The Oregon statesman. (Salem, Or.) 1916-1980, March 10, 1933, Page 1, Image 1

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Session Terminated
Early This Morning
Closing Hours Hectic
As Thomas Bill is
Fought Over
Special Election set
For July 21 Over
Sharp Protest
The 37th legislative session, by
even day the longest in all the
years since Oregon became a state
In 1859, necame history at 1:21
o'clock this morning. Following
historic precedent, clocks in both
houses were stopped at 5:55 p. m.
Thursday and adjournment, when
taken, was sine die as or 6 o'clock
March t.
Beginning January 9 after a
pedal session which lasted five
days, the regular assembly had
sat 0 legal days, ajceeding by
one week the 53-day mark of 1931
and being 20 days beyond the lim
it set by law, the members serv
ing the added 20 days without
their legal $3 per diem compen
sation. While frivolity marked the lob
bies outside the senate and house
chambers and singing interspersed
the times when the houses were
In session, the closing hours were
In the senate the utility regu
lators and the opponents of rigid
legislation were in a die-hard
struggle over the Thomas bill.
In the house Representative
Lonergan led a sturdy bu -unsuccessful
fight to bring the general
sales tax bill which he' had so
ardently championed before the
members week ago to a popu
lar Tote early in June. Unable to
break down a stubborn senate
sentiment that the measure
should not be voted upon until
the next month, Lonergan capitu
lated at t p. m. and moved adop
tion of the conference com m t
(TuraiJtQ,page 4, eol. 8)
NEW YORK, March 9 (AP)
From office boy to president,
the entire financial community to
day was 1 discussing the Aldrich
plan for sweeping bank reform,
and the name of Rockefeller came
often to many lips.
The dramatic arraignment of
certain banking and investment
methods by Winthrop M. Aldrich,
bead of the Chase National bank,
appeared but one or a chain of in
cidents showing that at least some
leaders la the world of finance
ere not opposed, but actually in
favor of drastic surgery either
In the form of legislation or vol
untary action to remove un
healthy developments.
Aldrich's accession in January
to the chairmanship of the gov
erning board of the Chase bank,
vras widely interpreted in Wall
ctreet as definite proof of the
Rockefeller Influence in the af
fairs of this institution, the
world's largest bank.
Aldrich Is a brother-in-law of
John D. Rockefeller Jr., who is
the largest individual holder of
Chase bank stock.
Legion Protest
Aimed at Power
Given President
PORTLAND, Ore., March 9
(AP) The Oregon 6tate depart
ment of the American Legion and
voiture 25 of the 40 and 8 sent
telegrams to the Oregon congres
sional delegation tonight express
ing opposition, to the action of
congress in Toting to President
Roosevelt what they described as
'dictatorial authority" over vet
erans' legislation.
State Commander John B. Eak
ln said their action was In re
sponse to a message received
from the national Legion head
quarters stating that the "whole
structure of veterans' legislation
for which the Legion and other
veterans' organisations have been
working as placed In the pres
ident's hands.
Big Emergency
Work Program
Portland Plan
PORTLAND, Ore., March
(AP)-The Civic Emergency Fed
eration, organization ot the un
employed, today presented to ne
eltr council preliminary plans for
five projects proposed to be built
with money from the self-liquidating
project fund ot the Recon
struction Finance corporation.
The plans were for a municipal
bus terminal, a sewage disposal
plant, an additional airport, a
central parking area and a Front
street belt line tunnel. Total cost
was estimated by the federation
Clem Y eager in
Jail on Charge
Of Having Still
Clem Yeager, 63, was locked
in the county jail yesterday on a
liquor manufacturing charge, fol
lowing arrest by Federal prohi
bition agents on tip from the
sheriff's office. The agents caught
Yeager at the still on his place
a mile and a half west of Liber
ty. A 15-gallon still and mash
were taken, but no liquor, as It
is said Yeager disposed of his
output almost as fast as he made
This is Yeager's second arrest
on a liquor offense. He will likely
come up before U. S. Commis
sioner Lars Bergsrik today.
