various profession.
whom they consult in relation to
works of their specialties. Their
runctlon is to give full consideration
to, mid their best advice upon, nil
matters submitted to them.
For this thoy receive a salary ; and
It would be considered on both sides
a breach of trust if they accent anv
compensation whotever rrom tho
author Tor their work. In fact, un
less them aro special reasons to the
contrary, tho conscientious " reader"
prefers never to see tho author In re
lation to tho book whllo the question
When ho has read the manuscript
he writes an opinion, which he re
turns to tho linn, sometime ex
pressed in n few words, sometimes
in an elalsirate analyslsaiid eritlcUm.
Hut In any enso ho novor recom
mends a Isiok except after careful
consideration. Those opinions are
curerully copied Intoa look,nud pre
served for reference.
If tho first reader's verdict is fav
orable, tho manuscript is then sent
to another reader, who knows noth
ing of what his predecessor has said.
Usually, and In all cases of any posl.
Wo doubt, tho work Is sent to a thini
reader. With three opinions by
three different persons, the firm con
sider that thoy have materials suffi
cient for a decision in the case.
(Untpondrnt Sprin&n'cld licpubli-ran.
IIi.nuy W.utn lii:i::iu:i. In a re
cent lecture on Wall lrcet, delivered
In IJoiton, said : " 1 have burled
four generations of men from Wall
street In twenty-live year-. Wall
street Is a dunghill of mushroom.
There Is a vast growth of men In ov
ery single year, and every year they
are trampled down in host. I know
but one or two men in that Period
who havo been able to make perma
nent gains mid hold their gains.
And they don't do it by sticciilntion .
they udded other means of accumu
lation, which were the foundation of
their .stability, mid l beliovo that all
mo men there aro trying to bo rich
In uncanny ways, and trying to bo
rich without paying for what they
get they aro rushing on to destruc
tion. Others may look upon thoso
great, marvelous, and sudden
Tor Ihe Willamette Farmer.
t'AMILIAH TALKS.-.Vo. 0.
Your correspondent, A. M. Smith,
remarks that by the tlnio wo nil get
dono talking nnd get rendy to drain
ho will bo ready to furnish tiles ns
cheaply ns they can bo nindo in Or
egon. The difficulty lies in tho cost
of transportation. Ho cannot prop
erly nsplro to furnish only a limited
district. Homo of us nro ready to
undcrdralu now, and cannot afford to
wait, nnd, without wishing to inter
fere with tho profits of the manufac
turer, I Am wllllncr to hazard trivlnrr
information that I hopo will cnablo
farmers to look Intel iribly Into thin
It is mi established principle in
draining that the deeper the drains
tho farther apart they may bo. Pro-res-or
Mapo's rulo Is that " three-foot
drains should bo placed twenty feet
apart, and for each additional foot in
deptli the distance may bo doubled ;
for Instance, four-root drains bhould
bo forty feet apart, and live-font
drains eighty feet apart." This ruin
of cour-o has limits, and for very re-
tentlvo foils would not ho amillcnbln.
although the principle is tho same.
Your correspondent entirely misap
prehends tho necessity for deep
draining to o-eapo injury from frost;
and ho advises that it would not bo
necessary f o place (hem (drains) moro
(ban from eighteen inches to two
feet below the .surface." ami Hum
estimates a light cost for opening tho
(iiicne-. no would find, in practice,
that (iio number of drains required,
Willi (ho co-t for extra tile, would
moro than eounterbahiiicn wlmt
be saved In tho co"t of shallowdralns.
Waring, who. by tho wnv. Is nnt
"nn architect living in London,"
tells us that " thero Is iio reason why
tiles should cost moro to lniikn Hum
brick. A COmillOU brick cnnfnlnu
clay enough to make four or five
lMnch tile", ami It will require
nbout the same amount of funi in
burn this clay in tho one form ns in
the other." Parker, in Kturlmui. .
tiniated the actual cost of l-lndi hi
at one dollar uiul jlftt crnt per thou
fund. I shall, from nm-iulfv- in.i
,, ... ''Jt VO
changes that have taken place In (his question this present year hav
js ,lh. wiwi miiciue. i icel, in mg already made preparations to
looking upon them, as .solemn ,wlinnnnfiie(iim niw.....i. n ii
II,, .-..... uiis nn." com-
judgment day. 1 have for years lug summer, for home u-o, and will
iH'on urging the young men in my i In duo time, givo tho readers of the'
church not to envy tho riches of men Fakmkic tho result of my experl
tlmt caiiio not by honest means, l'ence.