Near-Capacity Audience on
Hand; Gershkovitch's
Work Wins Praise
Despite the bank moratorium
Salem greeted the second sym
phony concert presented by the
Salem Philharmonic orchestra as
sociation with close to a capacity
house at the armory Thursday
Under the seemingly inspired
baton - of Jacques Gershkovitch
the young musicians presented the
delicately imaginative overture to
Weber's "Oberon" with excellent
understanding of both theme and
Instruments, and followed this
with equal appreciation for its
commanding opposite, Tschaikow
sky's powerful and compelling
Marche Slave, Op. 31.
Another pleasure on the pro
gram was the repetition by re
quest of "At Church", another of
Tschaikowsky's which was espe
cially arranged for strings, wood
wind and horn by Mr. Gershko
vitch. It met with the same splen
did response from the audience as
at its first presentation on the
first concert program.
Miss Mary Schults as concert
master of the orchestra in solo
presentation of "Berceuse", Cesar
Cui, more deeply entrenched her
position as an artist of splendid
proportion in the minds of her al
ready admiring Salem audience.
Mark Daniels, baritone of Port
(Turn to page 4, col. 6)
About six cars of onions were
brought here Wednesday In a spe
cial block at 70 cents a hundred,
or 10 cents higher than the pool
price for the first of the week.
Whether the general market Is In
a condition to stand the Increase,
or whether the 70 cent purchases
were made to fill a pinch order
is not definitely known here.
The 250 cars reported nnsold
earlier in the week included the
entire Oregon crop of which a
little more than half remains un
sold here, surveys indicate. Sales
have been quite liberal within
recent weeks.
Narcotic Runners Kidnap
Customs Officer, Charge
MEDFORD, Ore., March 9.
(AP) The victim of a brutal
kidnaping attack by narcotic
smugglers and gun runners, E. L.
Balllnger, United States customs
patrol officer from Belllngham,
Wash., was found in the woods
near the Oregon-California line
today, handcuffed to a tree.
Two men In a small blue coupe
abducted him near Belllngham at
noon yesterday, beat him Into un
consciousness, sped with him to
southern Oregon and left hlsa,
manacled and bleeding.
He was found today by a fanner
who heard his cries. After receiv
ing treatment for severe head and
face lacerations he departed by
nlane for Seattle.
Balllnger declared the kidnap
ers car carried a large amount oi
narcotics, two sub-machine runs
and a package containing six re
volvers.. The weapons were In
thir orirlnal factory wrappings.
- .The customs agent Indicated he
knew the men who abducted him.
He said he had been waiting for
their car about, SO miles south et
the Canadian line. As It drew up
he ordered the driver to halt. He
started to search the rear com
partment when one ot the 'men
knocked him unconscious with a
1 - f'
Large Control of Utilities
Is Granted but not
Full Dictation
Recapture Clause Restored;
Commissioner is far
From Satisfied
After a hitter fight which ex
tended almost throughout the en
tire session, both sides on 8. B.
19 the mUCh-dl8CUSSed Thomai
uiwuy measure composed xneir
auierences sumcienuy at l a. m.
this morning to pass the amended
measure through both houses.
The bill was taken from the
ZLTtl 7' . , c i
SiJrnii? 'T'v1
fv8?! d. pir?:d bZ
u ujiiiei uuubb. r rum inert II
went again to the house and
thence to conference
As the closing hours of the ses
sion approached, conferees hud-
aiea in committee rooms or In a
group In the second floor lobby.
battled over each contested point
of the bill. Commissioner Thomas
sat in on most of the conferences.
Amendments agreed to after
the conference are:
Lareer control over ntiHtv hud-
gets is given to the commissioner
althoueh not all items can be su-
The recapture clause is re
Cost of Investigating a utility
is limited to one-half of one per
cent of the utility s gross earn
ings for the prior fiscal year.
'The bill is only a crumb of
the regulation needed," Commis
sioner Thomas commented after
the measure had been approved.
Several senate leaders in the
utility regulation fight were In
clined to view the measure aa a
constructive one and fairly satis
Senator Burke said the house
had emasculated the bill and that
it was worse than the present law.
"If you want to take all the pow
ers away from the utility commis
sioner you should pass this meas
ure", Burke declared. An lnfer
(Turn to page 4, col. 7)
After many amendments and a
near-deadlock, the house and sen
ate at 10 p. m. Thursday night
concurred in approval of S. B. 75
which waives interest and penalty
on all taxes delinquent for 1930
and theretofore
Taxpayers are given five years
to pay these back taxes, the pay
ments spread over 10 equal per
iods. When the taxpayer makes an
agreement to fund these taxes he
agrees also to pay eight per cent
on the new balances and to pay a
two per cent penalty if he fails to
pay promptly any one of the ten
instalments. The bill was carried
by a small majority in the house
after a number of members had
called the legislation extremely
unfair and dangerous.
State Pay Slash
TZill tc nnrni)7
Dill IS ipprOVeU
Both houses late Thursday ap
proved the 5 to 30 per cent wage
cut previously agreed upon by the
Joint ways and means committee
for all state officials. The reduc-
tlon Is for the 1933-1934 bien-
nium. The state board of control
is authorized to make needed ad
justments. Appropriations for all
departments have taken this re
duction Into consideration.
blow from a revolver butt. He was
trussed and thrown into the rum
ble seat which was locked, and
the smugglers sped away. He was
nearly suffocated, he said, by heat
and gas fumes.
Throughout the day and nlgnt
the bandits drove at high speed,
Tiefore reachinc the highway
checking station In California,
Just over the line on the Pacific
htrhwAv. tbe r&r stonned and Bal -
linrer was drasrsred out. He saldlaMRfnn wB li7i nr nnroxl -
the men offered him $2,000 if he
would "forget" the ease. They
threatened him with death if he
The narcotic runners nnany ae -
elded, however, to manaeie tne
officer to a tree some distance
from the highway. They left a
bottle ot milk about 10 feet from
When found today by H. L. Oi
ler, Hornbrook. Cal farmer, Bal
llnger was suffering acutely from
head Injuries and lacerations and
was weak from lack ot food.
He Indicated one of the smug
glers was known as "Manning,
abont 35 years old, tall and des -
cribed as "a handsome blonde."
The other man was about 4 S.
heavy set and extremely dark.
The two rode In a blue coupe
which had a Us top.
Half Billion Slash
In Federal Expense
Roosevelt Pro gram
Veterans Appropriations to Bear Brunt of
Economy Move; General Salary Drop
Also Expected to be Sought
WASHINGTON, March 10 (AP) President Roosevelt
presented to congressional leaders this morning a bill
calling for $500,000,000 cuts in
The reduction win be made largely in veterans appro
priations and in salaries.
Senator Robinson of Arkansas, the democratic leader,
made the following announcements
after a three hour conference at
the White House.
It is expected that the presi
dent will send to congress today a
message having relation to the
hnif t ar. InnVlnr tn Imnnrtinf
and gubstantial reductions in ex
nedltnre for nensiona. veterans
compensation, disability allow-
anres and emergency officers' re-
Coupled with It there is likely
to he a plan for salary reductions,
the total amount on both accounts
being In the
neighborhood of
The president has asked
llTe lm.Jh "br"?
to make the reductions, and that
Is the plan.
One member of the conference
BaY? ine. KxseTe" program aiso
W1" embrace proposea ovu,-
000.000 bond issue to create a
forestry corp" to put In motion a
reforestation program looking to
tb employment of 500,000 per-
sons or an ages.
Bulging Bags Brought Into
Federal Reserve Bank;
Publicity Feared
NEW YORK, March 9 (AP)
Golden treasurers, after play
ing truant on a hoarding holiday,
crept back to the secure vaults of
tr,i t-. hr.
the Federal Reserve bank here
Beginning Monday, It was un
officially estimated that close to
130,000,000 in gold coin and gold
certificates had been received by
the central bank from member in
stitutions or persons, either conscience-stricken
or fearing public
exposure and confiscatory taxa
tion, who felt that paper curren
cy was the safer under the cir
cumstances. Most of this huge
sum was brought back yesterday
and today.
Afoot, by taxicab and limousine.
the hoarders came singly and In
pairs. Some had guards and some
had none. They carried suit-eases.
brief-cases, canvas bags and old
(Turn to page S. col. 8)
State Extempore
Contest on Here
Tonight, Waller
Willamette university will be
h08t for the annual extempore
speaking contest of the Iintercol
leglate Forensic association of
Oregon at 8 o'clock tonight at
Waller hall. Representatives of
five institutions will participate:
Oregon State, Pacific and Linfield
colleges. Pacific and WiDamette
universities. Ralph McCullough Is
the Willamette entrant, coached 1
by Prof. Herbert E. Rahe.