IllllXV HI...!.. .....I . t. . I
have again mid again prophesied
that tho day should como thnt would
see them overwhelmed or ruined."
railing TIiIiirs by Ihiir Night .Varucs
A buly In Huston, occupying a high,
respectable social position, in a state
nf Intoxication, staggers and falls in
tho street. At once u carriage Is or
dered by a police officer, and bo is
driven home. "She is nolred with
a sudden lllnivw." Nearly In tho
Mimo place, a day or two after, nn Ir-
National Auiucui.ti u.u. Anso-
i-iATio.v. Some time slucu we no
ticed an addre" and circular Issued by
the National Agricultural Associa
tion organized last year nt Nashville,
Tenn., by an Agricultural Conven
tion which met at that place last Oc
tober. A circular nddrcvi'd "to the
press throughout the United States
and Territories" recently received,
says the nuxt session will be held at
St. IaiuIs, Ma, on Monday, Muv 'J7,
Each State Agricultural Society or
Association Is entitled to two dele
gates; each agricultural College, to
one delegate ; each regularly organ
ized Agricultural Society, of fifty or
moro members, which shall have
contributed to tho funds or this Na
tlonal organization, in proportion to
their representatives, sh.ill be entl-
tleil to unit roiirsiiitnHwi
The circular scivn U !,.!.. i..
every local organization In the
1)00" r.f. Slli:i:i'. Tho minimi .In.
structlon of sheep by dogs Is Im
mense. Official report show in Ohio
nn annual loss or $3,000,000 in sheep
killed by dog, and $1,000,000 in oth
er injuries a los equivalent to 0,
000,000 pounds of wool.
In two years rrom 18i8 to 1S70
Illinois sank from the sixth to tho
ninth In rank among tho States, in
tho number and value of her shoou
nnd this great railing oif Is attributed
10 u proportionate Incrcaso In tho
number of doirs. and tho lack ofnmn.
or legislation to prevent their isiv.
ages among sheep.
In Maryland tho returns from ilvoi
counties report over i,iOO sheep i
killed by dogs lu one year.
in Missouri the number of dori
exceeds tho number of shenu? uwi
If the value or tho food consumed bv "
.l,., ...... ...! ... I .. . ' II
My llrt costly experiment m it.
opening tho ditches too wide. Wo
now open drains thron nn.l n l.ntr
feet deep, only a foot wide, nnd find
that wo can make speed lor work by
so doing. Again, tho common prac
tice has been to make tho drain pipe
too large, nnd in this I havo Icnrncd
something in tho expensive school of
experience. Carefully conducted
experiments or thoso that havo mndo
this subject a study, havo demon
strated that n l-inch pipe, with a
fall of three Inches in a hundred
feet, will carry oft1 the rainfall from
two ncres ; n 'J tilo for eight neres;
hence 11 tiles for tho intor-ii .lt.,.
are large enough for ordinary locall
ties. For obvious reasons, tho drain
should bo the smallest slzo that will
carry oft the water. Such nro less
liable to become choked.
And now n word ns to inaccurate
statements. S. takes (..vphhii.
mill Miiienients. S
my sinicmcut that tl e itir.,.
dogs wiibfed to sheep, they would """' ten dollars per thousand"
tmiiiiiriv f.ifitii.i iu'ii.11 ..... .... ,.. .. i wnniii rn.r minj.n.i! r.. ,
,-.-,-...,, ......... v.. v.. , r .i.su 1 1 iii WIU w..w..w v-.. it. niui, mill noilCO
State mid render us iudcpcndcnt'uf' for ,nnrhil twenty-two cents per
foreign wool. Jtitml World.
Tu km: being $1,000,000 left of the
Chicago relief fund, for which there
I" no further call for tho purpose for
which it was originally contributed,
the Tribune proposes that it should
be used Tor the founding ofn great
hospital for the poor of tho city, to
remain as an onduriiur inniimi-t.ii r
inegreat calamity and (ho great char-
uy which it called forth.
'I'm: Chicago Oj-m.mimv.. -.-
tin" make the total number of hogs
packed at Chicago this season 1,225,
2JW, which will increase by f0,2UG tho
figures given by thoCinolmmti ivi.
j Current, and makes tho estimated
1 total to tho West -1,S70,7S7.
I rod ; whereas, S. says It would bo
-H cents per rod, a-c. If n man nsks
you (ho time or day, you nro not apt
to tell him that it is SOven minutes
and fivo seconds past five o'clock, nl
though It may hnvo been that pre
cise, time whon you commenced
Speaking. In tho error claimed, tiles
wero assumed as n foot in length
while In practice they are fourteen
Inches. The breakage, howover,
usually will about counterbalance
this gain, but, my word for it, tho
tiles should bo tho least nnrunu
cost of draining. Countlne labor nf
$l.fi0 per day, four-foot drains will
cost, say, -10 cents nor mil ..
illggingnlone, leaving the work of
Krumug, "y"B the tiles, nnd fllllnir
In, yet to be done.