The speakers will be given one
hour in which to prepare their
topics, all centering on the theme,
-"American Constitutional Liber-
ty. Coaches and speakers will
hold a banquet at the Argo hotel
at 5:30 p. m.
In the past three years, Wil
lamette entrants have twice taken
first price and once, second, in
these contests.
Senate Expense
Lower Although
SeSSlOn LonSer
It cost $19,171 to conduct the
state senate during the 1933 leg
islative session which lasted 59
days, as against $24,171 In 1931.
when the session lasted 53 days,
diem committee tiled late Thurs-
Aa-r nip-ht h Rntnr strvw.
I chairman of the per diem commit-
I Th tn1 vtnr fnr fh 1091
I mately 30 per cent. No overtime
I was allowed employees.
Tne report eovered the per diem
I and mileage of all legislators and
1 employees.
Guarantee For
Deposits Urged
Both the senate and nouse late
Thursday night adopted a Joint
memorial urging congress to en-
act legislation guaranteeing bank
1 deposits during ine emergency as
I a method of restoring confidence
(to the people.
I Copies of the memorial were or-
dered sent to Oregon's delegation
In congress.
federal expenditures.
Manufacturer - Wholesaler
Rates Reduced; Calls
For Referendum
The general sales tax bill, pass
ed in varying form in both houses.
received final concurrent approval
yesterday when the legislature
agreed on Its conference commit
tee report. Final changes Includ
ed a reduction of the tax on man
ufacturers and wholesalers from
one-half per cent of gross sales to
three-tenths of one per cent of
gross sales, the same rate provid
ed for in the bill conidered by the
Washington legislature.
The amended bill also excludes
the tax from sales made to gov
ernment bodies. The senate struck
out and the house conferred In
the provision that the tax should
apply when partial cash sales
were made only to the cash por
tion of the transaction
Under the revised bill, the first
net moneys received are in lieu of
the last half of the state's tax for
this year. The next returns are in
lieu of the state's half-mill tax
for the state bonus commission
and then $250,000 is applied for
unemployment relief. The real
due thereafter goes to the coun
. ' h Z, tXl ni7
clause. If approved by the people,
The bill carries the referendum
it becomes operative July 1, 19 3 S.
The annual public relations
banquet for which the Business
and Professional Women were
hostesses Thursday night at the
hotel was attended by
105 people which Included club
members and guests.
Mayor Douglas McKay re
sponded to the address of wel
come by Ruth Moore, club pre
sident. C. A. Howard, state superin
tendent of schools, addressed the
group. Musical numbers were pre
sented by Garland Hollowell ac
companied by Mrs. Hal E. Hoss,
a group of club chorus numbers,
and quartet numbers by Frank
Zlnn, Dr. A. D. Woodmansee, H.
R. White, and Dr. O. L. Scott.
This affair is one of the out
standing social functions of the
observance of the national week.
and is designed to bring togeth
er in social manner the business
women and other service clubs
and business men of the city
Oleo Tax Passed
By Wide Margin
In Upper House
Twenty-four members of the
senate Thursday afternoon ap
proved a touse bill which places a
four cents per pound tax on all
oleomargarine fjanufactured and
sold In Oregon.
The original bill passed by
both houses exempted oleomar
garine made of domestic animal
fats. Warned ot an executive
veto, house members recalled the
which was held to be favorable
0,11 nd removed the exemption
I to one manufacturing concern in
"S! Ji?
mw wits a yMiPib w wee v at wmmu
that It was unfair to thousands of
people In Oregon unable to pay
for hotter.
Pwpr Aid Bill
w r w -
Tahiti1 5?Prtari
1 The senate Thursday night laid
tn t01 house bill Intro-
duced by Representative Ryan
providing for the creation of a
state power commission for the
development ot the Willamette
Late Sports
SACRAMENTO. CaliL, Uareh t
(AP) Fredd'a Miller, world's
featherweight champion by edict
ot the N. B. A., punched his way
to an easy ten round decision over
little Dempsey, Philippines, here
tonight. Dempsey weighed lzf
and Miller IS 8 la the non-title
i fight. The National bank holiday
kept the crowd down to a fl.099
Holiday Extended as Banks'
Right to Reopen Given
Closer Scrutiny
Money Issue and Control of
All Institutions Main
Points in Measure
, WASHINGTON, March 9.
(AP) President Roosevelt, keep
ing pace with a congress swiftly
enacting his commands, tonight
signed tne gigantic emergency
banking bill and prepared imme
diately to use its powers for cur
rency expansion and a reopening
of banks Judged sound.
The bill was law within eight
hours after his special message
was read on Capitol Hill. The sen
ate enacted it at 7:23 p. m. Ex
actly 73 minutes later his signa
ture was placed upon It.
Although the president had a
list of some of the banks Judged
entirely solvent and ready for re
opening, he decided tonight to ex
tend the banking holiday indef
initely. The extension, It was said,
would allow a wider opening of
Institutions than would be the
case If tbe action were taken to
morrow. Powers of reorganization
also might be used within that
Members of the delegation who
brought the measure to the White
House remarked that its passage
probably constituted a legislative
The house rushed through the
bill with a tumultuous vote of
"aye" at 4:05 p. m., acting un
der a unanimous consent agree
ment that permitted no amend
ments. Representatives did not
even use the total of 40 minutes
debate allotted. Not a single "no"
was heard in the viva voce vote.
In the senate there was Blight
delay and on a roll call seven
members voted against the meas
ure as compared to 73 in favor.
Two amendments were rejected,
one by Senator Long (D., La.),
to authorize the president to take
state banks Into the Federal Re
serve system. Another by Senator
Gore (D.,-Okla.), would have
made state banks eligible for as
sociate membership for two years.
The seven voting against on the
final ballot were Borah (R., Ida
ho), Dale (R., Vt.), Carey (R.,
Wyo.), LaFollette (R., Wis.),
Nye, (R-. N.D.), Shlpstead (F-L
Minn.) and Costlgan, (D., Colo).
NorJbeck of South Dakota, former
chairman of the banking commit
tee, was paired against.
Here Is a partial recount of
what the bulky bill contains:
Authority for the federal re
serve board to issue through its
(Turn to page 4. col. 5)
(AP) Rapid developments in
the national capital left far west
era financiers and state officials
uncertain tonight as to -the im
mediate steps they may take in
the banking emergency.
Scrip issues already printed in
Los Angeles and Seattle were
held in readiness and clearing
house officials in the former city
tentatively set tomorrow morn
ing as the time for turning J50,-
000,000 In such certificates Into
the channels of trade. Seattle
banks were supplied with $15,-
000,000 in scrip.
Clearing house officials in both
cities said the proposed issues de
pended upon federal regulations
and that they accepted Secretary
Woodin's statement on the ques
tion as authority to proceed.
LI 8
Method ot Distributing
New Money Announced
(AP) The new money provided
for In today's emergency bank
legislation will flow out to its
users normally, to be paid over
the counter ot such banks as are
opened In exchange tor checks
Just as all past currency has
been paid out.
Behind that simple act, how
ever, Is the process by which the
bills how from the treasury's
engraving plant to the banks of
The bills will be Issued to the
IS federal reserve banks by the
treasury la exchange for govern
ment bonds, notes, drafts, bills ot
exchange and bankers' accep
The notes will be given the re
serve banks to the full face value
ot the United States obligations
tamed In and to 10 per cent of
the "estimated aloe' ot the
notes, drafts .etc
The reserve member banks win
pat p similarly acceptable assets
with the reserve bank of their
district In exchange for the cur
rency they need. la exceptional
eases where the member banks
have nek assets the reserve bank
No Permits to be Issued Before Saturday However, Says
Treasury Chief, and not all Sound Institutions Will be
Accredited by That Time; new Presidential Holiday
Announcement is Explained
Regulations Covering Reopening to be Released at Once;
Senator Glass Indicates State Banks to get Chance
To Come Under Federal Reserve System; Secretary
Says no Objection to Scrip
a statement early today
the treasury to open sound banks of the country as rapidly
as possible, and invited them to make application for re
opening. The secretary said the treasury already has taken steps
to secure information as to the condition of the various A
banks of the country but that it was found the completion of
assembling the information and of arrangements for th
banks to resume their functions would take some time. It
was therefore decided, he said, not to authorize any reopen
ings before Saturday, March 11.
Governor Extends Holiday
For Rest of This Week;
Orders are Awaited
There was no change In the
functioning of banks In Salem
yesterday. Withdrawals of curren
cy were allowed in legitimate
cases conforming with the orders
of the secretary of the treasury.
Customers obtain access to their
deposit boxes boding the noon
Bankers here were awaiting
word from Portland, San Fran
cisco and Washington for the re
laxing of the restrictions which
have held for three days this
week. Governor Meier extended
the state holiday for the remain
der of this week.
An Interesting situation will
arise if all banks are required to
deliver their gold and gold certif
icates to the government. Ladd
and Bush bank has held substan
tial gold reserves for many years.
It never Joined the federal re
serve system; instead maintained
its own gold reserve. Whether re
lease of this gold to the govern
ment or the federal reserve bank
will be a requirement Is not
known at present. All banks how
ever are forbidden to pay out any
(Turn to page 8, col. 8)
Runaway Lad's
Jaunt Ends at
Police Station
Irked at teachers' scolding for
playing hookey, Ronald Whelp
ley, 12, of Portland route two,
ran away from home Wednesday.
His wanderings ended at Salem
police headquarters after he was
picked up by patrolmen, notified
by Portland police radio that the
lad was missing from home.
Ronald's parents came here yes
terday afternoon to take him back.
may make their advances on time
or demand notes satisfactorily se
The amount of currency issued
la normally regulated by the vol
ume of bank withdrawals. As the
demand for cash Is now consider
able and as gold certificates are
not to be paid out for the pres
ent, the requirements for new
money are calculated to be con
siderable. . Another method ot putttng
money Into circulation Is for the
government to pay its obligation
la cash. Relatively small amounts
ordinarily reach circulation In
this way, however, and there has
been no indication that this me
thod would be adopted In the
present situation.
The bill also win put the new
money Into circulation by order
ot the secretary of the treasury.
by exchanging It for gold and
cold certificates, either bank re
serves of prlrste hoards. The
measure gives the treasury spe
cific authority to call la such re
serves or hoards whenever It 'de
cides the situation demands It.
Penalty Is provided tor anyone
aot complying.
(AP) Secretary Woodin in
said it would be the policy of
He said regulations governing
re-openings and other subjects
covered by the emergency banking
legislation would be published im
mediately. The statement of the secretary
issued early this morning said, in
"The emergency banking legis
lation passed by the congress to
day (Thursday) is a most con
structive step toward the solution
of the financial and banking dif
ficulties which have confronted
the country. The extra-ordinary
rapidity .with which this legisla
tion was enacted by the congress
heartens and encourages tbe
It will be the poller of the
treasury to permit as rapidly as
possible the opening of sound
banks. There are, of course, many
thousands of such banks which
will promptly be restored" to the
performance of their normal frac
tions. "The treasury has already tak
en steps to secure Information
through proper authorities as to
the condition of the various
banks of the country and Im
mediately Invites from the beaks
the applications for re-opening.
(Turn to page 8, col. 7
TOKYO. March 10, (Frtday)
(AP) Chinese troops were ap
parently still holding Kupeikow,
the pass leading to Pelping in
the Great wall of China, today,
despite earlier Japanese resorts.
The Japanese were considering
extending operations into north
China proper In order to attack
Kupeikow from the rear.
(By the Assopiated Press)
Having conquered the provise
of Jehol, Japan must turn new
to clearing that territory of what
is left of the Chinese army. That
drive is to start Immediately
against the last of the defenders,
pushed back to the Great wall.
Chinese headquarters at Pelp
ing insisting Its troops had not
yet surrendered completely, but
were moving against the Japan
ese from three directions fn as)
effort to drive the invader beck
upon Jehol city.
The Day in
- By the Associated Press
Congress speeded action om
emergency banking legJslatio
asked by president Roosevelt
when special session con vetoed
at noon. ;
Senate adjourned impeachment
trial of Judge Harold Londerback
of California sntil Monday be
cause house was not ready te
press Its prosecution.
Senator Korrls (Rep.. Neb.)
Introduced legislation to carry
oat President Roosevelt's Tew
semsB valley industrial de
velopment project.
Conference called by Chairman
Morgenthan of farm board de
tarred actios on plans for trans-,
ten of wheat futures tn anticipa
tion of early resumption et bask
ing activities.
President Rooe e!t dlscase
ed iw-ergasdxatlosi quesOtf
wtth secretary of war, agrW V;
cattare and interior..
; i
. k
a If, 121,000.